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3.
Pediatr Transplant ; 28(3): e14759, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38623871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a frequent complication in pediatric lung transplant recipients, occurring in up to 12% of patients in the first year. Risk factors for infection include impaired lung defenses and intense immunosuppressive regimens. While most IFD occurs from Aspergillus, other fungal conidia are continuously inhaled, and infections with fungi on a spectrum of human pathogenicity can occur. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 17-year-old lung transplant recipient in whom Irpex lacteus and Rhodotorula species were identified during surveillance bronchoscopy. She was asymptomatic and deemed to be colonized by Irpex lacteus and Rhodotorula species following transplant. 2 years after transplantation, she developed a fever, respiratory symptoms, abnormal lung imaging, and histological evidence of acute and chronic bronchitis on transbronchial biopsy. After developing symptoms concerning for a pulmonary infection and graft dysfunction, she was treated for a presumed IFD. Unfortunately, further diagnostic testing could not be performed at this time given her tenuous clinical status. Despite the initiation of antifungal therapy, her graft function continued to decline resulting in a second lung transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: This case raises the concern for IFD in lung transplant recipients from Irpex species. Further investigation is needed to understand the pathogenicity of this organism, reduce the incidence and mortality of IFD in lung transplant recipients, and refine the approach to diagnosis and manage the colonization and isolation of rare, atypical fungal pathogens in immunocompromised hosts.


Assuntos
Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas , Transplante de Pulmão , Polyporales , Rhodotorula , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Transplantados , Broncoscopia , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Pulmão , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 181, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial cryobiopsy (EBUS-cryobiopsy) is advantageous for collecting larger specimens with minimal crushing; however, it has not been widely used for mediastinal tumors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old woman with a history of left breast cancer underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy. Computed tomography showed a mass in the anterior mediastinum that was in extensive contact with the sternum on the ventral side and partly with the trachea on the dorsal side. Two computed tomography-guided needle biopsies (CTNBs) were performed on the mass; however, a definitive diagnosis was not made because of severe crush artifacts. Subsequently, we performed EBUS-cryobiopsy and safely obtained sufficient specimen volume with minimal crushing. The histopathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma, with immunobiological features distinct from those of previous breast cancers. Her overall diagnosis was a rare tumor originating in the anterior mediastinum. CONCLUSIONS: EBUS-cryobiopsy can be safely performed in narrow areas surrounded by major blood vessels, and the obtained specimens may be superior to CTNBs for histopathological diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Mediastino/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/métodos , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Endossonografia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Linfonodos/patologia
5.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 218, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the preferred device for lung isolation. Conventional DLTs (cDLT) need a bronchoscopic position control. Visualisation of correct DLT positioning could be facilitated by the use of a video double-lumen tube (vDLT). During the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic, avoiding aerosol-generation was suggesting using this device. In a large retrospective series, we report both general and pandemic related experiences with the device. METHODS: All anesthesia records from patients aged 18 years or older undergoing surgery from April 1st, 2020 to December 31st, 2021 in the department of thoracic surgery requiring intraoperative lung isolation were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: During the investigation period 343 left-sided vDLTs (77.4%) and 100 left-sided cDLTs (22.6%) were used for one lung ventilation. In the vDLT group bronchoscopy could be reduced by 85.4% related to the cDLT group. Additional bronchoscopy to reach or maintain correct position was needed in 11% of the cases. Other bronchoscopy indications occured in 3.6% of the cases. With cDLT, in 1% bronchoscopy for other indications than conforming position was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The Ambu® VivaSight™ vDLT is an efficient, easy-to-use and safe airway device for the generation of one lung ventilation in patients undergoing thoracic surgery. The vDLT implementation was achieved easily with full interchangeability to the left-sided cDLT. Using the vDLT can reduce the need for aerosol-generating bronchoscopic interventions by 85.4%. Continuous video view to the carina enabling position monitoring of the DLT without need for bronchoscopy might be beneficial for both employee's and patient's safety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ventilação Monopulmonar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Broncoscopia , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios
6.
Medwave ; 24(3): e2792, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588532

