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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 14051-14058, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618444

RESUMO

3-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate antioxidants, a family of synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) widely used in polymers, have recently been identified in indoor and outdoor environments. However, limited information is available concerning human exposure to these novel contaminants. In the present study, seven 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate antioxidants were analyzed in human urine samples of donors from the United States. None of the target SPAs were initially detected in the urine samples either before or after hydrolysis by ß-glucuronidase, prompting us to probe the major metabolites of these SPAs. We conducted rat metabolism studies with two representative congeners, tetrakis(3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate) (AO1010) and N,N'-bis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl]hydrazine (AO1024). Neither AO1010 nor AO1024 was detected in rat urine, while 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (fenozan acid) was identified as a urinary biomarker for these 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate antioxidants. Surprisingly, fenozan acid was detected in 88% of the human urine samples before hydrolysis (geometric mean: 0.69 ng/mL) and 98% of the samples after hydrolysis (geometric mean: 10.2 ng/mL), indicating prevalent human exposure to 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate antioxidants. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of fenozan acid in urine, where it can act as a potential biomarker of human exposure to 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Hidroxitolueno Butilado , Animais , Biomarcadores , Butanos , Humanos , Propionatos , Ratos
2.
J Chem Phys ; 155(10): 104110, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525817

RESUMO

The proximal distribution function (pDF) quantifies the probability of finding a solvent molecule in the vicinity of solutes. The approach constitutes a hierarchically organized theory for constructing approximate solvation structures around solutes. Given the assumption of universality of atom cluster-specific solvation, reconstruction of the solvent distribution around arbitrary molecules provides a computationally convenient route to solvation thermodynamics. Previously, such solvent reconstructions usually considered the contribution of the nearest-neighbor distribution only. We extend the pDF reconstruction algorithm to terms including next-nearest-neighbor contribution. As a test, small molecules (alanine and butane) are examined. The analysis is then extended to include the protein myoglobin in the P6 crystal unit cell. Molecular dynamics simulations are performed, and solvent density distributions around the solute molecules are compared with the results from different pDF reconstruction models. It is shown that the next-nearest-neighbor modification significantly improves the reconstruction of the solvent number density distribution in concave regions and between solute molecules. The probability densities are then used to calculate the solute-solvent non-bonded interaction energies including van der Waals and electrostatic, which are found to be in good agreement with the simulated values.


Assuntos
Proteínas/química , Solventes/química , Alanina/química , Butanos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Solubilidade , Eletricidade Estática , Termodinâmica , Água/química
3.
S D Med ; 74(7): 318-321, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449994

RESUMO

Vaping quickly rose in popularity once introduced to the market in 2003. Devices heat liquid to produce an aerosol that is inhaled by the user, an aerosol that can contain nicotine, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, ultrafine particles, cancer-causing chemicals, and flavoring. Teenagers commonly use these products to smoke cannabinoids including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and butane hash oil (BHO). Liquids placed in the devices can be commercial or homemade. As popularity increased, more cases of vaping-related lung injury have been reported. We report a case of a 17-year-old female patient with delayed diagnosis of e-cigarette or vaping associated lung injury.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar , Vaping , Adolescente , Butanos , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Vaping/efeitos adversos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207807

RESUMO

Refineries are complex industrial systems that transform crude oil into more valuable subproducts. Due to the advances in sensors, easily measurable variables are continuously monitored and several data-driven soft-sensors are proposed to control the distillation process and the quality of the resultant subproducts. However, data preprocessing and soft-sensor modelling are still complex and time-consuming tasks that are expected to be automatised in the context of Industry 4.0. Although recently several automated learning (autoML) approaches have been proposed, these rely on model configuration and hyper-parameters optimisation. This paper advances the state-of-the-art by proposing an autoML approach that selects, among different normalisation and feature weighting preprocessing techniques and various well-known Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, the best configuration to create a reliable soft-sensor for the problem at hand. As proven in this research, each normalisation method transforms a given dataset differently, which ultimately affects the ML algorithm performance. The presented autoML approach considers the features preprocessing importance, including it, and the algorithm selection and configuration, as a fundamental stage of the methodology. The proposed autoML approach is applied to real data from a refinery in the Basque Country to create a soft-sensor in order to complement the operators' decision-making that, based on the operational variables of a distillation process, detects 400 min in advance with 98.925% precision if the resultant product does not reach the quality standards.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Pentanos , Algoritmos , Butanos
5.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 87: 103697, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216793

