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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301087, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781137

RESUMO

Tibetan Buddhism, as an indigenous religion, has a significant and far-reaching influence in the Tibetan areas of China. This study, focusing on Lhasa, explores the integration of Tibetan Buddhist spiritual perceptions within urban spaces. Employing a novel approach that combines street view data and deep learning technology, the research aims to identify and map the spatial distribution of Tibetan Buddhist spiritual sites against the backdrop of the urban landscape. Our analysis reveals a notable concentration of these spiritual places near urban architectural and cultural heritage areas, highlighting the profound connection between residents' cultural life and spiritual practices. Despite challenges posed by modern urbanisation, these spiritual sites demonstrate resilience and adaptability, continuing to serve as cultural and spiritual pillars of the Tibetan Buddhist community. This study contributes to the fields of urban planning, religious studies, and digital humanities by demonstrating the potential of technology in examining the impact of urban development on cultural and religious landscapes. The research underscores the importance of protecting and integrating spaces of spiritual perception in urban development planning. It shows that safeguarding these spaces is crucial not only for cultural heritage preservation but also for achieving sustainable urban development and social harmony. This study opens new avenues for interdisciplinary research, advocating for a deeper understanding of the dynamic relationship between urban development and spiritual spaces from psychological, sociological, and environmental science perspectives. As urban landscapes evolve, the study emphasises the need to maintain a balance between material sustainability and cultural and spiritual richness in urban planning.


Assuntos
Budismo , Budismo/psicologia , Humanos , Tibet , Espiritualidade , Percepção , Urbanização , China
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301905, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630659

RESUMO

This paper evaluates the direct and indirect impacts (and their interactions) of individual and social ethics from (primary, secondary, tertiary) education and religion (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism) on health and happiness in alternative religious contexts (majority and minority religions) and for alternative education policies (gross enrolment and per-student expenditure). It also specifies the time lag for the short-run indirect impact (and its size) of happiness on health and the long-run equilibria of both happiness and health. The statistical results show that there is no religious or secular ethics with beneficial impacts on both happiness and health at both the individual and social levels. Next, education policies have similar impacts on both happiness and health in all religious contexts, while most religious ethics have larger beneficial impacts on health and happiness if coupled with social and individual education policies, respectively. Combined statistical and analytical results show that the largest short-run indirect impact of happiness on health occurs after 4 years, where 1 out of 10 points of happiness produces approximately 3 additional years of healthy life expectancy at birth. Next, the long-run equilibria of both happiness and health are globally stable and are achieved after 8 years through oscillation dynamics.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Religião , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Islamismo , Budismo
3.
Nurs Philos ; 25(1): e12469, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37933776

RESUMO

Mongolian philosophical underpinnings of well-being were expressed in the form of mythology, shamanism and Mongolian Buddhism before the development of modern nursing in Mongolia. Among these forms, the philosophical underpinnings of well-being, mythology and shamanism were formed as a result of the roots of Mongolian philosophy, whereas Buddhism spread relatively late. As a result of Mongolian mythology, an alternative approach called dom zasal was formed, and it remains one of the important foundations of the idea of well-being among people. Among the various concepts of shamanism, the concept of sunesu best expresses the underpinning of well-being, and the idea that healing and nursing care can be provided not only by those living in this world but also by spirit beings. Since Mongolians still use these ideas even in modern times, it should be noted that following them too narrowly may conflict with concepts based on scientific evidence. Along with the development of Buddhist philosophy in Mongolia, the Oriental philosophical underpinnings of well-being have spread. One of the most important concepts is the five basic elements of life (tavan mahabhutas) and three elements of the body (khii, shar and badgan). While developing the concepts of life and the body, the arga-bileg model (yin-yang in Chinese), developed at the theoretical level in Chinese philosophy, has become a popular basis for culture and customs among Mongolians. Therefore, it has been difficult to judge whether the origin of the arga-bileg model is Mongolian or Chinese; however, this is undeniably an important underpinning for well-being in both countries.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Enfermagem , Xamanismo , Humanos , Mitologia , Budismo , Filosofia
4.
Br J Sociol ; 75(1): 23-37, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37641486