RESUMO

Introduction: Osteochondroplastic tracheobronchopathy is a rare benign chronic disease of unknown etiology. Bronchoscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing osteochondroplastic tracheobronchopathy. Its typical findings are described as a cobblestone, rock garden, mountainscape, or stalactite cave appearance. The present work aims to show the main clinical features of this rare pathology. Clinical cases: The clinical data of four middle-aged patients, three men and one woman, were analyzed. The main clinical symptoms were chronic cough, dyspnea, and dysphonia. The patient's preliminary diagnosis was made by computed axial tomography of the chest, confirmed by bronchoscopy and histopathological examination. Treatment included medication for symptoms and, in one case, cryosurgery and argon plasma coagulation. Discussion: Diagnosing osteochondroplastic tracheobronchopathy was not easy, given its uncommon nature and non-specific symptoms often found in other pathologies. No case series articles on this pathology have been published in Peru. Therefore, we used the original articles published in other countries to reference our findings. Conclusion: Osteochondroplastic tracheopathy is a benign disease that typically affects adults. Men are more likely to be affected. Its clinical manifestations are non-specific and frequently of pharyngeal origin, and the cause is not yet defined. Chest computed axial tomography combined with bronchoscopy are the main diagnostic procedures. There is no standard treatment with consistent therapeutic effects.


Introducción: La traqueobroncopatía osteocondroplástica es una rara enfermedad crónica benigna de etiología desconocida. La broncoscopía sigue siendo el estándar de oro para el reconocimiento de traqueopatía osteocondroplástica. Sus hallazgos típicos se describen como un empedrado, un jardín de rocas, una apariencia de paisaje montañoso o de una cueva con estalactitas. El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar las principales características clínicas de una patología poco conocida. Casos clínicos: Se analizaron los datos clínicos de cuatro pacientes de mediana edad, tres fueron hombres y una mujer. Los principales síntomas clínicos fueron tos crónica, disnea, disfonía. Los pacientes tuvieron un diagnóstico preliminar mediante tomografía axial computarizada de tórax, confirmado por examen video broncoscópico e histopatológico. El tratamiento incluyó medicamentos para los síntomas y en un solo caso criocirugía y coagulación con argón plasma. Discusión: El diagnóstico de traqueobroncopatía osteocondroplástica no fue sencillo por ser una entidad rara, cuyos síntomas son inespecíficos y muy frecuentes en otras patologías. En Perú no se han publicado artículos de serie de casos sobre esta patología. Por lo tanto, tomamos como referencia artículos originales publicados en otros países para compararlos con nuestros hallazgos. Conclusión: La traqueopatía osteocondroplástica es una enfermedad benigna que predispone a los adultos, los hombres tienen más probabilidades de verse afectados. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son inespecíficas; frecuentemente de origen faríngeo y la causa no está aún definida. La tomografía axial computarizada de tórax combinada con video broncoscopía son los principales procedimientos para el diagnóstico. No existe un estándar de tratamiento con efectos terapéuticos consistentes.


Assuntos
Broncopatias , Osteocondrodisplasias , Doenças da Traqueia , Adulto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Broncopatias/diagnóstico , Broncopatias/patologia , Doenças da Traqueia/diagnóstico , Doenças da Traqueia/terapia , Doenças da Traqueia/patologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Broncoscopia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8718, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622275

