Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.289
Filtrar
1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 2): 130080, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354918

RESUMO

Animal testing has been the primary approach to assess the neutralization potency of antivenom for decades. However, the necessity to sacrifice large numbers of experimental animals during this process has recently raised substantial welfare concerns. Furthermore, the laborious and expensive nature of animal testing highlights the critical need to develop alternative in vitro assays. Here, we developed an antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique as an alternative approach to evaluate the neutralization potency of hyperimmunized equine plasma against B. multicinctus, a medically important venomous snake in Taiwan. Firstly, five major protein components of B. multicinctus venom, specifically, α-BTX, ß-BTX, γ-BTX, MTX, and NTL, were isolated. To rank their relative medical significance, a toxicity score system was utilized. Among the proteins tested, ß-BTX presenting the highest score was regarded as the major toxic component. Subsequently, antibody-detection ELISA was established based on the five major proteins and used to evaluate 55 hyperimmunized equine plasma samples with known neutralization potency. ELISA based on ß-BTX, the most lethal protein according to the toxicity score, exhibited the best sensitivity (75.6 %) and specificity (100 %) in discriminating between high-potency and low-potency plasma, supporting the hypothesis that highly toxic proteins offer better discriminatory power for potency evaluation. Additionally, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) competition process was implemented to eliminate the antibodies targeting toxicologically irrelevant domains. This optimization greatly enhanced the performance of our assay, resulting in sensitivity of 97.6 % and specificity of 92.9 %. The newly developed antibody-detection ELISA presents a promising alternative to in vivo assays to determine the neutralization potency of antisera against B. multicinctus during the process of antivenom production.


Assuntos
Bungarotoxinas , Bungarus , Animais , Cavalos , Bungarus/metabolismo , Antivenenos , Taiwan , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(23)2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38069271

RESUMO

SLURP-1 is a three-finger human protein targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The recombinant forms of SLURP-1 produced in E. coli differ in added fusion fragments and in activity. The closest in sequence to the naturally occurring SLURP-1 is the recombinant rSLURP-1, differing by only one additional N-terminal Met residue. sSLURP-1 can be prepared by peptide synthesis and its amino acid sequence is identical to that of the natural protein. In view of recent NMR analysis of the conformational mobility of rSLURP-1 and cryo-electron microscopy structures of complexes of α-bungarotoxin (a three-finger snake venom protein) with Torpedo californica and α7 nAChRs, we compared conformations of sSLURP-1 and rSLURP-1 by Raman spectroscopy and CD-controlled thermal denaturation, analyzed their competition with α-bungarotoxin for binding to the above-mentioned nAChRs, compared the respective receptor complexes with computer modeling and compared their inhibitory potency on the α9α10 nAChR. The CD revealed a higher thermostability of sSLURP-1; some differences between sSLURP-1 and rSLURP-1 were observed in the regions of disulfides and tyrosine residues by Raman spectroscopy, but in binding, computer modeling and electrophysiology, the proteins were similar. Thus, sSLURP-1 and rSLURP-1 with only one additional Met residue appear close in structure and functional characteristics, being appropriate for research on nAChRs.


Assuntos
Receptores Nicotínicos , Humanos , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Bungarotoxinas/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Proteínas/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(18)2023 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37762187

