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1.
Anal Chem ; 96(26): 10791-10799, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38914924

RESUMO

The analysis and detection of snake venom toxins are a matter of great importance in clinical diagnosis for fast treatment and the discovery of new pharmaceutical products. Current detection methods have high associated costs and require the use of sophisticated bioreceptors, which in some cases are difficult to obtain. Herein, we report the synthesis of template-based molecularly imprinted micromotors for dynamic detection of α-bungarotoxin as a model toxin present in the venom of many-banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus). The specific recognition sites are built-in in the micromotors by incubation of the membrane template with the target toxin, followed by a controlled electrodeposition of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) polymeric layer, a magnetic Ni layer to promote magnetic guidance and facilitate washing steps, and a Pt layer for autonomous propulsion in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enhanced fluid mixing and autonomous propulsion increase the likelihood of interactions with the target analyte as compared with static counterparts, retaining the tetramethylrhodamine-labeled α-bungarotoxin on the micromotor surface with extremely fast dynamic sensor response (after just 20 s navigation) in only 3 µL of water, urine, or serum samples. The sensitivity achieved meets the clinically relevant concentration postsnakebite (from 0.1 to 100 µg/mL), illustrating the feasibility of the approach for practical applications. The selectivity of the protocol is very high, as illustrated by the absence of fluorescence in the micromotor surface in the presence of α-cobratoxin as a representative toxin with a size and structure similar to those of α-bungarotoxin. Recoveries higher than 95% are obtained in the analysis of urine- and serum-fortified samples. The new strategy holds considerable promise for fast, inexpensive, and even onsite detection of several toxins using multiple molecularly imprinted micromotors with tailored recognition abilities.


Assuntos
Bungarotoxinas , Bungarotoxinas/química , Bungarotoxinas/urina , Animais , Polímeros/química , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Bungarus , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Impressão Molecular , Ácidos Sulfônicos
2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 111(1): 205-215, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714189

RESUMO

In Taiwan, six medically important venomous snakes, Trimeresurus stejnegeri stejnegeri, Protobothrops mucrosquamatus, Deinagkistrodon acutus, Daboia siamensis, Naja atra, and Bungarus multicinctus, are found. However, comprehensive research on the complications and associated healthcare costs of snakebite envenomation (SBE) is lacking. We retrospectively analyzed pertinent information from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database dated January 2002 to December 2014. We investigated the risk factors for complications and their impact on healthcare costs. Among the 12,542 patients with SBE, those from N. atra or B. multicinctus were more likely to experience wound infections and neurological complications than were those from T. s. stejnegeri or P. mucrosquamatus. In addition, being female, being elderly, and having a Charlson Comorbidity Index equal to or greater than 3 points were associated with an increased likelihood of wound infections and psychological complications. The annual national economic burden averaged US$1,083,624, with an average healthcare cost of US$1,129 per SBE. Snakebite envenomations from N. atra or B. multicinctus, as well as various complications, resulted in significantly higher costs. It is crucial to comprehend the risk factors for complications and their role in increasing expenses to provide insight for tailored healthcare interventions, mitigate complications, and reduce the economic burdens associated with SBEs.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Mordeduras de Serpentes/economia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Humanos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Animais , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Risco , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Bungarus , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivenenos/economia , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Trimeresurus , Infecção dos Ferimentos/economia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 270(Pt 2): 132240, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744360

RESUMO

Current treatment of snakebite relies on immunoglobulin-rich antivenoms. However, production of these antivenoms is complicated and costly. Aptamers - single-stranded DNAs or RNAs with specific folding structures that bind to specific target molecules - represent excellent alternatives or complements to antibody-based therapeutics. However, no studies have systematically assessed the feasibility of using aptamers to mitigate venom-induced toxicity in vivo. ß-bungarotoxin is the predominant protein responsible for the toxicity of the venom of Bungarus multicinctus, a prominent venomous snake inhabiting Taiwan. In this study, we reported the screening and optimization of a DNA aptamer against ß-bungarotoxin and tested its utility in a mouse model. After 14 rounds of directed evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment, an aptamer, called BB3, displaying remarkable binding affinity and specificity for ß-bungarotoxin was obtained. Following structural prediction and point-modification experiments, BB3 underwent truncation and was modified with 2'-O-methylation and a 3'-inverted dT. This optimized aptamer showed sustained, high-affinity binding for ß-bungarotoxin and exhibited remarkable nuclease resistance in plasma. Importantly, administration of this optimized aptamer extended the survival time of mice treated with a lethal dose of ß-bungarotoxin. Collectively, our data provide a compelling illustration of the potential of aptamers as promising candidates for development of recombinant antivenom therapies.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Bungarotoxinas , Animais , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/farmacologia , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Bungarotoxinas/farmacologia , Bungarotoxinas/química , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Bungarus , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Técnica de Seleção de Aptâmeros
5.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(3)2024 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38535778