RESUMO

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive and irreversible airflow limitation, with individual body composition influencing disease severity. Severe emphysema worsens symptoms through hyperinflation, which can be relieved by bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR). To investigate how body composition, assessed through CT scans, impacts outcomes in emphysema patients undergoing BLVR. Fully automated CT-based body composition analysis (BCA) was performed in patients with end-stage emphysema receiving BLVR with valves. Post-interventional muscle and adipose tissues were quantified, body size-adjusted, and compared to baseline parameters. Between January 2015 and December 2022, 300 patients with severe emphysema underwent endobronchial valve treatment. Significant improvements were seen in outcome parameters, which were defined as changes in pulmonary function, physical performance, and quality of life (QoL) post-treatment. Muscle volume remained stable (1.632 vs. 1.635 for muscle bone adjusted ratio (BAR) at baseline and after 6 months respectively), while bone adjusted adipose tissue volumes, especially total and pericardial adipose tissue, showed significant increase (2.86 vs. 3.00 and 0.16 vs. 0.17, respectively). Moderate to strong correlations between bone adjusted muscle volume and weaker correlations between adipose tissue volumes and outcome parameters (pulmonary function, QoL and physical performance) were observed. Particularly after 6-month, bone adjusted muscle volume changes positively corresponded to improved outcomes (ΔForced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1], r = 0.440; ΔInspiratory vital capacity [IVC], r = 0.397; Δ6Minute walking distance [6MWD], r = 0.509 and ΔCOPD assessment test [CAT], r = -0.324; all p < 0.001). Group stratification by bone adjusted muscle volume changes revealed that groups with substantial muscle gain experienced a greater clinical benefit in pulmonary function improvements, QoL and physical performance (ΔFEV1%, 5.5 vs. 39.5; ΔIVC%, 4.3 vs. 28.4; Δ6MWDm, 14 vs. 110; ΔCATpts, -2 vs. -3.5 for groups with ΔMuscle, BAR% < -10 vs. > 10, respectively). BCA results among patients divided by the minimal clinically important difference for forced expiratory volume of the first second (FEV1) showed significant differences in bone-adjusted muscle and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes and their respective changes after 6 months (ΔMuscle, BAR% -5 vs. 3.4 and ΔIMAT, BAR% -0.62 vs. 0.60 for groups with ΔFEV1 ≤ 100 mL vs > 100 mL). Altered body composition, especially increased muscle volume, is associated with functional improvements in BLVR-treated patients.


Assuntos
Enfisema , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Enfisema Pulmonar , Humanos , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Broncoscopia/métodos , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/cirurgia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema/etiologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Indian J Tuberc ; 71(2): 225-231, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589128

RESUMO

Pulmonary mucormycosis is a rare but highly lethal fungal infection, usually affecting immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary mucormycosis was also a critical problem that complicated the later part of the clinical course of COVID-19 in India. Early diagnosis of the disease, combined with aggressive treatment, is crucial for patient survival. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy is a useful procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis, but image-guided percutaneous biopsy efficiently samples lesions abutting the chest wall. Biopsy is more yielding than cultures and imaging guided biopsy is required for lesions that cannot be microbiologically confirmed by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. We present a case series of four patients of pulmonary mucormycosis in whom ultrasound guided biopsy clinched the diagnosis. All the four patients were poor surgical candidates and underwent medical management with antifungal agents, and had successful clinical recovery and radiological resolution. Our case series illustrates the utility of ultrasound guided percutaneous biopsy as a diagnostic tool for sampling cavitatory disease due to pulmonary mucormycosis, when fibreoptic bronchoscopy failed to yield a diagnosis and the beneficial role antifungal agents as salvage therapy in poor surgical candidates.


Assuntos
Mucormicose , Humanos , Mucormicose/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucormicose/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Broncoscopia , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/efeitos adversos
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 967-978, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562518

RESUMO

Background: Remimazolam is a novel ultra-short-acting benzodiazepine sedative that has the potential to be an alternative for procedural sedation due to its rapid sedation and recovery, no accumulation effect, stable hemodynamics, minimal respiratory depression, anterograde amnesia effect, and specific antagonist. Here, we aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of remimazolam with dexmedetomidine for awake tracheal intubation by flexible bronchoscopy (ATI-FB). Methods: Ninety patients scheduled for ATI-FB were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of 30 cases: dexmedetomidine 0.6 µg/kg + sufentanil (group DS), remimazolam 0.073 mg/kg + sufentanil (group R1S), or remimazolam 0.093 mg/kg + sufentanil (group R2S). The primary outcome was the success rate of sedation. Secondary outcomes were MOAA/S scores, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, intubation conditions, intubation time, tracheal intubation amnesia, and adverse events. Results: The success rates of sedation in groups R2S and DS were higher than that in group R1S (93.3%, 86.7%, respectively, vs 58.6%; P = 0.002), and intubation conditions were better than those in group R1S (P < 0.05). Group R2S had shorter intubation times than groups R1S and DS (P = 0.003), and a higher incidence of tracheal intubation amnesia than group DS (P = 0.006). No patient in the three groups developed hypoxemia or hypotension, and there were no significant differences in oligopnea, PetCO2, or bradycardia (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, both DS and R2S had higher success rates of sedation, better intubation conditions, and minor respiratory depression, but R2S, with its shorter intubation time, higher incidence of anterograde amnesia, and ability to be antagonized by specific antagonists, may be a good alternative sedation regimen for patients undergoing ATI-FB.