RESUMO

Herbicides may pose considerable danger to non-target aquatic organisms and further threaten human health. The present investigation was aimed to assess the effects of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA-Na) on Cyprinus carpio embryos. Embryos were exposed to six concentrations of MCPA-Na (0, 52, 54, 56, 58 and 60 mg/L) for 96 h. A series of symptoms were observed in developmental embryos during MCPA-Na exposure, including increased death, hatching inhibited and morphological deformities. Further, MCPA-Na exposure leading to a series of morphological changes (pericardial edema, tail deformation, and spine deformation) in embryos, which were consistent with modifications in the associated genes. In this work, we also investigated the joint toxicity of herbicides (MCPA-Na and cyhalofop-butyl) commonly used in paddy fields on carp embryos, using the 96 h-LC50 of herbicides (59.784 mg/L MCPA-Na and 1.472 mg/L cyhalofop-butyl) and confirmed that a synergistic effect existing in the binary mixtures.


Assuntos
Ácido 2-Metil-4-clorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Butanos/toxicidade , Carpas , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Teratógenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Carpas/anormalidades , Carpas/genética , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Embrião não Mamífero/anormalidades , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Cauda/anormalidades
6.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 521, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese sprangletop [Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] is an annual malignant weed, which can often be found in paddy fields. Cyhalofop-butyl is a specialized herbicide which is utilized to control L. chinensis. However, in many areas, L. chinensis has become tolerant to this key herbicide due to its continuous long-term use. RESULTS: In this study, we utilized a tolerant (LC18002) and a sensitive (LC17041) L. chinensis populations previously identified in our laboratory, which were divided into four different groups. We then employed whole transcriptome analysis to identify candidate genes which may be involved in cyhalofop-butyl tolerance. This analysis resulted in the identification of six possible candidate genes, including three cytochrome P450 genes and three ATP-binding cassette transporter genes. We then carried out a phylogenetic analysis to identify homologs of the differentially expressed cytochrome P450 genes. This phylogenetic analysis indicated that all genes have close homologs in other species, some of which have been implicated in non-target site resistance (NTSR). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to use whole transcriptome analysis to identify herbicide non-target resistance genes in L. chinensis. The differentially expressed genes represent promising targets for better understanding herbicide tolerance in L. chinensis. The six genes belonging to classes already associated in herbicide tolerance may play important roles in the metabolic resistance of L. chinensis to cyhalofop-butyl, although the exact mechanisms require further study.


Assuntos
Acetil-CoA Carboxilase , Herbicidas , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Butanos , China , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Nitrilas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 267: 118189, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119157

RESUMO

Polysaccharide substrates loaded with antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds, effectively protected by cyclodextrin moieties, can be a long-lasting solution to confer certain properties to fabrics, paper and other materials. ß-Cyclodextrin was attached to α-cellulose, bleached pulp and starch by a two-step esterification with a tetracarboxylic acid. The resulting derivatives were characterized by spectroscopy, thermal degradation analysis and capability of phenolphthalein inclusion. The carriers, containing between 89 and 171 µmol of ß-cyclodextrin per gram, were loaded with carvacrol, cuminaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and hydroxytyrosol. From a stoichiometric addition, the percentage of compound retained ranged from 49% (hydroxytyrosol in pulp-cyclodextrin) to 92% (carvacrol in starch-cyclodextrin). Finally, the release rate to aqueous ethanol was measured over eight days and fitted to kinetic models. From the analysis of the mean dissolution time, it can be concluded that inserting ß-cyclodextrin units enhanced the long-term holding of phenolic active compounds in carbohydrate matrices.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Fenóis/química , Amido/análogos & derivados , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/química , Benzaldeídos/química , Butanos/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Celulose/síntese química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Cimenos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cinética , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Amido/síntese química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/síntese química
8.
Life Sci ; 278: 119574, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961850

