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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13083, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844568

RESUMO

In bread wheat, a literature search gave 228 QTLs for six traits, including resistance against spot blotch and the following five other related traits: (i) stay green; (ii) flag leaf senescence; (iii) green leaf area duration; (iv) green leaf area of the main stem; and (v) black point resistance. These QTLs were used for metaQTL (MQTL) analysis. For this purpose, a consensus map with 72,788 markers was prepared; 69 of the above 228 QTLs, which were suitable for MQTL analysis, were projected on the consensus map. This exercise resulted in the identification of 16 meta-QTLs (MQTLs) located on 11 chromosomes, with the PVE ranging from 5.4% (MQTL7) to 21.8% (MQTL5), and the confidence intervals ranging from 1.5 to 20.7 cM (except five MQTLs with a range of 36.1-57.8 cM). The number of QTLs associated with individual MQTLs ranged from a maximum of 17 in MQTL3 to 8 each in MQTL5 and MQTL8 and 5 each in MQTL7 and MQTL14. The 16 MQTLs, included 12 multi-trait MQTLs; one of the MQTL also overlapped a genomic region carrying the major spot blotch resistance gene Sb1. Of the total 16 MQTLs, 12 MQTLs were also validated through marker-trait associations that were available from earlier genome-wide association studies. The genomic regions associated with MQTLs were also used for the identification of candidate genes (CGs) and led to the identification of 516 CGs encoding 508 proteins; 411 of these proteins are known to be associated with resistance against several biotic stresses. In silico expression analysis of CGs using transcriptome data allowed the identification of 71 differentially expressed CGs, which were examined for further possible studies. The findings of the present study should facilitate fine-mapping and cloning of genes, enabling Marker Assisted Selection.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Pão
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1538, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849795

RESUMO

Bread is one of the most consumed foods all over the world. Several contaminants are identified in bread. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one of these contaminants. This systematic study evaluates the amount of four carcinogenic PAHs (PAH4) in various types of breads. To conduct this study, a comprehensive search was carried out using keywords of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, PAH4, and bread, with no time limitations. 17 articles were selected and fully evaluated. The observed range of PAH4 concentrations in bread varied from non-detected (ND) to 20.66 µg/kg. In the sample preparation process for analysis, an ultrasonic bath was predominantly utilized. Most chromatographic methods are able to measure PAHs in food, but the GC-MS method has been used more. To mitigate PAH levels in bread, it is suggested to incorporate antioxidants during the bread-making process. Furthermore, the type of bread, the type of fuel used to bake the bread, the temperature and the cooking time were some of the factors affecting the amount of PAH. Restricting these factors could significantly reduce PAH content. Regarding the risk assessment conducted in the manuscript, it was determined that industrial breads are usually considered safe. However, some traditional breads may pose risks in terms of their potential PAH content.


Assuntos
Pão , Carcinógenos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pão/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Culinária/métodos
3.
Food Res Int ; 189: 114482, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876611

RESUMO

The potential biopreservative role of a Type III sourdough (tIII-SD), produced by starter cultures of Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC 8014, was assessed for its antifungal activity in baking applications. Fermentation was carried out using different substrates to enhance the production of antifungal metabolites for 24 and 48 h. The tIII-SD samples were analyzed in relation to pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and the production of organic acids. The water/salt-soluble extract of the tIII-SD was evaluated in relation to the inhibition potential against key fungi that contaminate bakery products including Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. Finally, breads with 10 % of the tIII-SD were prepared and the fungi contamination was evaluated throughout the shelf life period. The lowest pH value in sourdough was obtained from 48-hour fermentation by L. plantarum. The saline extracts exhibited varying degrees of inhibition in the in vitro test; however, the greatest enhancement of this effect was obtained when whole wheat grain flour was used. The tIII-SD crafted from a blend of wheat and flaxseed flours and fermented with F. sanfranciscensis for 48 h (BSWF48h-FS), demonstrated superior performance compared to other formulations. This variant exhibited a total shelf life of 10 days, suggesting that the utilization of tIII-SD could serve as a viable alternative for natural antifungal agents, proving beneficial for the bakery industry.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Pão , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pão/microbiologia , Pão/análise , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Farinha/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Penicillium chrysogenum , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 272(Pt 1): 132906, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851991