Assuntos
Amnésia Anterógrada , Dexmedetomidina , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia Anterógrada/induzido quimicamente , Benzodiazepinas , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Sufentanil , Vigília , Método Duplo-Cego
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 164, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare patient experiences during bronchoscopy procedures using either topical anesthesia (TA) or monitored anesthesia care (MA). The goal was to identify circumstances where patients could achieve similar levels of tolerance and satisfaction using only TA, especially in resource-limited settings. METHODS: This study included consecutive patients who underwent bronchoscopy with either TA or MA. Data collected included demographics, indications for bronchoscopy, procedure time, and complications during the procedure. A quality assurance survey was administered to assess patient experience and satisfaction with both procedures. A pre-specified subgroup analysis was performed based on procedure invasiveness and time. RESULTS: This study enrolled 350 (TA 251; MA 99) patients, with an average age of 65 years. Main indications for bronchoscopy included tumor diagnosis (38%), esophageal cancer staging (18%), and pulmonary infection (17%). The average duration of the procedures was 20 min, with MA being associated with a significantly longer procedure time than TA (31 min vs. 16 min; P < 0.001). The overall satisfaction rating with bronchoscopy was significantly higher in the MA group (visual analogue scale, 8.9 vs. 8.2; P = 0.001). Subgroup analyses showed that when less invasive or shorter procedures were performed, TA patients reported tolerance and satisfaction levels comparable to MA patients. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoscopy with MA offered patients a better experience and greater satisfaction; however, in settings with limited resources, TA alone may provide similar levels of patient tolerance and satisfaction during less invasive or shorter procedures.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Pneumonia , Humanos , Idoso , Broncoscopia/métodos , Medição da Dor , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente
11.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 186(14)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606703

RESUMO

Bronchoscopy has a low risk of complications when diagnosing peripheral lung lesions suspected of malignancy, however the procedures do not always determine a diagnosis. Several modalities have been invented to improve the diagnostic yield, including radial endobronchial ultrasound and electromagnetic navigation, which are currently used by several departments in Denmark. Augmented fluoroscopy, CT-guided bronchoscopy and robotic bronchoscopy are not yet available in Denmark, but may improve the diagnostic work-up, as argued in this review.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Broncoscopia/métodos , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Pulmão/patologia
12.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(4): 332-338, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599808

RESUMO

Objective: To assess and compare the diagnostic efficacy of next-generation ultrathin bronchoscopy (UTB) and conventional bronchoscopy (CB), both combined with radial endobronchial ultrasound (r-EBUS), in the evaluation of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL). Methods: A cohort of 39 patients with PPL who underwent multimodal bronchoscopy at Dushu Lake Hospital, Soochow University, from June 1, 2021 to May 31, 2023 was consecutively enrolled. A single bronchoscopist performed multimodal bronchoscopies using CB (external diameter 4.9 mm or 5.9 mm, working channel diameter 2 or 3 mm, CB group) for transbronchial biopsy under r-EBUS guidance (rEBUS-TBLB), followed by UTB (external diameter 3 mm, working channel diameter 1.7 mm, UTB group) for transbronchial biopsy under r-EBUS guidance. Pathological findings and a 6-month clinical follow-up were used as the gold standard to compare the diagnostic yield of biopsy specimens, ultrasound characteristics, and localization rates of the two bronchoscope types. The aim was to evaluate the clinical application value of UTB combined with r-EBUS. Binary variables were analysed using the McNemar test for paired data. Continuous variables or ranked data were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data. Results: The diagnostic yields for UTB and CB groups were 66.67% (26/39) and 30.77% (12/39), respectively, with the UTB group significantly surpassing the CB group (χ2=10.56, P=0.001, 1-ß=0.968). r-EBUS with CB exhibited no visible lesion in 13 cases, adjacent to the lesion in 19 cases, and within the lesion in 7 cases.Substitution of UTB resulted in r-EBUS images changing from no visible lesion to adjacent to the lesion in 7 cases, from no visible lesion to within the lesion in 3 cases, and from adjacent to the lesion to within the lesion in 12 cases. The positioning of the r-EBUS probe in relation to the lesions improved significantly with UTB usage (Z=-4.46, P<0.001). Localization rates (number of patients with "within" or "adjacent to" the image/total number of patients) for UTB and CB were 92.30% (36/39) and 66.67% (26/39), respectively (χ2=8.10, P=0.002). UTB improved r-EBUS probe localization rates. The diagnostic yields of UTB were higher than CB for solid lesions, lesions>30 mm in diameter, non-upper lobar location, benign or malignant lesions and lesions with or without a bronchus sign. Conclusion: The UTB group demonstrated a significantly higher diagnostic yield than the CB group, providing superior r-EBUS probe images, and a significant diagnostic advantage for PPL.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Broncoscópios , Biópsia/métodos , Brônquios/patologia , Endossonografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 47(4): 363-370, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599814