RESUMO

It is with interest that I read the case report by Senthilkumaran et al [...].


Assuntos
Neurite Óptica , Toxinas Biológicas , Humanos , Animais , Naja naja , Bungarus
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 2): 130080, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354918

RESUMO

Animal testing has been the primary approach to assess the neutralization potency of antivenom for decades. However, the necessity to sacrifice large numbers of experimental animals during this process has recently raised substantial welfare concerns. Furthermore, the laborious and expensive nature of animal testing highlights the critical need to develop alternative in vitro assays. Here, we developed an antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique as an alternative approach to evaluate the neutralization potency of hyperimmunized equine plasma against B. multicinctus, a medically important venomous snake in Taiwan. Firstly, five major protein components of B. multicinctus venom, specifically, α-BTX, ß-BTX, γ-BTX, MTX, and NTL, were isolated. To rank their relative medical significance, a toxicity score system was utilized. Among the proteins tested, ß-BTX presenting the highest score was regarded as the major toxic component. Subsequently, antibody-detection ELISA was established based on the five major proteins and used to evaluate 55 hyperimmunized equine plasma samples with known neutralization potency. ELISA based on ß-BTX, the most lethal protein according to the toxicity score, exhibited the best sensitivity (75.6 %) and specificity (100 %) in discriminating between high-potency and low-potency plasma, supporting the hypothesis that highly toxic proteins offer better discriminatory power for potency evaluation. Additionally, a phospholipase A2 (PLA2) competition process was implemented to eliminate the antibodies targeting toxicologically irrelevant domains. This optimization greatly enhanced the performance of our assay, resulting in sensitivity of 97.6 % and specificity of 92.9 %. The newly developed antibody-detection ELISA presents a promising alternative to in vivo assays to determine the neutralization potency of antisera against B. multicinctus during the process of antivenom production.


Assuntos
Bungarotoxinas , Bungarus , Animais , Cavalos , Bungarus/metabolismo , Bungarus multicinctus , Antivenenos , Taiwan , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011825, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190386

RESUMO

Snake envenoming is a major, but neglected, tropical disease. Among venomous snakes, those inducing neurotoxicity such as kraits (Bungarus genus) cause a potentially lethal peripheral neuroparalysis with respiratory deficit in a large number of people each year. In order to prevent the development of a deadly respiratory paralysis, hospitalization with pulmonary ventilation and use of antivenoms are the primary therapies currently employed. However, hospitals are frequently out of reach for envenomated patients and there is a general consensus that additional, non-expensive treatments, deliverable even long after the snake bite, are needed. Traumatic or toxic degenerations of peripheral motor neurons cause a neuroparalysis that activates a pro-regenerative intercellular signaling program taking place at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We recently reported that the intercellular signaling axis melatonin-melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) plays a major role in the recovery of function of the NMJs after degeneration of motor axon terminals caused by massive Ca2+ influx. Here we show that the small chemical MT1 agonists: Ramelteon and Agomelatine, already licensed for the treatment of insomnia and depression, respectively, are strong promoters of the neuroregeneration after paralysis induced by krait venoms in mice, which is also Ca2+ mediated. The venom from a Bungarus species representative of the large class of neurotoxic snakes (including taipans, coral snakes, some Alpine vipers in addition to other kraits) was chosen. The functional recovery of the NMJ was demonstrated using electrophysiological, imaging and lung ventilation detection methods. According to the present results, we propose that Ramelteon and Agomelatine should be tested in human patients bitten by neurotoxic snakes acting presynaptically to promote their recovery of health. Noticeably, these drugs are commercially available, safe, non-expensive, have a long bench life and can be administered long after a snakebite even in places far away from health facilities.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Indenos , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/complicações , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Venenos de Serpentes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Cálcio , Serpentes , Bungarus
9.
Toxicon ; 239: 107617, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219916