RESUMO

This review covers briefly the work carried out at our institute (IBCh), in many cases in collaboration with other Russian and foreign laboratories, for the last 50 years. It discusses the discoveries and studies of various animal toxins, including protein and peptide neurotoxins acting on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and on other ion channels. Among the achievements are the determination of the primary structures of the α-bungarotoxin-like three-finger toxins (TFTs), covalently bound dimeric TFTs, glycosylated cytotoxin, inhibitory cystine knot toxins (ICK), modular ICKs, and such giant molecules as latrotoxins and peptide neurotoxins from the snake, as well as from other animal venoms. For a number of toxins, spatial structures were determined, mostly by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Using this method in combination with molecular modeling, the molecular mechanisms of the interactions of several toxins with lipid membranes were established. In more detail are presented the results of recent years, among which are the discovery of α-bungarotoxin analogs distinguishing the two binding sites in the muscle-type nAChR, long-chain α-neurotoxins interacting with α9α10 nAChRs and with GABA-A receptors, and the strong antiviral effects of dimeric phospholipases A2. A summary of the toxins obtained from arthropod venoms includes only highly cited works describing the molecules' success story, which is associated with IBCh. In marine animals, versatile toxins in terms of structure and molecular targets were discovered, and careful work on α-conotoxins differing in specificity for individual nAChR subtypes gave information about their binding sites.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal , Toxinas Biológicas , Animais , Bungarotoxinas , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Citotoxinas
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 383: 177-191, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37392970

RESUMO

γ-bungarotoxin (γ-BGT) is an RGD motif-containing protein, derived from the venom of Bungarus multicinctus, leading to acute death in mice. These RGD motif-containing proteins from snake venom belonging to the disintegrin family can interfere with vascular endothelial homeostasis by directly binding cell surface integrins. Targeting integrins that generate vascular endothelial dysfunction may contribute to γ-BGT poisoning, however, the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated in detail. In this study, the results showed that γ-BGT played a role in -promoting the permeability of the vascular endothelial barrier. Depending on its selective binding to integrin α5 in vascular endothelium (VE), γ-BGT initiated downstream events, including focal adhesion kinase dephosphorylation and cytoskeleton remodeling, resulting in the intercellular junction interruption. Those alternations facilitated paracellular permeability of VE and barrier dysfunction. Proteomics profiling identified that as a downstream effector of the integrin α5 / FAK signaling pathway cyclin D1 partially mediated the cellular structural changes and barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, VE-released plasminogen activator urokinase and platelet-derived growth factor D could serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers for γ-BGT-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. Our results indicate the mechanisms through which γ-BGT as a novel disintegrin directly interacts with the VE, with consequences for barrier dysfunction.


Assuntos
Bungarotoxinas , Endotélio Vascular , Integrina alfa5 , Venenos de Serpentes , Animais , Camundongos , Bungarotoxinas/toxicidade , Desintegrinas/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Integrina alfa5/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos , Venenos de Serpentes/toxicidade
5.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 1344, 2022 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477694

RESUMO

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of α7 type (α7-nAChR) presented in the nervous and immune systems and epithelium is a promising therapeutic target for cognitive disfunctions and cancer treatment. Weak toxin from Naja kaouthia venom (WTX) is a non-conventional three-finger neurotoxin, targeting α7-nAChR with weak affinity. There are no data on interaction mode of non-conventional neurotoxins with nAChRs. Using α-bungarotoxin (classical three-finger neurotoxin with high affinity to α7-nAChR), we showed applicability of cryo-EM to study complexes of α7-nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain (α7-ECD) with toxins. Using cryo-EM structure of the α7-ECD/WTX complex, together with NMR data on membrane active site in the WTX molecule and mutagenesis data, we reconstruct the structure of α7-nAChR/WTX complex in the membrane environment. WTX interacts at the entrance to the orthosteric site located at the receptor intersubunit interface and simultaneously forms the contacts with the membrane surface. WTX interaction mode with α7-nAChR significantly differs from α-bungarotoxin's one, which does not contact the membrane. Our study reveals the important role of the membrane for interaction of non-conventional neurotoxins with the nicotinic receptors.