RESUMO

AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is a valid molecular drug target from which its inhibitors have been developed as medicines for treating diabetes. The present study evaluated a new synthetic DPP-4-specific inhibitor of small molecule DBPR108 for pharmacology and pharmacokinetic profiles. MAIN METHODS: DBPR108 of various doses was orally administered to rats, diabetic mice, and dogs and the systemic circulating DPP-4 activities in the animals were measured to demonstrate the pharmacological mechanisms of action via DPP-4 inhibition. Upon an oral administration of DBPR108, the serum active GLP-1 and insulin levels of the rats challenged with an oral glucose ingestion were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test in diet-induced obese mice was performed to examine if DBPR108 increases the glucose tolerability in animals. KEY FINDINGS: Orally administered DBPR108 inhibited the systemic plasma DPP-4 activities in rats, dogs and diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. DBPR108 caused elevated serum levels of active GLP-1 and insulin in the rats. DBPR108 dose-dependently increased the glucose tolerability in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and, furthermore, DIO mice treated with DBPR108 (0.1 mg/kg) in combination with metformin (50 or 100 mg/kg) showed a prominently strong increase in the glucose tolerability. SIGNIFICANCE: DBPR108 is a novel DPP-4-selective inhibitor of small molecule that demonstrated potent in vivo pharmacological effects and good safety profiles in animals. DBPR108 is now a drug candidate being further developed in the clinical studies as therapeutics for treating diabetes.


Assuntos
Butanos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Peso Corporal , Butanos/farmacocinética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacocinética , Cães , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Insulina/metabolismo , Veias Jugulares/patologia , Masculino , Metformina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Nitrilas/farmacocinética , Pirrolidinas/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 600: 440-448, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023705

RESUMO

Compared with industrial used Pt- and Cr-based catalyst in dehydrogenation (DH) of light alkanes, the sulfide V-K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst reported in this study shows lower cost and toxicity, and significant DH performance. The yield to isobutene reached as high as 52.9%, which is among the highest reported to date. We attribute such high isobutene yield to the precise modulation of polymerization degree for vanadium species via doping of potassium and indicating that the synergy between vanadium species and acid sites is critical to enhance the DH performance. Our previous work showed sulfidation promoted the increase of DH performance for vanadium-based catalyst, and we go further in this study to explore the correlation between increased range of DH performance and the added potassium. The different loaded potassium leads to variation in sulfidation degree, affecting the properties of vanadium species and acid properties consequently. The potassium was distributed uniformly on surface of the sulfide vanadium-based catalyst and was predominantly bonded with the vanadium species rather than with the γ-Al2O3 support. With increasing the potassium amount from 0 to 3 wt%, the acid amount kept decreasing, and some specific strong acid sites appeared once adequate sulfur was introduced in the V-K/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. The characterization and DFT results both revealed that the doped potassium contributes to regulating the vanadium species in the oligomeric state. The synergy between vanadium species and acid properties was regulated by the added potassium simultaneously, and thus the DH performance was enhanced. This study provides promising strategy for preparation of environment-friendly model industrial DH catalyst.


Assuntos
Potássio , Vanádio , Butanos , Oxirredução , Sulfetos
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6712-6723, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621193

RESUMO

Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/re-oxygenation (OGDR) induces profound oxidative injury and neuronal cell death. It mimics ischemia-reperfusion neuronal injury. CPI-1189 is a novel tumor necrosis factor alpha-inhibiting compound with potential neuroprotective function. Here in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and primary murine cortical neurons, CPI-1189 pretreatment potently inhibited OGDR-induced viability reduction and cell death. In OGDR-stimulated neuronal cells, p38 phosphorylation was blocked by CPI-1189. In addition, CPI-1189 alleviated OGDR-induced reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione consumption. OGDR-induced neuronal cell apoptosis was also inhibited by CPI-1189 pretreatment. Furthermore, in SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons, CPI-1189 alleviated OGDR-induced programmed necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial p53-cyclophilin D-adenine nucleotide translocase 1 association, mitochondrial depolarization, and lactate dehydrogenase release to the medium. In summary, CPI-1189 potently inhibited OGDR-induced oxidative injury and neuronal cell death.