RESUMO

Bungarus fasciatus also referred to as the Banded krait is a snake which possesses venom and belongs to the Elapidae family. It is widely distributed across the Indian subcontinent and South East Asian countries and is responsible for numerous snakebites in the population. B. fasciatus possesses a neurotoxic venom and envenomation by the snake results in significant morbidity and occasional morbidity in the victim if not treated appropriately. In this study, the efficacy of Indian polyvalent antivenom (Premium Serums polyvalent antivenom) was evaluated against the venom of B. fasciatus from Guwahati, Assam (India) employing the Third-generation antivenomics technique followed by identification of venom proteins from three poorly immunodepleted peaks (P5, P6 and P7) using LC-MS/MS analysis. Seven proteins were identified from the three peaks and all these venom proteins belonged to the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily. The identified PLA2 proteins were corroborated by the in vitro enzymatic activities (PLA2 and Anticoagulant activity) exhibited by the three peaks and previous reports of pathological manifestation in the envenomated victims. Neutralization of enzymatic activities by Premium Serums polyvalent antivenom was also assessed in vitro for crude venom, P5, P6 and P7 which revealed moderate to poor inhibition. Inclusion of venom proteins/peptides, which are non-immunodepleted or poorly immunodepleted, into the immunization mixture of venom used for antivenom production may help in enhancing the efficacy of the polyvalent antivenom.


Assuntos
Antivenenos , Elapidae , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Serpentes Peçonhentas , Animais , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Venenos Elapídicos , Índia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Bungarus/metabolismo
10.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(1)2024 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38276532

RESUMO

Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) envenoming is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in many Southeast Asian countries. If intubation and specific antivenom administration are delayed, the most significant life-threatening outcome may be the inhibition of neuromuscular transmission and subsequent respiratory failure. It is recommended that krait-envenomed victims without indications of neurotoxicity, e.g., skeletal muscle weakness or ptosis, immediately receive 10 vials of antivenom. However, the administration of excess antivenom may lead to hypersensitivity or serum sickness. Therefore, monitoring venom concentrations in patients could be used as an indicator for snake antivenom treatment. In this study, we aimed to develop a screen-printed gold electrode (SPGE) biosensor to detect B. candidus venom in experimentally envenomed rats. The gold electrodes were coated with monovalent Malayan krait IgG antivenom and used as venom detection biosensors. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) measurements were performed to detect the electrical characterization between B. candidus venom and monovalent IgG antivenom in the biosensor. The EIS measurements showed increases in charge transfer resistance (Rct) following IgG immobilization and incubation with B. candidus venom solution (0.1-0.4 mg/mL); thus, the antibody was immobilized on the electrode surface and venom was successfully detected. The lowest current signal was detected by SWV measurement in rat plasma collected 30 min following B. candidus experimental envenoming, indicating the highest level of venom concentration in blood circulation (4.3 ± 0.7 µg/mL). The present study demonstrates the ability of the SPGE biosensor to detect B. candidus venom in plasma from experimentally envenomed rats. The technology obtained in this work may be developed as a detection tool for use along with the standard treatment of Malayan krait envenoming.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Elapidae , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Serpentes Peçonhentas , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Peçonhas , Imunoglobulina G , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Venenos Elapídicos
11.
Arch Toxicol ; 98(2): 375-393, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38153416