RESUMO

A series of studies on the interventional diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis(TB)were carried out by domestic and foreign researchers in 2023. The combination of minimally invasive interventional procedures with endoscopes, guidance, material acquisition techniques by multiple ways and multichannel and highly accurate laboratory testing techniques is becoming more and more widely practiced clinically, which has played an important role in the accurate diagnosis of problematic TB. Diagnostic procedures for pulmonary TB, tracheobronchial TB, mediastinal lymphatic TB and extrapulmonary TB included conventional flexible bronchoscopy and specific types of bronchoscopy(ultrathin bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound), transbronchial needle aspiration biopsy, endobronchial ultrasound and virtual bronchoscopic navigation system-guided forceps biopsy, thoracoscopic cryobiopsy of pleura, percutaneous biopsy, and so on. The time to diagnosis has been significantly reduced and the diagnostic efficacy has been improved by the clinical specimen detection using either Gene Xpert MTB/RIF, Ultra, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, metagenomic next-generation sequencing, or nanopore sequencing, etc. Interventional therapy was focused on the following diseases: pulmonary TB with massive hemoptysis, tracheobronchial TB, pleural TB and TB-related fistulas. Interventional treatment of tracheobronchial TB mainly included the application of rigid bronchoscopy, bronchoscopic cold and thermal ablation treatment, endoscopic clamp, dilatations of narrow airway with balloon and stent placement, etc. The interventional treatment of pulmonary TB complicated by massive hemoptysis included endovascular embolization, coated stent placement, etc. Interventional treatment of pleural TB involved the application of thoracoscopy, endoscopic forceps, the implantation of stent and other occlusive devices and the closure of fistulas with autologous fat transplantation. In this article, we reviewed the progress of interventional diagnosis and treatment of TB by the search of published literatures from October 2022 to September 2023.


Assuntos
Fístula , Tuberculose Pleural , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Humanos , Hemoptise , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Broncoscopia/métodos
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 24(1): 228, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent repairs of pediatric flexible bronchoscopes can lead to a huge financial burden for the hospital. This study aimed to investigate the common causes of the failures in pediatric flexible bronchoscopes and propose the measures to prevent the failures. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. We collected repair information of the pediatric flexible bronchoscopes reprocessed in the Department of Sterile Processing at a hospital between September 1, 2018 and September 1, 2022 in order to investigate the causes and possible factors associated with the failures in pediatric flexible bronchoscopes. RESULTS: The Department of Sterile Processing staff reprocessed the pediatric flexible bronchoscopes 4280 times. A total of 29 failures were identified. The failure rate was 0.678%. The average repair cost was USD7246.60. The common failures in the pediatric flexible bronchoscopes included dim video image, black dots, improper video image display or no image during angulation adjustment, and pressure marks in the insertion tube. The failure rates in flexible electronic bronchoscopes and small-diameter flexible bronchoscopes were 65.5% and 93.1%, respectively. The failure rate in the pediatric flexible bronchoscopes reprocessed by the staff members with less work experience was 75.9%. CONCLUSION: The failure rate in the pediatric flexible bronchoscopes was not high but the repair costs were extremely high. The types and size of the flexible bronchoscopes and work experience of the staff members responsible for bronchoscope reprocessing were the possible factors associated with the failure rate in the pediatric flexible bronchoscopes. It is advisable to further optimize the central workflow and management mode for reprocessing the pediatric flexible bronchoscopes, thereby extending their useful life and reducing costs.