RESUMO

Sourdough bread enriched with soluble fiber (by in-situ exopolysaccharides production) and insoluble fiber (by gazpacho by-products addition) showed prebiotic effects an in vitro dynamic colonic fermentation performance with obese volunteer's microbiota. Bifidobacterium population was maintained whereas Lactobacillus increased throughout the colonic sections. Conversely, Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium groups clearly decreased. Specific bacteria associated with beneficial effects increased in the ascending colon (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paracasei, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) whereas Eubacterium eligens, Alistipes senegalensis, Prevotella copri and Eubacterium desmolans increased in the transversal and descending colon. Additionally, Blautia faecis and Ruminococcus albus increased in the transversal colon, and Bifidobacterium longum, Roseburia faecis and Victivallis vadensis in the descending colon. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus fermented the in-situ exopolysaccharides and released pectins from gazpacho by-products, as well as cellulosic degraded bacteria. This increased the short and medium chain fatty acids. Acetic acid, as well as butyric acid, increased throughout the colonic tract, which showed greater increases only in the transversal and descending colonic segments. Conversely, propionic acid was slightly affected by the colonic fermentation. These results show that sourdough bread is a useful food matrix for the enrichment of vegetable by-products (or other fibers) in order to formulate products with microbiota modulatory capacities.


Assuntos
Pão , Disbiose , Fermentação , Pão/microbiologia , Humanos , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Masculino , Lactobacillus/metabolismo
5.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(7): 160, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38874613

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The dwarfing allele Rht14 of durum wheat associates with greater stigma length, an important trait for hybrid breeding, whilst major dwarfing alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b showed little to no effect. Although much understudied in wheat, the stigma is a crucial component for attaining grain set, the fundamental basis for yield, particularly in hybrid production systems where successful grain set relies on wind-driven pollen dispersal by the male parent and effective pollen capture by the female parent. Females with long stigma that exsert early are thought to be advantageous. Using glasshouse-grown lines, we examined variation in Total Stigma Length (TSL) across diverse panels comprising 27 durum and 116 bread wheat genotypes. Contrasting genotypes were selected for population development and genetic analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on a durum F2 population and a bread wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Contrasting with studies of anther length, we found no large effect on TSL of the GA-insensitive semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 in either durum or bread wheat. However, in durum cultivar Italo, we identified a region on chromosome 6A which is robustly associated with larger TSL and contains the Rht14 allele for reduced plant height, a trait that is favourable for female line development in hybrid systems. This dual effect locus explained 25.2 and 19.2% of TSL phenotypic variation in experiments across two growing seasons, with preliminary results suggesting this locus may increase TSL when transferred to bread wheat. In a bread wheat, RIL population minor QTL on 1A and 2A was indicated, but the strongest association was with Ppd-B1. Methods developed here, and the identification of a TSL-enhancing locus provides advances and further opportunities in the study of wheat stigma.


Assuntos
Alelos , Flores , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Pão
6.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114422, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763672

RESUMO

Tons of orange by-products (OBPs) are generated during industrial orange processing. Currently, OBPs management is challenging due to their high amounts, physico-chemical characteristics (high water content, low pH, presence of essential oils) and seasonal nature of the production. Whereas agro-industrial OBPs can be highly valuable due to their abundant sources of bioactive compounds, which can add value to novel bakery products (e.g. bread, biscuits, cakes). This review covers the most recent research issues linked to the use of OBPs in bakery products, with a focus on available stabilization methods and on the main challenges to designing improved products. The application of OBPs improved the nutritional quality of bakery products, offering interesting sustainability benefits but also critical challenges. The valorization of OBPs may open new routes for the development of new natural ingredients for the food industry and lower food processing waste.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Resíduos Industriais , Citrus sinensis/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Indústria Alimentícia , Pão/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Reciclagem , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos
7.
Food Chem ; 452: 139594, 2024 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749142