Assuntos
Receptores Nicotínicos , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Toxinas Três Dedos , Bungarotoxinas , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade
6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287966

RESUMO

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are prototypical ligand-gated ion channels, provide cholinergic signaling, and are modulated by various venom toxins and drugs in addition to neurotransmitters. Here, four APETx-like toxins, including two new toxins, named Hmg 1b-2 Metox and Hmg 1b-5, were isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis magnifica and characterized as novel nAChR ligands and acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) modulators. All peptides competed with radiolabeled α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo californica muscle-type and human α7 nAChRs. Hmg 1b-2 potentiated acetylcholine-elicited current in human α7 receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Moreover, the multigene family coding APETx-like peptides library from H. magnifica was described and in silico surface electrostatic potentials of novel peptides were analyzed. To explain the 100% identity of some peptide isoforms between H. magnifica and H. crispa, 18S rRNA, COI, and ITS analysis were performed. It has been shown that the sea anemones previously identified by morphology as H. crispa belong to the species H. magnifica.


Assuntos
Receptores Nicotínicos , Anêmonas-do-Mar , Toxinas Biológicas , Animais , Humanos , Anêmonas-do-Mar/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Bungarotoxinas , Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Ligantes , RNA Ribossômico 18S/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/química , Colinérgicos/metabolismo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(44): e2204242119, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279466

RESUMO

The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the constellation of symptoms that characterize COVID-19 are only incompletely understood. In an effort to fill these gaps, a "nicotinic hypothesis," which posits that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) act as additional severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptors, has recently been put forth. A key feature of the proposal (with potential clinical ramifications) is the suggested competition between the virus' spike protein and small-molecule cholinergic ligands for the receptor's orthosteric binding sites. This notion is reminiscent of the well-established role of the muscle AChR during rabies virus infection. To address this hypothesis directly, we performed equilibrium-type ligand-binding competition assays using the homomeric human α7-AChR (expressed on intact cells) as the receptor, and radio-labeled α-bungarotoxin (α-BgTx) as the orthosteric-site competing ligand. We tested different SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peptides, the S1 domain, and the entire S1-S2 ectodomain, and found that none of them appreciably outcompete [125I]-α-BgTx in a specific manner. Furthermore, patch-clamp recordings showed no clear effect of the S1 domain on α7-AChR-mediated currents. We conclude that the binding of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to the human α7-AChR's orthosteric sites-and thus, its competition with ACh, choline, or nicotine-is unlikely to be a relevant aspect of this complex disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Receptores Nicotínicos , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Bungarotoxinas , Nicotina , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7 , Ligantes , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Colinérgicos , Colina
8.
Neurosci Lett ; 790: 136898, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195298

RESUMO

Noopept (NP) is a proline-containing dipeptide with nootropic and neuroprotective properties. We have previously shown that NP significantly increased the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells mediated by the activation of inhibitory interneurons in stratum radiatum. The cholinergic system plays an important role in the performance of cognitive functions, furthermore multiple behavioral and clinical facts link NP with the cholinergic system. The present study was undertaken to reveal the possible interaction of NP with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Currents were recorded from rat hippocampal neurons using the whole-cell, patch-clamp technique. NP (5 µM) increased the action potential firing frequency recorded from GABAergic interneurons in the stratum radiatum (SR) of CA1 region. This effect was almost completely abolished by the application of the α7 nAChR-selective antagonists α-bungarotoxin (α-BGT; 6 nM) and methyllycaconitine (MLA; 20 nM). The increase in the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs in CA1 pyramidal cells induced by NP was also eliminated by α7 nAChRs antagonists. These results imply the involvement of α7 nAChRs in the modulation of hippocampal neuronal activity caused by NP and indicate that a7 nAChRs are an important site of action of NP.


Assuntos
Nootrópicos , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Ratos , Bungarotoxinas , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Nootrópicos/farmacologia , Prolina/farmacologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Região CA1 Hipocampal/efeitos dos fármacos , Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142349