RESUMO

How does a novel organizational prototype come about and succeed to the point where it becomes recognized as an icon? To address this question, this article examines the organizational emergence of a prestigious temple. Drawing on interviews and content analysis of 6320 blog entries between 2006 and 2018, we identify how an organized way of practicing Buddhism emerged in China and trace its founding monks to students from two elite universities. We argue that organizational emergence-in this case the rise of a prestigious temple and what it stands for-was manifested by identity claims of "who we are" to audiences. Declaring "who we are not" prior to establishing this temple, the founding monks subsequently claimed their organizational identity in three distinct stages: who we are in this temple, who we are as a temple, and who we are as Buddhism. As these identity claims were recognized by the audiences, a novel Buddhist organization emerged. This article contributes to an organizational perspective of religious study and provides a focused case with sufficient temporary variations to explore how identity claims facilitate organizational emergence. It has important implications for understanding incremental yet fundamental institutional changes, as it provides a template of organized religion that nurtures social skills for self-organizing. More broadly, these insights contribute toward developing a vibrant civil society.


Assuntos
Budismo , Humanos , China
5.
Psychoanal Rev ; 110(4): 391-412, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117516

RESUMO

In this article we seek to examine what we might learn about the therapist/psychoanalyst's function as selfobject by examining the relationship between the "vocal persona" and the "instrumental persona" in the art song. The comparison was born out of our own life partnership as a therapist, currently studying in a psychoanalytic-Buddhist training program that stresses the presence of the therapist/psychoanalyst as selfobject; and a collaborative pianist who instructs and performs with singers onstage. The concept of selfobject has offered a compelling and fruitful analogy. We explain and demonstrate this analogy using the terms selfobject and instrumental persona, which have in common the willingness to suspend selfhood in order to stand by another- a patient or a vocal persona- so that the latter might take root and flourish.


Assuntos
Budismo , Psicoterapeutas , Humanos
6.
J Relig Health ; 62(6): 3834-3855, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815741

RESUMO

Among African tribes, Inuit, the Druze, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, a diversity of attitudes toward suicide exists. The meaning of suicide appears to be largely a reflection of the impact of the death on friends, family, and the broader community; the circumstances of the individual within their community; and the specific religious implications of suicide. The interpersonal impact is seen as consisting of the material impact of suicide; the spiritual and emotional burden endured by the community; and norms related to suicide. Individual factors include the degree of social integration; the social impact of suicide before death; and how the individual anticipates suicide affecting their afterlife. Taken together, the commonly repeated notion that reincarnation beliefs lend themselves to suicidal behavior finds little support, and instead it appears that social and pragmatic issues shape the meaning and interpretation of religious beliefs which in turn buffer or facilitate suicidal behavior.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Humanos , Suicídio/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Budismo/psicologia
7.
Cancer Treat Res ; 187: 153-159, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851225

RESUMO

After Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism, Buddhism is the 4th major religion of the world. The Pew Research Center estimates that as of 2020, about 500 million people (or 6.6% of the world's population) practice Buddhism. China has the largest Buddhist population at 254 million, followed by Thailand at 66 million, and then Myanmar and Japan at about 41 million.


Assuntos
Budismo , Islamismo , Humanos , Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Judaísmo
9.
J Am Psychoanal Assoc ; 71(2): 277-309, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37357930

RESUMO

Nondualistic conceptions of the body in Vajrayana Buddhism and some schools of Zen potentially extend the range for imagining and conceptualizing the analyst's body. They add dimension to psychoanalytic explorations of nonverbal, body-to-body communication in the analytic dyad. Vajrayana Buddhism posits that the body that we have from the point of view of the conceptual mind is not our only body. The body that we are, known as the Vajra body, is experientially available only when the conceptual mind is relaxed. The Vajra body suggests an aspect of embodiment that upsets distinctions of subject/object, mind/body, and internal/external. From a Vajrayana perspective, some psychoanalytic views of the body blunt our bodies' potential sensitivity and then theorize in response to this objectified body. Thinking that the body is primitive and requires the transformative capacities of the mind distorts modes of sentience that are bodily. From a Vajrayana perspective, this assumption locks in an overreliance on the conceptual mind that is self-perpetuating. It also inhibits a useful, though at times disturbing potential for intercorporeal communication. A detailed clinical example illustrates how these nondualistic ideas about embodiment might influence analytic work.