RESUMO

Protein glycation closely intertwines with the pathogenesis of various diseases, sparking a growing interest in exploring natural antiglycation agents. Herein, high-purity betacyanins (betanin and phyllocactin) derived from Hylocereus polyrhizus peel were studied for their antiglycation potential using an in vitro bovine serum albumin (BSA)-glucose model. Notably, betacyanins outperformed aminoguanidine, a recognized antiglycation agent, in inhibiting glycation product formation across different stages, especially advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Interestingly, phyllocactin displayed stronger antiglycation activity than betanin. Subsequent mechanistic studies employing molecular docking analysis and fluorescence quenching assay unveiled that betacyanins interact with BSA endothermically and spontaneously, with hydrophobic forces playing a dominant role. Remarkably, phyllocactin demonstrated higher binding affinity and stability to BSA than betanin. Furthermore, the incorporation of betacyanins into bread dose-dependently suppressed AGEs formation during baking and shows promise for inhibiting in vivo glycation process post-consumption. Overall, this study highlights the substantial potential of betacyanins as natural antiglycation agents.


Assuntos
Betacianinas , Pão , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais , Soroalbumina Bovina , Glicosilação , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Betacianinas/química , Betacianinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pão/análise , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos
8.
Food Chem ; 453: 139709, 2024 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781908

RESUMO

As an emerging physical technology, magnetic fields have been used to improve the quality of frozen and refrigerated foods. This study compared the effect of applying a static magnetic field (2 mT) at different stages of freezing and storage on the quality of frozen dough. Results suggested that the magnetic field significantly impacted frozen dough quality. It not only prevented the formation of ice crystals during the pre-freezing stage but also inhibited ice crystal growth during the following frozen storage. This effect helped to maintain the integrity of gluten proteins and their adhesion to starch granules by preventing the breakage of disulfide bonds and the depolymerization of gluten macromolecules. It was also observed that yeast inactivation and glutathione release were reduced, resulting in improved air retention and air production capacity of the dough. This, in turn, led to a more appealing volume and texture quality of the finished bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha , Congelamento , Campos Magnéticos , Triticum , Triticum/química , Pão/análise , Farinha/análise , Glutens/química , Glutens/análise , Culinária
9.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114459, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763692

RESUMO

Staple foods serve as vital nutrient sources for the human body, and chewiness is an essential aspect of food texture. Age, specific preferences, and diminished eating functions have broadened the chewiness requirements for staple foods. Therefore, comprehending the formation mechanism of chewiness in staple foods and exploring approaches to modulate it becomes imperative. This article reviewed the formation mechanisms and quality control methods for chewiness in several of the most common staple foods (rice, noodles, potatoes and bread). It initially summarized the chewiness formation mechanisms under three distinct thermal processing methods: water medium, oil medium, and air medium processing. Subsequently, proposed some effective approaches for regulating chewiness based on mechanistic changes. Optimizing raw material composition, controlling processing conditions, and adopting innovative processing techniques can be utilized. Nonetheless, the precise adjustment of staple foods' chewiness remains a challenge due to their diversity and technical study limitations. Hence, further in-depth exploration of chewiness across different staple foods is warranted.