RESUMO

The cell-surface topography and density of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a key functional role in the synapse. Here we employ in parallel two labeling and two super-resolution microscopy strategies to characterize the distribution of this receptor at the plasma membrane of the mammalian clonal cell line CHO-K1/A5. Cells were interrogated with two targeted techniques (confocal microscopy and stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy) and single-molecule nanoscopy (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, STORM) using the same fluorophore, Alexa Fluor 647, tagged onto either α-bungarotoxin (BTX) or the monoclonal antibody mAb35. Analysis of the topography of nanometer-sized aggregates ("nanoclusters") was carried out using STORMGraph, a quantitative clustering analysis for single-molecule localization microscopy based on graph theory and community detection, and ASTRICS, an inter-cluster similarity algorithm based on computational geometry. Antibody-induced crosslinking of receptors resulted in nanoclusters with a larger number of receptor molecules and higher densities than those observed in BTX-labeled samples. STORM and STED provided complementary information, STED rendering a direct map of the mesoscale nAChR distribution at distances ~10-times larger than the nanocluster centroid distances measured in STORM samples. By applying photon threshold filtering analysis, we show that it is also possible to detect the mesoscale organization in STORM images.


Assuntos
Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Bungarotoxinas , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4543, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927270

RESUMO

Bites by elapid snakes (e.g. cobras) can result in life-threatening paralysis caused by venom neurotoxins blocking neuromuscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Here, we determine the cryo-EM structure of the muscle-type Torpedo receptor in complex with ScNtx, a recombinant short-chain α-neurotoxin. ScNtx is pinched between loop C on the principal subunit and a unique hairpin in loop F on the complementary subunit, thereby blocking access to the neurotransmitter binding site. ScNtx adopts a binding mode that is tilted toward the complementary subunit, forming a wider network of interactions than those seen in the long-chain α-Bungarotoxin complex. Certain mutations in ScNtx at the toxin-receptor interface eliminate inhibition of neuronal α7 nAChRs, but not of human muscle-type receptors. These observations explain why ScNtx binds more tightly to muscle-type receptors than neuronal receptors. Together, these data offer a framework for understanding subtype-specific actions of short-chain α-neurotoxins and inspire strategies for design of new snake antivenoms.


Assuntos
Neurotoxinas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bungarotoxinas/metabolismo , Elapidae , Humanos , Músculos/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3887072, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35837378

RESUMO

Background: Bungarus multicinctus is one of the top ten venomous snakes in China. Its venom is mainly neurotoxin-based. Novel antivenom drugs need to be further researched and developed. Objective: This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of Cynanchum paniculatum in treating Bungarus multicinctus bites based on network pharmacology. Material and methods. The potential active ingredients of Cynanchum paniculatum were screened and their SDF structures were obtained using the PubChem database and imported into the SwissTargetPrediction database, and targets were obtained for the antitoxin effects of Cynanchum paniculatum in the treatment of Bungarus multicinctus bites. The Cynanchum paniculatum-active compound-potential target network and protein-protein interaction network were constructed by using Cytoscape software, and then biological function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed using the DAVID. Results: Seven potential active components (cynapanoside C, cynatratoside B, tomentolide A, sitosterol, sarcostin, tomentogenin, and paeonol) and 286 drug targets were obtained, including 30 key targets for the treatment of bungarotoxin toxicity. The active components mainly acted on PIK3CA, MAPK1, MAP2K1, JAK2, FYN, ACHE, CHRNA7, CHRNA4, and CHRNB2, and they antagonized the inhibitory effect of bungarotoxin on the nervous system through cholinergic synapses and the neurotrophin signaling pathway. Conclusions: Cynanchum paniculatum exerts a therapeutic effect on Bungarus multicinctus bites through multiple active components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways. The findings provide a theoretical basis for the extraction of active components of Cynanchum paniculatum and for related antivenom experiments.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Cynanchum , Animais , Antivenenos , Bungarotoxinas/química , Bungarotoxinas/metabolismo , Bungarus/metabolismo , Cynanchum/química , Cynanchum/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas
12.
J Vis Exp ; (183)2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660733