Assuntos
Psicanálise , Terapia Psicanalítica , Humanos , Budismo , Medula Óssea , Comunicação , Teoria Psicanalítica
10.
J Adv Nurs ; 79(9): 3609-3621, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36978247

RESUMO

AIM: The aim was to study medication use, effects of medication and perspective of participants involved in medication use among hospitalized older Buddhist monks. DESIGN: An embedded mixed-method study. METHODS: This study included 71 hospitalized older Buddhist monks and 23 participants involved in medication use. Quantitative data were collected from medical and medication records. Meanwhile, qualitative data were collected by using in-depth interviews. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The study lasted from February to July 2021. RESULTS: Over 77% of the monks had chronic diseases. The median of medicine use was seven medicines/person and 6 days of use. Effects of the medication were as expected (52.04%), not as expected (2.22%) and unmeasurable results (45.74%). Unexpected results were hypo-hyperglycaemia, nausea/vomiting, high blood pressure and confusion. From the interview, participants perceived and did not perceive unique practices and medication use in Buddhist monks. In addition, the Buddhist monks received medication following standards and Buddhist doctrine. Finally, recommendations for medication use were adhering to the standard, following Buddhist doctrine and being flexible as deemed necessary. CONCLUSION: The results revealed medication use problems and medication effects among hospitalized older Buddhist monks. IMPACT: Older adults and Buddhist monks have specific needs and practices related to culture and religion, affecting typical treatment, especially medication use. Cultural diversity and sensitivity should be a concern for healthcare staff. The results can be utilized to promote an understanding of cultural diversity and increase the safety of medication administration for hospitalized older Buddhist monks. PATIENT AND PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Patient and public contributions were involved in this study. Participants involved in medication use were interviewed to answer the research objective. Moreover, a senior Buddhist monk at Wat Thai Washington D.C. reviewed content related to the Pali Canon for the final draft of the manuscript. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/b6p3e.


Assuntos
Monges , Humanos , Idoso , Budismo , Religião , Tailândia , Atenção à Saúde
11.
J Subst Use Addict Treat ; 145: 208939, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36880913

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recovery Dharma (RD) is a Buddhist-based peer support program for the treatment of addiction that incorporates mindfulness and meditation into meetings, program literature, and the recovery process, creating the opportunity to study these variables in a peer-support program context. Mindfulness and meditation are beneficial for people in recovery, yet we know little about their relationship to recovery capital, a positive indicator of recovery outcomes. We explored mindfulness and meditation (average length of sessions and average frequency per week) as predictors of recovery capital and examined perceived support in relation to recovery capital. METHODS: The study recruited participants (N = 209) through the RD website, newsletter and social media pages for an online survey that included measures of recovery capital, mindfulness, perceived support, and questions about meditation practices (e.g., frequency, duration). Participants' mean age was 46.68 years (SD = 12.21), with 45 % female (5.7 % non-binary), and 26.8 % from the LGBTQ2S+ community. The mean time in recovery was 7.45 years (SD = 10.37). The study fitted univariate and multivariate linear regression models to determine significant predictors of recovery capital. RESULTS: As anticipated, multivariate linear regressions indicated that mindfulness (ß = 0.31, p < .001), meditation frequency (ß = 0.26, p < .001), and perceived support from RD (ß = 0.50, p < .001) were all significant predictors of recovery capital when controlling for age and spirituality. However, longer time in recovery and the average duration of meditation sessions did not predict recovery capital as anticipated. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate the importance of a regular meditation practice for recovery capital rather than engaging in prolonged sessions infrequently. The results also support previous findings, which point to the influence of mindfulness and meditation on positive outcomes for people in recovery. Further, peer support is associated with higher recovery capital in RD members. This study is the first examination of the relationship between mindfulness, meditation, peer support, and recovery capital in recovering people. The findings lay the groundwork for the continued exploration of these variables as they relate to positive outcomes both within the RD program and in other recovery pathways.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Meditação , Atenção Plena , Terapias Espirituais , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Budismo
12.
Dermatitis ; 34(5): 387-391, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36917545