Assuntos
Butanos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
11.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 49: 101847, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465569

RESUMO

A man and a woman were rescued from a room that had exploded. Many empty cassette gas cylinders were found in the room. The man and woman were hospitalized immediately for the treatment of burns. The woman died 6 days later, and the man died 31 days later without regaining consciousness. Carbonization and hardening of the frontal facial skin and parts of the left and right fingers were observed on the man's body. In both cases, systemic burns had led to progressive systemic edema and markedly suppressed circulation. Analytical samples for butanes obtained from their bodies at autopsy were stored at -20 °C for 14 and 25 days, respectively, before analysis. Normal butane and isobutane were quantified in the brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue of the woman. Only the isobutane was quantified in the adipose tissue of the man. The evidence suggests that the man lit a cigarette while breathing gas and the entire room exploded. Our results also suggest that butane can be detected in the adipose tissue of autopsy cases long after inhalation even under the present storage conditions, and isobutane may remain in adipose tissue longer than n-butane.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Autopsia/métodos , Queimaduras/metabolismo , Queimaduras/patologia , Butanos/análise , Medicina Legal/métodos , Adulto , Queimaduras/complicações , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Edema/etiologia , Edema/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Preservação de Tecido/métodos
12.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(5): 2576-2583, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees) is one of main grass weeds invading Chinese rice fields. The target-site resistance (TSR) of cyhalofop-butyl have been widely reported in L. chinensis populations, but the non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms have not yet been well-characterized. This study aims to investigate the likely NTSR in a cyhalofop-butyl-resistant L. chinensis population (YZ-R), which was collected from Yangzhou city, Jiangsu Province, China. RESULTS: Dose-response assays showed the YZ-R population exhibited 191.6-fold resistance to cyhalofop-butyl, compared to the susceptible population (YZ-S). This resistance is not target-site based, because no mutations in the two ACCase genes were detected in the YZ-R plants compared to the YZ-S plants, and the ACCase genes expression levels were similar in YZ-S and YZ-R plants. In addition, the cytochrome P450 inhibitor malathion and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibitor 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) did not significantly reverse cyhalofop-butyl resistance in the YZ-R population. However, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis indicated that the metabolic rates of cyhalofop acid in YZ-R plants was significantly faster (5 to 10- fold) than in YZ-S plants. Furthermore, the YZ-R population showed no cross-resistance to other ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that cyhalofop-butyl resistance in the YZ-R population is due to non-target-site based enhanced herbicide metabolism. Resistance in this population is likely involved in a specific detoxification enzyme, with possible high catalytic efficiency and strong substrate specificity, therefore leading to high-level and single resistance to cyhalofop-butyl. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase , Butanos , China , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Nitrilas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/genética
13.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110662, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401231

RESUMO

Complex suicides are highly uncommon suicides in which multiple detrimental methods are used simultaneously or in chronological succession. We retrospectively analyzed through our database the 25512 autopsy reports registered at the Bureau of Legal Medicine of Milan in the last 27 years from 1993 until 2019, where 4498 suicides were documented. We assessed 53 cases of complex suicides and only one case of complicated suicide: for all of them we analyzed both data collected during the on-site investigation and the autopsy. In our case series, we identified a total number of 113 methods chosen and variably combined by the victims, which were classified into 17 categories. On the whole the most frequent association of suicide methods resulted in the combination of the plastic bag suffocation with inert gas inhalation (13 out of 53 complex suicides; 24.5%). We also analyzed our cases of simple suicides (1993-2019), to compare them with the complex suicides. In this study, we present a complete analysis regarding our cases of complex suicides, discussing the challenges and the interpretative issues which a forensic pathologist might deal with. A thorough on-site judicial inspection and a careful autopsy examination are crucial in such cases. Moreover, the clinical history of the victims and laboratory findings are supplemental elements to be necessarily considered to establish the actual manner of death and avoid any misinterpretations.