RESUMO

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a complex structure serving for the signal communication from the motor neuron to the skeletal muscle and consists of three essential histological components: the pre-synaptic motor axon terminals, post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AchRs), and peri-synaptic Schwann cells (PSCs). In order to demonstrate the morphological characteristics of NMJ, the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle was selected as the target-tissue and examined by using multiple fluorescent staining with various kinds of biomarkers, including neurofilament 200 (NF200) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) for the motor nerve fibers and their pre-synaptic terminals, alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX) for the post-synaptic nicotinic AchRs, and S100 for the PSCs. In this study, staining was performed in two groups: in the first group, samples were stained with NF200, VAChT, and α-BTX, and in the second group, samples were stained with NF200, α-BTX, and S100. It was shown that both protocols can effectively demonstrate the detailed structure of NMJ. Using the confocal microscope, morphological characteristics of the pre-synaptic terminals, post-synaptic receptors, and PSC were seen, and their Z-stacks images were reconstructed in a three-dimensional pattern to further analyze the spatial correlation among the different labeling. From the perspective of methodology, these protocols provide a valuable reference for investigating the morphological characteristics of NMJ under physiological conditions, which may also be suitable to evaluate the pathological alteration of NMJ, such as peripheral nerve injury and regeneration.


Assuntos
Junção Neuromuscular , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Bungarotoxinas , Neurônios Motores , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Ratos , Células de Schwann
13.
Cells ; 11(11)2022 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681486

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder characterized by intestinal dysmotility. Changes in intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) can lead to alterations in neuro-muscular functions in the gut. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 recognize intestinal bacteria and are involved in the motor response induced by gastrointestinal (GI) neurotransmitters. Acetylcholine (ACh) is a well-known neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of GI motility. This study aimed to evaluate the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in the intestinal motor-response induced by ACh in the mouse ileum, as well as the expression and function of the muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors. Muscle contractility studies showed that the contractions induced by ACh were significantly lower in TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- with respect to WT mice. In WT mice, the contractions induced by ACh were reduced in the presence of AF-DX AF-DX 116 (a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) M2 antagonist), 4-DAMP (a mAChR M3 antagonist), mecamylamine (a nicotinic AChR receptor (nAChR) α3ß4 antagonist) and α-bungarotoxin (a nAChR α7 antagonist). In TLR2-/- mice, the contractions induced by ACh were increased by AF-DX 116 and mecamylamine. In TLR4-/- mice, the contractions induced by ACh were reduced by α-bungarotoxin and 4-DAMP. The mRNA and protein expressions of M3 and α3 receptors were diminished in the ileum from TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- with respect to WT mice. However, the levels of mRNA and protein of ß4 were diminished only in TLR4-/- but not in TLR2-/- mice. In conclusion, our results show that TLR2 and TLR4 modulates the motor responses to ACh in the mouse ileum. TLR2 acts on muscarinic M2 and M3 and nicotinic α3ß4 ACh receptors, while TLR4 acts on muscarinic M3 and nicotinic α3ß4 and α7 ACh receptors.


Assuntos
Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Íleo , Receptores Muscarínicos , Receptores Nicotínicos , Receptor 2 Toll-Like , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Bungarotoxinas , Colinérgicos , Íleo/fisiologia , Mecamilamina , Camundongos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Muscarínicos/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717758

RESUMO

The Red-headed Krait (Bungarus flaviceps) is a medically important venomous snake species in Southeast Asia, while there is no specific antivenom available for its envenoming. This study investigated the venom composition through a decomplexation proteomic approach, and examined the immunoreactivity as well as cross-neutralization efficacy of two hetero-specific krait antivenoms, Bungarus candidus Monovalent Antivenom (BcMAV) and Bungarus fasciatus Monovalent Antivenom (BfMAV), against the venom of B. flaviceps from Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 43 non-redundant proteoforms belonging to 10 toxin families were identified in the venom proteome, which is dominated by phospholipases A2 including beta-bungarotoxin lethal subunit (56.20 % of total venom proteins), Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors (19.40 %), metalloproteinases (12.85 %) and three-finger toxins (7.73 %). The proteome varied in quantitative aspect from the earlier reported Indonesian (Sumatran) sample, suggesting geographical venom variation. BcMAV and BfMAV were immunoreactive toward the B. flaviceps venom, with BcMAV being more efficacious in immunological binding. Both antivenoms cross-neutralized the venom lethality with varying efficacy, where BcMAV was more potent than BfMAV by ~13 times (normalized potency: 38.04 mg/g vs. 2.73 mg/g, defined as the venom amount completely neutralized by one-gram antivenom protein), supporting the potential utility of BcMAV for para-specific neutralization against B. flaviceps venom.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Bungarus , Animais , Antivenenos/química , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Bungarotoxinas/metabolismo , Bungarotoxinas/toxicidade , Bungarus/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Peçonhas/metabolismo
15.
Elife ; 112022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575460