RESUMO

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may occur secondary to devotional practices in various religions. A systematic review of PubMed was conducted from inception of database to September 9, 2022. Key terms were "contact dermatitis" or "devotional dermatosis" in association with major world religions including "Christianity," "Islam," "Hinduism," "Buddhism," "Sikhism," and "Judaism." Inclusion criteria were determined by presence of a religious practice and associated ACD. Articles referencing other cutaneous reactions such as chemical leukoderma were excluded. In total, 36 of 102 unique articles identified met inclusion criteria. Twenty-two articles referenced Hinduism, 8 referenced Judaism, 5 referenced Islam, 3 referenced Christianity, and 1 article each mentioned Buddhism and Sikhism. Four articles referenced multiple religions. Para-phenylenediamine was the most common contact allergen overall and is found in blackening ingredients mixed with henna for temporary tattoos. Henna tattooing is a cultural practice associated with Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Nine unique contact allergens associated with religious practices were identified. Increasing awareness of religious practices that cause ACD will facilitate culturally competent dermatological care.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Hinduísmo , Humanos , Budismo , Islamismo , Judaísmo , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia
13.
J Relig Health ; 62(3): 1884-1896, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36823258

RESUMO

Mindfulness meditation is rapidly being integrated into many different forms of counseling and psychotherapy, and there is a growing evidence base for its effectiveness. It is important to understand the spiritual roots of mindfulness, and to apply it in a patient-centered manner, sensitive to the patient's own faith tradition rather than taking a one-size-fits-all approach, assuming that mindfulness-based practice is a purely secular approach. The philosophical underpinning of mindfulness lies squarely in the Buddhist faith tradition. Indeed, mindfulness is the 7th step on the Eightfold Path, which is the heart of Buddhist teachings. Many practitioners, however, may not realize that there are Western meditative techniques that are very similar to mindfulness and that have deep roots within Christian, Jewish, and Muslim faith traditions. Patient-centered mindfulness involves the use of mindfulness and other meditation methods that are based on the patient's own faith tradition, rather than applying Eastern forms of mindfulness claiming these are a secular approach appropriate for everyone regardless of religious beliefs, even if those beliefs are not consistent with the Buddhist religious or philosophical approach. In this article, I briefly examine the evidence for the clinical effectiveness of mindfulness meditation, and then go into greater depth on Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim forms of mindfulness or similar meditative practices, providing resources that will better equip clinicians and researchers to provide patient-centered culturally-sensitive care.


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Religião e Psicologia , Budismo , Islamismo
14.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn ; 71(1): 48-62, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630308

RESUMO

Rumination is a clinical phenomenon that causes significant distress in clients who suffer from various psychological and physical disorders. It also has a deleterious impact on both therapeutic process and outcome. One approach that holds promise to manage rumination is mindfulness meditation in combination with clinical hypnosis. This article: (1) reviews the concept of and techniques to manage rumination in the Buddhist psychological framework, (2) introduces 2 simple mindfulness-based techniques to deal with rumination, i.e., mindful thought detachment and mindful dereflection, and (3) describes 2 case studies in which these strategies were applied successfully. Hypnosis-informed clinicians are encouraged to integrate these approaches in their practices.


Assuntos
Hipnose , Meditação , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Meditação/psicologia , Hipnose/métodos , Budismo , Ansiedade
15.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 67(9): 952-975, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784817

RESUMO

Although faith-based programs are present in most prisons for offender rehabilitation, the effect of religion on prison inmates remains an understudied topic. In addition, existing research shows mixed results about the religious effect. The present study intends to not only advance the understanding of inmate's prison misconduct but also examine whether religion is likely to contribute to reducing the risk of misconduct using a non-Western sample of inmates. To assess the relationship between inmates' religion and prison misconduct, we applied negative binomial regression to analyze survey data from 986 Korean adult male inmates. Results showed that inmates who had a religious affiliation with Catholicism or Buddhism were less likely to report prison misconduct than those who had no religion. In addition, the inverse relationship was observed whether inmates had participated in religion before incarceration or came to participate in religion while incarcerated, depending on religious denomination.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Comportamento Problema , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Religião , Budismo
16.
J Homosex ; 70(6): 1162-1186, 2023 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030061

RESUMO

Previous literature has found that, among other religions, Buddhism tends to be relatively less discriminatory against members of the LGBT community. However, this assessment is based solely on cross-country comparisons rather than analyses of discrimination at the individual level. The present study therefore uses an individual-level dataset that comprises a national representative sample of 27,855 observations to examine discrimination against LGBT people in Thailand, as a case study of such discrimination in a Buddhist country. It also examines the influence of Buddhist thoughts concerning prosocial behavior and positive emotions, which might be expected to reduce LGBT discrimination. Using an order-probit model, we find that while those who practice Buddhism tend to discriminate against members of this community less than do adherents of other religions, older generations tend to discriminate against LGBT people more than do their younger counterparts. Buddhist teachings regarding prosocial behavior such as reciprocating benefactors and donating money and goods as well as fostering positive emotions such as sincerely forgiving others and feeling gratified after helping others tend to reduce discrimination against LGBT individuals.