Assuntos
Pão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Oryza , Solanum tuberosum , Pão/análise , Humanos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Mastigação
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 272(Pt 1): 132764, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821309

RESUMO

There is considerable interest in preparing high-quality gluten-free bread. The effect of the molecular structure of extruded pregelatinization starch on the dough's rheological properties and the brown rice bread's quality was investigated. Extruded rice starch (ERS) was prepared with various added moisture contents of 20 % (ERS20), 30 % (ERS30), and 40 % (ERS40), respectively. ERS had smaller molecular weight and more short branched chains as the moisture content decreased. The dough elasticity and deformation resistance were improved with the ERS supplementation and in the order of ERS40 > ERS30 > ERS20 at the same level. Fortification with ERS improved the gluten-free brown rice bread quality. Compared to the control group, breadcrumbs supplemented with ERS20 at the 10 % level showed an increase in cell density from 17.87 cm-2 to 28.32 cm-2, a decrease in mean cell size from 1.22 mm2 to 0.81 mm2, and no significant change in cell area fraction. In addition, the specific volume increased from 1.50 cm3/g to 2.04 cm3/g, the hardness decreased from 14.34 N to 6.28 N, and the springiness increased from 0.56 to 0.74. The addition of extruded pregelatinization starches with smaller molecular weights and higher proportions of short chains is promising for preparing high-quality gluten-free bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Glutens , Oryza , Amido , Oryza/química , Amido/química , Pão/análise , Glutens/química , Reologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha/análise , Peso Molecular , Dureza
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 272(Pt 1): 132729, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821307

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of foxtail millet sourdough fermentation time (0, 8, 16, and 24 h) on the protein structural properties, thermomechanical, fermentation, dynamic rheological, starch granules crystalline regions molecular mobility, and starch microstructural characteristics. The fermentation led to a significant increase in the concentration of free amino acids from protein hydrolysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed changes in protein secondary structure and the presence of functional groups of different bioactive compounds. The result of thermomechanical properties showed a significant increase in the stability (0.70-0.79 min) and anti-retrogradation ability (2.29-3.14 Nm) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) sourdough compared to the control dough, showing a wider processing applicability with radar profiler index. In contrast, sourdoughs with lower tan δ values had higher elasticity and strength. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of the starch appeared from smooth to uneven with patchy shapes and cavities, which declined the crystallinity from 34.00 % to 21.57 %, 23.64 %, 25.09 %, and 26.34 % respectively. Fermentation changed the To, Tp, Tc, and ΔH of the starch. The results of the study will have great potential for application in the whole grain sourdough industry.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Amido , Amido/química , Amido/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/química , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Pão/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Farinha/microbiologia , Reologia
12.
Nat Genet ; 56(6): 1257-1269, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802564

RESUMO

Na+ exclusion from above-ground tissues via the Na+-selective transporter HKT1;5 is a major salt-tolerance mechanism in crops. Using the expression genome-wide association study and yeast-one-hybrid screening, we identified TaSPL6-D, a transcriptional suppressor of TaHKT1;5-D in bread wheat. SPL6 also targeted HKT1;5 in rice and Brachypodium. A 47-bp insertion in the first exon of TaSPL6-D resulted in a truncated peptide, TaSPL6-DIn, disrupting TaHKT1;5-D repression exhibited by TaSPL6-DDel. Overexpressing TaSPL6-DDel, but not TaSPL6-DIn, led to inhibited TaHKT1;5-D expression and increased salt sensitivity. Knockout of TaSPL6-DDel in two wheat genotypes enhanced salinity tolerance, which was attenuated by a further TaHKT1;5-D knockdown. Spike development was preserved in Taspl6-dd mutants but not in Taspl6-aabbdd mutants. TaSPL6-DIn was mainly present in landraces, and molecular-assisted introduction of TaSPL6-DIn from a landrace into a leading wheat cultivar successfully improved yield on saline soils. The SPL6-HKT1;5 module offers a target for the molecular breeding of salt-tolerant crops.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Tolerância ao Sal , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/genética , Simportadores/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Pão , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Brachypodium/genética , Salinidade
13.
J Food Sci ; 89(6): 3248-3259, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38709869