RESUMO

Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that represent a target for insecticides. Peptide neurotoxins are known to block nAChRs by binding to their target subunits, however, a better understanding of this mechanism is needed for effective insecticide design. To facilitate the analysis of nAChRs we used a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to generate null alleles for all ten nAChR subunit genes in a common genetic background. We studied interactions of nAChR subunits with peptide neurotoxins by larval injections and styrene maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs) pull-down assays. For the null alleles, we determined the effects of α-Bungarotoxin (α-Btx) and ω-Hexatoxin-Hv1a (Hv1a) administration, identifying potential receptor subunits implicated in the binding of these toxins. We employed pull-down assays to confirm α-Btx interactions with the Drosophila α5 (Dα5), Dα6, Dα7 subunits. Finally, we report the localisation of fluorescent tagged endogenous Dα6 during Drosophila CNS development. Taken together, this study elucidates native Drosophila nAChR subunit interactions with insecticidal peptide toxins and provides a resource for the in vivo analysis of insect nAChRs.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Bungarotoxinas/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo
16.
J Insect Physiol ; 139: 104385, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315336

RESUMO

Dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, are a class of insect neurosecretory cells, which are involved in the control of several functions, such as excretion and reproduction, or the release of neurohormones. Previous studies demonstrated that they express different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, in particular α-bungarotoxin-insensitive receptors, with nAChR1 and nAChR2 subtypes. Here, we demonstrated that pulse application of 1 mM nicotine (300 ms pulse duration) induced inward currents which were reduced under bath application of 15 µM calmidazolium, a calmodulin inhibitor. Bath application of 0.5 µM α-bungarotoxin had no effect on calmidazolium action, suggesting that it could have an indirect effect through α-bungarotoxin-insensitive receptors. Indeed, nicotine-evoked currents were reduced by 10 µM d-tubocurarine, and completely blocked by 5 µM mecamylamine, which affected nAChR1 and nAChR2 subtypes, respectively. Our results demonstrated that nAChR2 subtypes are involved in the indirect effect of calmidazolium. Moreover, we found that this calmidazolium effect was associated to a strong reduction in intracellular calcium levels after pulse application of 1 mM nicotine. Thus, compared to previous studies on mammalian cells, calmidazolium did not cause an increase in intracellular calcium levels in DUM neurons, suggesting that different calcium mechanisms are involved in the calmidazolium effect.


Assuntos
Baratas , Nicotina , Animais , Bungarotoxinas/farmacologia , Cálcio , Imidazóis , Insetos , Mamíferos , Nicotina/farmacologia
17.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(2)2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202107