RESUMO

Snakebite in India is a severe problem as it causes a mortality rate of 58,000 and a disability rate of 140,000 every year which is the highest among any other country. Antivenom is the primary therapy for snakebite, and its manufacturing techniques have essentially stayed unaltered for over a century. Indian polyvalent antivenom, a scientifically validated medicine for treating the toxic effects of snakebites, is available against the venom of the so-called Big Four snakes namely Spectacled cobra (Naja naja), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus), Russell's viper (Daboia russelli) and the Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), responsible for majority of the deaths in India. India hosts many other species of snakes, including cobras, kraits, saw-scaled vipers, sea snakes, and pit vipers, responsible for clinically severe envenomation. Neutralization strategy has been applied to access the efficacy of antivenoms, crucial for reducing snake bite deaths and disabilities. This review aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the neutralization efficiency of the Polyvalent Antivenom (PAV) and focus on the factors that may contribute to the poor recognition of the antivenom towards the venom toxins. Reports focusing on the investigation of antivenom efficacy were searched and collected from several databases. Preclinical studies that reported the neutralization efficacy of the commercial antivenom against the medically important snakes of India were included. The articles were screened based on the inclusion criteria and 8 studies were shortlisted for meta-analysis. Pooled proportion was calculated for the antivenom efficacy reported by the studies and was found to be statistically significant with a 95% confidence interval. The heterogenicity in the venom toxicity and neutralization potency of the antivenom was evident in the overall estimate (proportion) and individual data. We provide comprehensive evidence on antivenom efficacy against medically important snakes from various parts of India which may aid in identifying the gaps in snake envenomation therapy and the need for novel potentially improved treatment of snakebites.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Daboia , Echis , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Serpentes Peçonhentas , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Relevância Clínica
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(22): 6234-6248, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114230

RESUMO

Bungarus Parvus, a precious animal Chinese medicinal material used in clinical practice, is believed to be first recorded in Ying Pian Xin Can published in 1936. This study was carried out to analyze the names, geographical distribution, morphological characteristics, ecological habits, poisonousness, and medicinal parts by consulting ancient Chinese medical books and local chronicles, Chinese Pharmacopeia, different processing standards of trditional Chinese medicine(TCM) decoction pieces, and modern literatures. The results showed that the earliest medicinal record of Bungarus Parvus was traced to 1894. In 1930, this medicinal material was used in the formulation of Annao Pills. The original animal, Bungarus multicinctus, was recorded by the name of "Bojijia" in 1521. The morphological characteristics, ecological habits, and poisonousness of the original animal are the same in ancient and modern records. The geographical distribution is similar between the ancient records and modern documents such as China Medicinal Animal Fauna. The dried body of young B. multicinctus is used as Bungarus Parvus, which lack detailed references. As a matter of fact, it is still inconclusive whether there are differences between young snakes and adult snakes in terms of active ingredients, pharmacological effects, and clinical applications. This study clarified the medicinal history and present situation of Bungarus Parvus. On the basis of the results, it is suggested that systematic comparison on young and adult B. multicinctus should be carried out to provide references for revising the medicinal parts of B. multicinctus.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Serpentes , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 242(Pt 1): 124771, 2023 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37169043

RESUMO

Snake envenomation is a life-threatening disease caused by the injection of venom toxins from the venomous snake bite. Snakebite is often defined as the occupational or domestic hazard mostly affecting the rural population. India experiences a high number of envenoming cases and fatality due to the nation's diversity in inhabiting venomous snakes. The Indian Big Four snakes namely Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), spectacled cobra (Naja naja), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) are responsible for majority of the snake envenoming cases and death. The demographic characteristics including occupation, stringent snake habitat management, poor healthcare facilities and ignorance of the rural victims are the primary influencers of high mortality. Biogeographic venom variation greatly influences the clinical pathologies of snake envenomation. The current antivenoms against the Big Four snakes are found to be less immunogenic against the venom toxins emphasizing the necessity of alternative approaches for antivenom generation. This review summarizes the burden of snake envenomation in India by the Big Four snakes including the geographic distribution of snake species and biogeographic venom variation. We have provided comprehensive information on snake venom proteomics that has aided the better understanding of venom induced pathological features, summarized the impact of current polyvalent antivenom therapy highlighting the need for potential antivenom treatment for the effective management of snakebites.