RESUMO

To enhance the value proposition of sweet potato and oat while broadening their applicability in further processing, this study systematically investigated the impact of oat flour incorporation ratios (5%-25% of sweet potato dry weight) on the quality attributes of sweet potato-oat composite dough and its resulting steamed cake products. The results showed that the addition of oat flour could promote the rheological, water retention, and thermomechanical properties of the composite dough and improve the internal microstructure, specific volume, texture, and other processing properties of the steamed cake products. The rheology, water retention, and protein stability of the dough were maximized when the proportion of oat flour was 25%. The textural properties of steamed cakes, hardness, elasticity, cohesion, adhesion, chewiness, and recovery significantly increased (p < 0.05) and viscosity significantly decreased (p < 0.05) with the addition of oat flour. It is noteworthy that thermodynamic properties, internal structure of the dough, and air holding capacity, which are critical for processing, showed the best results at 20% oat flour addition. Therefore, the addition of 20%-25% oats is recommended to produce composite doughs with optimal quality and processing characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: As living standards improve, traditional cereals may no longer able to meet people's health needs. Therefore, there is an urgent consumer demand for nutritious, tasty alternatives to staple foods. In this study, oat flour and sweet potato mash were mixed to make sweet potato-oat cake, and the effect of ingredient ratio on the performance and quality of composite dough containing sweet potato-oat flour was analyzed, thus proposing an innovative approach to the research, development, and industrial production of sweet potato and oat food products.


Assuntos
Avena , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Ipomoea batatas , Reologia , Ipomoea batatas/química , Avena/química , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Viscosidade , Água , Vapor , Pão/análise , Culinária/métodos
14.
J Food Sci ; 89(6): 3347-3368, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745379

RESUMO

The present work investigated the structure-function relationship of dry fractionated oat flour (DFOF) as a techno-functional ingredient using bread as a model system. Mechanically, DFOF fractions (F), that is, F1: <224 µm, F2: 250-280 µm, F3: 280-500 µm, F4: 500-600 µm, and whole oat flour (F5) were blended with white wheat flour at 10%, 30%, and 50% substitution levels for bread making. The blended flours, doughs, and bread samples were assessed for their techno-functional, nutritional, and structural characteristics. The results of Mixolab and the Rapid Visco Analyzer show that the 50% substituted F3 fraction exhibits the highest water absorption properties (69.53%), whereas the 50% F1 fraction exhibits the highest peak viscosity of the past slurry. Analysis of bread samples revealed a lower particle size of DFOF fractions and higher supplementation levels, increased ß-glucan levels (0.13-1.29 g/100 bread (db), reduced fermentable monosaccharides, that is, glucose (1.44-0.33 g/100 g), and fructose (1.06-0.28 g/100 g). The effect of particle size surpassed the substitution level effect on bread volume reduction. The lowest hardness value for F1 is 10%, and the highest value for F2 is 50%. The total number of cells in the bread slice decreased from the control to the F4 fraction (50%). Multi-criteria analysis indicated that DFOF fractions produced breads with similar structure and higher nutritional value developed from white wheat flour. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The use of mechanically fractionated oat flours fractions in white wheat flour breads can improve the nutritional profile without affecting the physical properties of the bread product. Based on the oat flour fractions, bakers and food processing companies can tailor the bread formulations for high ß-glucan, high fiber, and low reduced sugar claims.


Assuntos
Avena , Pão , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Triticum , Pão/análise , Avena/química , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Viscosidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , beta-Glucanas/análise , beta-Glucanas/química
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10940, 2024 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740888