RESUMO

α-bungarotoxin is a large, 74 amino acid toxin containing five disulphide bridges, initially identified in the venom of Bungarus multicinctus snake. Like most large toxins, chemical synthesis of α-bungarotoxin is challenging, explaining why all previous reports use purified or recombinant α-bungarotoxin. However, only chemical synthesis allows easy insertion of non-natural amino acids or new chemical functionalities. Herein, we describe a procedure for the chemical synthesis of a fluorescent-tagged α-bungarotoxin. The full-length peptide was designed to include an alkyne function at the amino-terminus through the addition of a pentynoic acid linker. Chemical synthesis of α-bungarotoxin requires hydrazide-based coupling of three peptide fragments in successive steps. After completion of the oxidative folding, an azide-modified Cy5 fluorophore was coupled by click chemistry onto the toxin. Next, we determined the efficacy of the fluorescent-tagged α-bungarotoxin to block acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated currents in response to muscle nicotinic receptor activation in TE671 cells. Using automated patch-clamp recordings, we demonstrate that fluorescent synthetic α-bungarotoxin has the expected nanomolar affinity for the nicotinic receptor. The blocking effect of fluorescent α-bungarotoxin could be displaced by incubation with a 20-mer peptide mimicking the α-bungarotoxin binding site. In addition, TE671 cells could be labelled with fluorescent toxin, as witnessed by confocal microscopy, and this labelling was partially displaced by the 20-mer competitive peptide. We thus demonstrate that synthetic fluorescent-tagged α-bungarotoxin preserves excellent properties for binding onto muscle nicotinic receptors.


Assuntos
Bungarotoxinas/síntese química , Bungarotoxinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Acetilcolina , Linhagem Celular , Química Click , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
19.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106289, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929179

RESUMO

The venoms of Asiatic kraits (Bungarus spp.) contain various neurotoxic phospholipases A2 (beta-bungarotoxins) which can irreversibly damage motor nerve terminals, resulting in rapidly fatal suffocation by respiratory muscle paralysis or oral airway obstruction. Hence, there is a need of adjunct therapy at the pre-hospital stage to prevent or delay the onset of neurotoxicity, so that antivenom can be given within golden hour before the envenoming becomes antivenom-resistant. This study investigated the efficacy of varespladib, a small molecule PLA2 (phospholipase A2) inhibitor, given as a bolus subcutaneously upon the onset of krait venom-induced paralysis in a mouse experimental envenoming and rescue model, where the severity of neurotoxicity was scored and the survival rate was monitored over 24 h. Varespladib at 10 mg/kg effectively alleviated the neurotoxicity of Bungarus sindanus, Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms, and rescued all mice from venom-induced lethality (100% survival). Varespladib at this dose, however, only partially reduced the neurotoxicity of Bungarus caeruleus and Bungarus candidus venoms, while all challenged mice were dead by 23 h (B. caeruleus) and 12 h (B. candidus). An increased dose of varespladib at 20 mg/kg markedly abated the venom neurotoxicity past 8 h of envenoming, and protected the mice from venom lethality (B. caeruleus: 75% survival; B. candidus: 100% survival). The finding is consistent with previous studies which demonstrated varespladib's inhibitory effect against some snake venoms. The findings suggest varespladib could be repurposed as an emergency drug for prevention or rescue (if given early enough) from the acute, neurotoxic envenoming syndromes caused by various major krait species in Asia.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Acetatos , Animais , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Bungarotoxinas/toxicidade , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade , Indóis , Cetoácidos , Camundongos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943798

RESUMO

The perturbation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors is thought to underlie many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's and schizophrenia. We previously identified that the tumor suppressor gene, MEN1, regulates both the expression and synaptic targeting of α7 nAChRs in the mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro. Here we sought to determine whether the α7 nAChRs gene expression reciprocally regulates the expression of menin, the protein encoded by the MEN1 gene, and if this interplay impacts learning and memory. We demonstrate here that α7 nAChRs knockdown (KD) both in in vitro and in vivo, initially upregulated and then subsequently downregulated menin expression. Exogenous expression of menin using an AAV transduction approach rescued α7 nAChRs KD mediated functional and behavioral deficits specifically in hippocampal (CA1) neurons. These effects involved the modulation of the α7 nAChR subunit expression and functional clustering at the synaptic sites. Our data thus demonstrates a novel and important interplay between the MEN1 gene and the α7 nAChRs in regulating hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/metabolismo , Memória , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/metabolismo , Animais , Bungarotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurogênese , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Sinapses/metabolismo , Sinaptotagmina I/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...