Assuntos
Daboia , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Viperidae , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/epidemiologia , Venenos de Serpentes/uso terapêutico , Bungarus , Venenos de Víboras/uso terapêutico
15.
Toxicon ; 230: 107175, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37257518

RESUMO

Assam, a Northeastern State of India, is inhabited by several venomous snake species causing substantial morbidity and mortality. The data on the epidemiology of snakebites and their management is underreported in this region. Hence, a secondary health-based retrospective study was carried out at Demow Model Hospital, Sivasagar, Assam, to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of snakebite cases reported in this rural hospital and their management. Snakebites occurring between April 2018 to August 2022 were reviewed based on socio-demographic details of the patient, clinical symptoms, and treatment using a standard questionnaire. Out of the 1011 registered snakebite cases, 139 patients (13.7%) counted for venomous bites, among which 92 patients (66.19%) accounted for viper bites (green pit viper and Salazar's pit viper), and 30 patients (21.5%) were bitten by elapid snakes (Indian monocled Cobra, banded krait, and greater/lesser black krait). A maximum number of snakebite cases (80.5%) were reported from the interior rural villages and documented from July to September (51.3%). Elapid snake envenomed patients, except one, were successfully treated with commercial antivenom, neostigmine, and glycopyrrolate. Because commercial polyvalent antivenom against "Big Four" venomous snakes of India showed poor neutralization of pit-vipers envenomation; therefore, pit-viper bite patients were treated with repurposed drugs magnesium sulfate and glycerin compression dressing. Adverse serum reactions were reported only in 3 (11.1%) cases. The preventive measures and facilities adopted at the Demow Model Hospital significantly reduce snakebite death and morbidity; therefore, they can be s practised across various states in India as a prototype.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Bungarus , Elapidae , Hospitais , Índia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico
16.
J Proteome Res ; 22(6): 1734-1746, 2023 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37010854

RESUMO

In this study, we present high-throughput (HT) venomics, a novel analytical strategy capable of performing a full proteomic analysis of a snake venom within 3 days. This methodology comprises a combination of RP-HPLC-nanofractionation analytics, mass spectrometry analysis, automated in-solution tryptic digestion, and high-throughput proteomics. In-house written scripts were developed to process all the obtained proteomics data by first compiling all Mascot search results for a single venom into a single Excel sheet. Then, a second script plots each of the identified toxins in so-called Protein Score Chromatograms (PSCs). For this, for each toxin, identified protein scores are plotted on the y-axis versus retention times of adjacent series of wells in which a toxin was fractionated on the x-axis. These PSCs allow correlation with parallel acquired intact toxin MS data. This same script integrates the PSC peaks from these chromatograms for semiquantitation purposes. This new HT venomics strategy was performed on venoms from diverse medically important biting species; Calloselasma rhodostoma, Echis ocellatus, Naja pallida, Bothrops asper, Bungarus multicinctus, Crotalus atrox, Daboia russelii, Naja naja, Naja nigricollis, Naja mossambica, and Ophiophagus hannah. Our data suggest that high-throughput venomics represents a valuable new analytical tool for increasing the throughput by which we can define venom variation and should greatly aid in the future development of new snakebite treatments by defining toxin composition.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Viperidae , Animais , Proteômica/métodos , Venenos de Serpentes/química , Bungarus/metabolismo , Viperidae/metabolismo , Venenos Elapídicos/química
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 236: 123727, 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863668

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming is a medical emergency requiring urgent and specific treatment. Unfortunately, snakebite diagnostics are scarce, time-consuming and lacking specificity. Hence, this study aimed to develop a simple, quick and specific snakebite diagnostic assay using animal antibodies. Anti-venom horse immunoglobulin G (IgG) and chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) were produced against the venoms of four major medically important snake species in Southeast Asia, i.e., the Monocled Cobra (Naja kaouthia), Malayan Krait (Bungarus candidus), Malayan Pit Viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and White-lipped Green Pit Viper (Trimeresurus albolabris). Different capture:detection configurations of double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were constructed using both immunoglobulins, and the horse IgG:IgG-HRP configuration was found to be most selective and sensitive in detecting the corresponding venoms. The method was further streamlined to develop a rapid immunodetection assay, which is able to produce a visual color change within 30 min for discrimination between different snake species. The study shows it is feasible to develop a simple, quick and specific immunodiagnostic assay using horse IgG, which can be derived directly from antisera prepared for antivenom production. The proof-of-concept indicates it is a sustainable and affordable approach in keeping with on-going antivenom manufacturing activities for specific species in the region.