Assuntos
Broncoscópios , Broncoscopia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Broncoscopia/métodos , China
15.
J Robot Surg ; 18(1): 149, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564059

RESUMO

Pulmonary nodules are frequently encountered in high-risk patients. Often these require biopsy which can be challenging. We relate our experience comparing use of electromagnetic navigational bronchoscopy (ENB) to a robotic bronchoscopy system (RB). A retrospective review of patients undergoing bronchoscopic biopsy from 2015 to 2021. The timeframe overlapped with transition from ENB using Veran SPiN system to RB using Ion system by Intuitive. Patient and nodule characteristics were collected. Primary end point was overall diagnostic yield which was defined by pathologic confirmation of malignancy or benign finding. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic yield based on overall size of nodules and need for further work up and testing. 116 patients underwent ENB or RB of 134 nodules. No perioperative complications occurred. Diagnostic yield of ENB was 49.5% (41/91 nodules) versus 86.1% (37/43 nodules) for RB. Average nodule size for ENB was 2.55 cm versus 1.96 cm for RB. When divided based on size, ENB had a 30% diagnostic yield for nodules 1-2 cm (11/37 nodules, mean size 1.46 cm) and 64% yield for nodules 2-3 cm (14/22 nodules, mean size 2.38 cm). RB had an 81% yield for nodules 1-2 cm (mean size 1.41 cm) and 100% yield for nodules 2-3 cm (mean 2.3 cm). RB showed superiority over ENB in early implementation trials for biopsy of suspicious pulmonary nodules. It is a safe technology allowing for increased access to all lung fields and utilization in the thoracic surgical practice will be paramount to advancing the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Cirurgia Torácica , Humanos , Broncoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Biópsia , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos
16.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 27(2): 165-168, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607882

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Mediastinal masses pose one of the great challenges for any anesthesiologist during airway maintenance, underlining the need to devise a well-formulated plan to avoid perioperative complications. As a general rule, such patients are managed with spontaneous ventilation without the use of muscle relaxants and awake intubation. We report a case of a 66-year-old male with severe dyspnea, having a very large invasive anterior mediastinal mass, causing left lung collapse for urgent debulking surgery. The tracheobronchial compromise was ruled out using three-dimensional reconstruction on computed tomography imaging (virtual bronchoscopy) and that helped in using general anesthesia with muscle relaxation for subsequent endotracheal intubation and surgery.


Assuntos
Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Broncoscopia , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Intubação Intratraqueal , Anestesia Geral , Anestesiologistas
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 24(1): 162, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endobronchial valve (EBV) therapy, a validated method for bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) in severe emphysema, has been explored for persistent air-leak (PAL) management. However, its effectiveness and safety in the Asian population require further real-world evaluation. In this study, we assessed the outcomes of treatment with EBV within this demographic. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records from 11 Korean centers. For the emphysema cohort, inclusion criteria were patients diagnosed with emphysema who underwent bronchoscopy intended for BLVR. We assessed these patients for clinical outcomes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All patients with PAL who underwent treatment with EBV were included. We identified the underlying causes of PAL and evaluated clinical outcomes after the procedure. RESULTS: The severe emphysema cohort comprised 192 patients with an average age of 70.3 years, and 95.8% of them were men. Ultimately, 137 underwent treatment with EBV. Three months after the procedure, the BLVR group demonstrated a significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (+160 mL vs. +30 mL; P = 0.009). Radiographic evidence of lung volume reduction 6 months after BLVR was significantly associated with improved survival (adjusted hazard ratio 0.020; 95% confidence interval 0.038-0.650; P = 0.010). Although pneumothorax was more common in the BLVR group (18.9% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.018), death was higher in the no-BLVR group (38.5% vs. 54.5%, P = 0.001), whereas other adverse events were comparable between the groups. Within the subset of 18 patients with PAL, the predominant causes of air-leak included spontaneous secondary pneumothorax (44.0%), parapneumonic effusion/empyema (22.2%), and post-lung resection surgery (16.7%). Following the treatment, the majority (77.8%) successfully had their chest tubes removed. Post-procedural complications were minimal, with two incidences of hemoptysis and one of empyema, all of which were effectively managed. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with EBV provides substantial clinical benefits in the management of emphysema and PAL in the Asian population, suggesting a favorable outcome for this therapeutic approach.