Assuntos
Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asfixia/mortalidade , Butanos/envenenamento , Afogamento/mortalidade , Feminino , Incêndios , Medicina Legal , Hélio/envenenamento , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/envenenamento , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Propano/envenenamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Ferimentos Perfurantes/mortalidade , Traumatismos do Punho/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Technol ; 42(14): 2122-2131, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718521

RESUMO

In this paper, the adsorption behaviour of activated carbon was investigated experimentally for changing butane concentration, temperature and relative humidity. Throughout the study, the coconut-based activated carbon was used. During the tests applied for butane concentration of 2, 4, 8, 20, 40 and 80 ppm, the temperature was taken as 15, 23 and 33°C for a relative humidity of 50, 70 and 90%. The results showed that butane concentration had a direct relationship with adsorption. However, temperature and adsorption were inversely proportional. As a result of the adsorption between activated carbon and butane, it led to physical adsorption as one of the most important types of adsorption due to Van der Waals forces among molecules. To create physical adsorption, lower temperature ranges were more convenient. The relative humidity of the air reduced the time to reach the maximum saturation rate. The increased relative humidity also reduced the amount of butane adsorbed. Also, 50% relative humidity range was an important turning point. Relative humidity affected the adsorption of butane at a relative humidity of 50%. However, the relative humidity at 70 and 90% significantly reduced butane adsorption; on the other hand, it considerably increased the adsorption of moisture.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Cocos , Adsorção , Butanos , Umidade , Temperatura
16.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(5): 617-621, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686568

RESUMO

A 17-year-old with severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) presented to the emergency department with symptoms of cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and tactile fevers. She was initially admitted to the cardiac floor, and later transferred to the cardiothoracic intensive care unit on day 5 of illness with deterioration over the next week from BiLevel positive airway pressure to endotracheal intubation. The patient met criteria for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Standard ARDS lung-protective strategies were refined in consideration of complications caused by her HCM. Such complications included dynamic cardiac outflow obstruction, myocardial ischemia with tachycardia, elevated pulmonary vascular resistance from diastolic dysfunction, and narrow fluid balance window to reduce pulmonary edema while maintaining adequate left ventricular preload. The patient remained refractory despite broad-spectrum antibiotics requiring multiple vasoactive medications, aggressive ventilator management, and inhaled nitric oxide. Social history revealed "vaping" cannabis with butane hash oil prior to symptom onset. Corticosteroids were initiated 2 weeks after initial presentation (day 9 of mechanical ventilation) with rapid recovery and resolution of illness. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is an aggressive disease in the intensive care unit. E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury is increasingly recognized as a cause of ARDS in adolescents and adults. A complete social history is essential and must be obtained early in all such patients presenting with symptoms of acute respiratory distress and revisited throughout the hospital stay if no other reason for the ARDS is discovered. Disease progression may be subacute with a long interval between onset of symptoms and peak symptoms. The risk of barotrauma is high despite lung-protective ventilation strategies. Management is supportive with resolution over days to weeks. However, other clinical factors may considerably complicate management in cases of underlying comorbidities.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Vaping , Adolescente , Adulto , Butanos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
17.
Anal Chem ; 93(3): 1242-1248, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369389