RESUMO

Improving the baking quality is a primary challenge in the wheat flour production value chain, as baking quality represents a crucial factor in determining its overall value. In the present study, we conducted a comparative RNA-Seq analysis on the high baking quality mutant "O-64.1.10" genotype and its low baking quality wild type "Omid" cultivar to recognize potential genes associated with bread quality. The cDNA libraries were constructed from immature grains that were 15 days post-anthesis, with an average of 16.24 and 18.97 million paired-end short-read sequences in the mutant and wild-type, respectively. A total number of 733 transcripts with differential expression were identified, 585 genes up-regulated and 188 genes down-regulated in the "O-64.1.10" genotype compared to the "Omid". In addition, the families of HSF, bZIP, C2C2-Dof, B3-ARF, BES1, C3H, GRF, HB-HD-ZIP, PLATZ, MADS-MIKC, GARP-G2-like, NAC, OFP and TUB were appeared as the key transcription factors with specific expression in the "O-64.1.10" genotype. At the same time, pathways related to baking quality were identified through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Collectively, we found that the endoplasmic network, metabolic pathways, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, hormone signaling pathway, B group vitamins, protein pathways, pathways associated with carbohydrate and fat metabolism, as well as the biosynthesis and metabolism of various amino acids, have a great deal of potential to play a significant role in the baking quality. Ultimately, the RNA-seq results were confirmed using quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR for some hub genes such as alpha-gliadin, low molecular weight glutenin subunit and terpene synthase (gibberellin) and as a resource for future study, 127 EST-SSR primers were generated using RNA-seq data.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Transcriptoma , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Culinária , Pão , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Farinha
16.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794755

RESUMO

The World Health Organization recommends adjusting salt intake as a part of the nine global targets to reduce premature mortality from non-communicable chronic diseases as a priority and the most cost-effective intervention. In 2006, the main aim of the Croatian Action on Salt and Health was to decrease salt intake by 16% because of its critical intake and consequences on human health. We have organized educative activities to increase awareness on salt harmfulness, define food categories of prime interest, collaborate with industries and determine salt intake (24 h urine sodium excretion). It was determined that the proportion of salt in ready-to-eat baked bread should not exceed 1.4%. In the period 2014-2022, salt in semi-white bread was reduced by 14%, 22% in bakery and 25% in the largest meat industry. Awareness of the harmfulness of salt on health increased from 65.3% in 2008 to 96.9% in 2023 and salt intake was reduced by 15.9-1.8 g/day (22.8% men, 11.7% women). In the last 18 years, a significant decrease in salt intake was achieved in Croatia, awareness of its harmfulness increased, collaboration with the food industry was established and regulatory documents were launched. However, salt intake is still very high, underlying the need for continuation of efforts and even stronger activities.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Croácia , Humanos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Indústria Alimentícia , Feminino , Política Nutricional , Masculino , Dieta Hipossódica , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pão
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 418: 110730, 2024 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714095

RESUMO

Aerobic spore-forming (ASF) bacteria have been reported to cause ropiness in bread. Sticky and stringy degradation, discoloration, and an odor reminiscent of rotting fruit are typical characteristics of ropy bread spoilage. In addition to economic losses, ropy bread spoilage may lead to health risks, as virulent strains of ASF bacteria are not uncommon. However, the lack of systematic approaches to quantify physicochemical spoilage characteristics makes it extremely difficult to assess rope formation in bread. To address this problem, the aim of this study was to identify, characterize and objectively assess the spoilage potential of ASF bacteria associated with ropy bread. Hence, a set of 82 ASF bacteria, including isolates from raw materials and bakery environments as well as strains from international culture collections, were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and their species identity confirmed by 16S rRNA and gyrA or panC gene sequencing. A standardized approach supported by objective colorimetric measurements was developed to assess the rope-inducing potential (RIP) of a strain by inoculating autoclaved bread slices with bacterial spores. In addition, the presence of potential virulence factors such as swarming motility or hemolysis was investigated. This study adds B. velezensis, B. inaquosorum and B. spizizenii to the species potentially implicated of causing ropy bread spoilage. Most importantly, this study introduces a standardized classification protocol for assessing the RIP of a bacterial strain. Colorimetric measurements are used to objectively quantify the degree of breadcrumb discoloration. Furthermore, our results indicate that strains capable of inducing rope spoilage in bread often exhibit swarming motility and virulence factors such as hemolysis, raising important food quality considerations.