Assuntos
Mordeduras de Serpentes , Trimeresurus , Cavalos , Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia , Antivenenos , Peçonhas , Sudeste Asiático , Imunoglobulina G , Bungarus
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(3): e0011165, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36996245

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming adversely affects human health and life worldwide. Presently, no suitable diagnostic tools for snakebite envenoming are available in China. Therefore, we sought to develop reliable diagnostic tests for snakebite management. We conducted affinity purification experiments to prepare species-specific antivenom antibody (SSAb). In brief, affinity chromatography with an antibody purification column (Protein A) was conducted to purify immunoglobulin G from Bungarus multicinctus (BM) venom hyperimmunized rabbit serum. The cross-reactive antibodies were removed from commercial BM antivenin by immune adsorption on the affinity chromatography columns of the other three venoms, Bungarus Fasciatus (FS), Naja atra (NA), and O. hannah (OH), generating SSAb. The results of western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed the high specificity of the prepared SSAb. The obtained antibodies were then applied to ELISA and lateral flow assay (LFA) to detect BM venom. The resulting ELISA and LFA could specifically and rapidly detect BM venom in various samples with the limits of quantification as 0.1 and 1 ng/ml, respectively. This method could effectively detect snake venom in experimentally envenomed rats (simulating human envenomation), which could distinguish positive and negative samples within 10-15 min. This method also showed promise in serving as a highly useful tool for a rapid clinical distinguishing of BM bites and rational use of antivenom in emergency centers. The study also revealed cross-reactivity between BM and heterogenous venoms, suggesting that they shared common epitopes, which is of great significance for developing detection methods for venoms of the snakes belonging to the same family.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Coelhos , Antivenenos/química , Mordeduras de Serpentes/diagnóstico , Venenos Elapídicos/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2061, 2023 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36739450

RESUMO

The banded krait, Bungarus fasciatus is a widespread elapid snake, likely to comprise several distinct species in different geographic regions of Asia. Therefore, based on molecular phylogenetics and comparative morphology data, we present an overview of the systematic composition of the species to delimit potential biogeographic boundaries. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on four mitochondrial genes, reveal the existence of at least three evolutionary lineages within B. fasciatus, corresponding to Indo-Myanmar, Sundaic and eastern Asian lineages. We are convinced that there are at least three taxonomic entities within the nomen B. fasciatus and restrict the distribution of B. fasciatus sensu stricto to the Indo-Myanmar region. We also provide additional natural history data of the taxon from eastern India. Finally, we advocate further studies to establish the degree of reproductive isolation among these diverging evolutionary lineages and to reassess the systematic status of this species complex especially the Sundaic and eastern Asian lineages.


Assuntos
Bungarus , Lagartos , Animais , Bungarus/genética , Filogenia , Elapidae , Ásia
20.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1008822

RESUMO

Bungarus Parvus, a precious animal Chinese medicinal material used in clinical practice, is believed to be first recorded in Ying Pian Xin Can published in 1936. This study was carried out to analyze the names, geographical distribution, morphological characteristics, ecological habits, poisonousness, and medicinal parts by consulting ancient Chinese medical books and local chronicles, Chinese Pharmacopeia, different processing standards of trditional Chinese medicine(TCM) decoction pieces, and modern literatures. The results showed that the earliest medicinal record of Bungarus Parvus was traced to 1894. In 1930, this medicinal material was used in the formulation of Annao Pills. The original animal, Bungarus multicinctus, was recorded by the name of "Bojijia" in 1521. The morphological characteristics, ecological habits, and poisonousness of the original animal are the same in ancient and modern records. The geographical distribution is similar between the ancient records and modern documents such as China Medicinal Animal Fauna. The dried body of young B. multicinctus is used as Bungarus Parvus, which lack detailed references. As a matter of fact, it is still inconclusive whether there are differences between young snakes and adult snakes in terms of active ingredients, pharmacological effects, and clinical applications. This study clarified the medicinal history and present situation of Bungarus Parvus. On the basis of the results, it is suggested that systematic comparison on young and adult B. multicinctus should be carried out to provide references for revising the medicinal parts of B. multicinctus.


Assuntos
Animais , Bungarus , Serpentes , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas
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