Assuntos
Budismo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Budismo/psicologia , Emoções , Tailândia
17.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(7): 1113-1129, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611400

RESUMO

An astonishing cultural phenomenon is where, far away from or close to a city center, people in different societies localize cemeteries that function as both sites of memory of lost ones and symbols of mortality. Yet a psychological account of such differences in behavioral responses to symbols of mortality is lacking. Across five studies (N = 1,590), we tested a psychological model that religious afterlife beliefs decrease behavioral avoidance of symbols of mortality (BASM) by developing and validating a word-position task for quantifying BASM. We showed evidence that religious believers, including Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists, exhibited decreased BASM relative to nonbelievers. We also provide evidence for a causal relationship between religious afterlife beliefs and reduced BASM. Our findings provide new insight into the functional role of religious afterlife beliefs in modulating human avoidance behavior in response to symbols of mortality.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Budismo , Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Islamismo , Religião e Psicologia , Simbolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Budismo/psicologia , Cemitérios/estatística & dados numéricos , China/etnologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Hinduísmo/psicologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Autoimagem , População do Leste Asiático/psicologia
18.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 60(4): 637-650, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476189

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that worldviews can serve as a coping response to periods of difficulty or struggle, and worldviews can also change on account of difficulty. This paper investigates the impacts worldviews have on the nature and trajectory of meditation-related challenges, as well as how worldviews change or are impacted by such challenges. The context of meditation-related challenges provided by data from the Varieties of Contemplative Experience research project offers a unique insight into the dynamics between worldviews and meditation. Buddhist meditation practitioners and meditation experts interviewed for the study report how, for some, worldviews can serve as a risk factor impacting the onset and trajectory of meditation-related challenges, while, for others, worldviews (e.g., being given a worldview, applying a worldview, or changing a worldview) were reported as a remedy for mitigating challenging experiences and/or their associated distress. Buddhist meditation practitioners and teachers in the contemporary West are also situated in a cultural context in which religious and scientific worldviews and explanatory frameworks are dually available. Furthermore, the context of "Buddhist modernism" has also promoted a unique configuration in which the theory and practice of Buddhism is presented as being closely compatible with science. We identify and discuss the various impacts that religious and scientific worldviews have on meditation practitioners and meditation teachers who navigate periods of challenge associated with the practice.


Assuntos
Meditação , Humanos , Budismo , Adaptação Psicológica
19.
J Transcult Nurs ; 34(1): 106, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398982

Assuntos
Budismo , Humanos , Japão
20.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277351, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449445

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence has shown that the Five precepts significantly affect the relationship between attachment and resilience; however, little is known whether observing the Five Precepts would help reduce depressive symptoms among those who experience risks. The aim of this study was to examine the moderating role of the Five Precepts in the mediation model relationship among neuroticism, perceived stress, and depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional survey design and data were collected from the end of 2019 to September 2022 in Thailand. In all, 644 general participants completed questionnaires on the Neuroticism Inventory (NI), the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Depression Subscale, and the Five-Precept Subscale of the Inner Strength-based Inventory (SBI-PP). Mediation and moderation analyses with 5000 bootstrapping methods were used. RESULTS: Among all, 74.2% were female, and the mean age totalled 28.28 years (SD = 10.6). SBI-PP was shown to have a moderation effect on the relationship between NI, PSS and depressive symptoms. The moderating effect between SBI-PP and PSS was significant, whereas SBI-PP and NI was not. The index of moderated mediation from the Five Precepts was significant (b = -0.019 (95%CI -0.029, -0.009)). The moderated mediation model increased the percent variance explaining depressive symptoms to 47.6%, compared with 32.6% from the mediation model alone. CONCLUSION: Observing the Five Precepts offers evidence that it buffers the effect of perceived stress on depression. People with high levels of observing the Five Precepts are less likely to develop depressive symptoms. Implications as well as possible future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Budismo , Depressão , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Estudos Transversais , Estresse Psicológico
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