Assuntos
Enfisema , Empiema , Pneumotórax , Enfisema Pulmonar , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Feminino , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Broncoscopia/métodos , Empiema/etiologia , Empiema/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 59-66, Marzo 2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551217

RESUMO

Introducción: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 puede presentar síndrome de distrés res-piratorio agudo con requerimiento de ventilación mecánica prolongada y retraso en la realización de traqueostomía. Esto trae como consecuencia un incremento en casos de estenosis traqueal y la necesidad de métodos menos invasivos para su abordaje. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, desde marzo 2020 hasta diciem-bre 2021 en el Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia, en adultos con estenosis traqueal postintubación asociado SARS-CoV-2. Se realizó análisis univariado entre los grupos con infección o no por SARS-CoV-2 como control, y reintervención, grado de estenosis, uso de inyección intramucosa con dexametasona intratraqueal o múltiples estenosis como desenlaces de importancia. Se usó test exacto de Fisher, t Student y Man-Whitney según la naturaleza de variables. Se consideró p estadísticamente significativo menor a 0.05.Resultados: Se identificaron 26 pacientes, 20 tenían COVID-19 y 6 no. Se encontraron diferencias en edad (p=0,002), epilepsia (p=0,007) y estenosis múltiple (p= 0,04). En 85% de los casos se utilizó láser blue más dilatación con balón pulmonar, en 35% inyección intramucosa con dexametasona intratraqueal y reintervención en 35%, sin diferencias significativas entre grupos. Conclusiones: Se observó un incremento tres veces mayor de pacientes con estenosis múltiple en el grupo de infección por COVID-19, así mismo se encontró que el método más utilizado en este grupo para la recanalización fue el uso de láser blue más dilatación con balón pulmonar y la innovación en el uso de inyección intramucosa.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome with a prolonged need for mechanical ventilation and delayed tracheostomy, resulting in an increase in cases of tracheal stenosis and the necessity for less invasive approaches.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2020 to December 2021 at the Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia, focusing on adults with post-intubation tracheal stenosis associated with SARS-CoV-2. Univariate analysis was performed between groups with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection as a control, considering reintervention, degree of stenosis, use of intratracheal steroids, or multiple stenoses as important outcomes. Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whit-ney test were employed based on the nature of variables. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 26 patients were included, with 20 having COVID-19 and 6 without. Significant differences were found in age (p=0.002), epilepsy (p=0.007), and multiple stenosis (p=0.04). In 85% of cases, laser blue plus balloon pulmonary dilation was used, intratracheal dexamethasone in 35%, and reintervention in 35%, with no significant differences between groups.Conclusions: A threefold increase in subglottic stenosis was observed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with more instances of multiple stenosis and predominantly the use of laser blue plus balloon pulmonary dilation as a successful recanalization technique. There was a higher use of intratracheal dexamethasone in this group compared to oth-er pathologies causing tracheal stenosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Estenose Traqueal/complicações , Dispneia , COVID-19/complicações , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Broncoscopia/métodos , Traqueostomia/métodos , Colômbia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 28(4): 1433-1438, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is widely used in the intensive care unit for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Our study aimed to evaluate FOB's indications, complications, and clinical outcomes in our intensive care unit's mechanically ventilated patients and identify the microorganisms grown in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 1, 2022, and June 30, 2023, a total of 332 FOBs were performed on 178 patients in the respiratory intensive care unit. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 64±19.4 years. Females accounted for 65 (36.6%) and males accounted for 113 (63.4%) of the cases. Leading diagnoses included pneumonia (59.5%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (20.7%), sepsis (17.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attack (21.9%), pulmonary embolism (10.1%), lung malignancy (43.8%), hemoptysis (8.9%), heart failure (15.1%), neurological/neuromuscular conditions (8.4%), and post cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (2.8%). FOB purposes were BAL retrieval (43.6%), secretion clearance (30.4%), guided tracheostomy (11.7%), atelectasis (8.7%), and hemoptysis (5.4%). Hypoxemia marked the primary FOB complication (3.6%). Other issues encompassed hypotension (1.5%), bradycardia (1.2%), bleeding (1.2%), tachycardia (0.9%), and hypertension (0.6%). No statistical significance was found in arterial blood gas pH, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) values before and after the FOB procedure (p>0.05). Predominant pathogens in aspiration samples were non-albicans Candida (28.9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (24.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.4%), and Acinetobacter baumannii (11.7%). CONCLUSIONS: FOB is an important diagnostic and therapeutic method with a low complication rate when performed by an experienced team with appropriate indication in the intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia , Hemoptise , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Críticos
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