Assuntos
Pão , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pão/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Aeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Aeróbias/classificação , Bactérias Aeróbias/genética , Bactérias Aeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
18.
Food Chem ; 451: 139512, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718641

RESUMO

In view of the merits of all-purpose wheat flour (APWF) to soft wheat flour (SWF) in cost and protein supply, the feasibility of heat-moisture treatment (HMT, 19% moisture for 1 h at 60, 80 and 100 °C, respectively) to modify APWF as a substitute SWF in making short dough biscuits was explored. For underlying mechanisms, on the one hand, HMT reduced the hydration capacity of damaged starch particles by coating them with denatured proteins. On the other hand, HMT at 80 °C and 100 °C significantly denatured gluten proteins to form protein aggregates, highly weakening the gluten network in dough. These two aspects jointly conferred APWF dough with higher deformability and therefore significantly improved the qualities of biscuits. Moreover, the qualities of biscuits from APWF upon HMT-100 °C were largely comparable to that from SWF, even higher values were concluded in spread ratio, volume, specific volume and consumer acceptance.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Triticum , Farinha/análise , Triticum/química , Pão/análise , Glutens/química , Água/química , Humanos
19.
Food Res Int ; 183: 114186, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760125

RESUMO

The rise of pre-diabetes at the global level has created a significant interest in developing low glycaemic index food products. The pearl millet is a cheaper source of starch and its germ contains significant amount of protein and fat. The complexing of pearl millet starch and germ by dry heat treatment (PMSGH) resulted an increase in the resistant starch content upto 45.09 % due to formation of amylose-glutelin-linoleic acid complex. The resulting pearl millet starch germ complex was incorporated into wheat bread at 20, 25, and 30 %. The PMSGH incorporated into bread at 30 % reduced the glycaemic index to 52.31. The PMSGH incorporated bread had significantly (p < 0.05)increased in the hardness with a reduction in springiness and cohesiveness. The structural attributes of the 30 % PMSGH incorporated bread revealed a significant (p < 0.05)increase in 1040/1020 cm-1 ratio and relative crystallinity. The consumption of functional bread incorporated with pearl millet starch germ complex reduced blood glucose levels and in vivo glycaemic index in healthy and pre-diabetic participants when compared to white bread. Hence, the study showed that the incorporation of pearl millet starch-germ complex into food products could be a potential new and healthier approach for improving dietary options in pre-diabetes care.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Pão , Índice Glicêmico , Pennisetum , Estado Pré-Diabético , Amido , Humanos , Pão/análise , Pennisetum/química , Amido/química , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Valor Nutritivo , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amilose/química
20.
J Texture Stud ; 55(3): e12836, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702990

RESUMO

A new technique known as dough crumb-sheet composite rolling (DC-SCR) was used to improve the quality of fresh noodles. However, there is a dearth of theoretical investigations into the optimal selection of specific parameters for this technology, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, the effects of dough crumb addition times in DC-SCR on the texture, cooking, and eating quality of fresh noodles were first studied. Then, the underlying regulation mechanism of DC-SCR technology on fresh noodles was analyzed in terms of moisture distribution and microstructure. The study demonstrated that the most significant enhancement in the quality of fresh noodles was achieved by adding dough crumbs six times. Compared with fresh noodles made without the addition of dough crumbs, the initial hardness and chewiness of fresh noodles made by adding six times of dough crumbs increased by 25.32% and 46.82%, respectively. In contrast, the cooking time and cooking loss were reduced by 28.45% and 29.69%, respectively. This quality improvement in fresh noodles made by DC-SCR came from the microstructural differences of the gluten network between the inner and outer layers of the dough sheet. A dense structure on the outside and a loose structure on the inside could endow the fresh noodles made by DC-SCR with higher hardness, a shortened cooking time, and less cooking loss. This study would provide a theoretical and experimental basis for creating high-quality fresh noodles.


Assuntos
Pão , Culinária , Farinha , Manipulação de Alimentos , Água , Culinária/métodos , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Pão/análise , Dureza , Glutens/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Triticum/química , Humanos
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