RESUMO

Isotopic-labeling experiments have been valuable to monitor the flux of metabolic reactions in biological systems, which is crucial to understand homeostatic alterations with disease. Experimental determination of metabolic fluxes can be inferred from a characteristic rearrangement of stable isotope tracers (e.g., 13C or 15N) that can be detected by mass spectrometry (MS). Metabolites measured are generally members of well-known metabolic pathways, and most of them can be detected using both gas chromatography (GC)-MS and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS. In here, we show that GC methods coupled to chemical ionization (CI) MS have a clear advantage over alternative methodologies due to GC's superior chromatography separation efficiency and the fact that CI is a soft ionization technique that yields identifiable protonated molecular ion peaks. We tested diverse GC-CI-MS setups, including methane and isobutane reagent gases, triple quadrupole (QqQ) MS in SIM mode, or selected ion clusters using optimized narrow windows (∼10 Da) in scan mode, and standard full scan methods using high resolution GC-(q)TOF and GC-Orbitrap systems. Isobutane as a reagent gas in combination with both low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution (HR) MS showed the best performance, enabling precise detection of isotopologues in most metabolic intermediates of central carbon metabolism. Finally, with the aim of overcoming manual operations, we developed an R-based tool called isoSCAN that automatically quantifies all isotopologues of intermediate metabolites of glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acids, pentose phosphate pathway, and urea cycle, from LRMS and HRMS data.


Assuntos
Butanos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Butanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gases/análise , Gases/metabolismo , Marcação por Isótopo
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 171: 104739, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357561

RESUMO

Cyhalofop-butyl resistance in Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees is a threat to rice production. Qualitative changes to the acetyl-CoA carboxylase gene (ACCase) have been reported to induce cyhalofop-butyl resistance in some weed species, but the role of ACCase in cyhalofop-butyl resistance through quantitative changes remains uncertain. The accurate assessment of transcriptional changes in the functional genes associated with herbicide resistance in L. chinensis is challenging owing to the lack of available reference genes for expression normalization. Here, we selected nine candidate reference genes in L. chinensis and assessed their transcription stability in populations susceptible and resistant to cyhalofop-butyl. Transcription stability was compared under conditions of herbicide stress and control conditions using BestKeeper, NormFinder, and geNorm. Elongation factor 1 alpha, eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, and cap-binding protein CBP20 were the most stable reference genes under cyhalofop-butyl treatment. Transcription levels of ACCase were evaluated in seven resistant populations, one of which showed higher transcription than the susceptible population after 24 h cyhalofop-butyl treatment. However, the slight up-regulation of ACCase (approximately 2.0-fold) is unlikely to be responsible for the high resistance levels in these populations of L. chinensis.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/genética , Butanos , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Nitrilas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
19.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127849, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297003

RESUMO

Cyhalofop-butyl is a kind of aromatic phenoxypropionic acid herbicide widely used in agriculture. However, studies on its immunotoxicity to aquatic organisms have not been reported. In this study paper, morphological, immunological, cytological, biochemical and molecular biology methods were used to study the effects of cyhalofop-butyl on the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity in zebrafish. After cyhalofop-butyl exposed, the results showed that the zebrafish embryos had shorter length, yolk sac edema, significantly reduced number of immune cells, inflammatory response and immunocytes apoptosis. In addition, we found that the expression of immune-related genes and pro-apoptotic genes were up-regulated, and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway mediated the immunotoxicity induced by cyhalofop-butyl. Therefore, our results indicate that cyhalofop-butyl has developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity to zebrafish, and this study offer new contents for the effects of cyhalofop-butyl exposure on aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Butanos , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Nitrilas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 209, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187524

RESUMO

The development of sustainable routes to the bio-manufacture of gaseous hydrocarbons will contribute widely to future energy needs. Their realisation would contribute towards minimising over-reliance on fossil fuels, improving air quality, reducing carbon footprints and enhancing overall energy security. Alkane gases (propane, butane and isobutane) are efficient and clean-burning fuels. They are established globally within the transportation industry and are used for domestic heating and cooking, non-greenhouse gas refrigerants and as aerosol propellants. As no natural biosynthetic routes to short chain alkanes have been discovered, de novo pathways have been engineered. These pathways incorporate one of two enzymes, either aldehyde deformylating oxygenase or fatty acid photodecarboxylase, to catalyse the final step that leads to gas formation. These new pathways are derived from established routes of fatty acid biosynthesis, reverse ß-oxidation for butanol production, valine biosynthesis and amino acid degradation. Single-step production of alkane gases in vivo is also possible, where one recombinant biocatalyst can catalyse gas formation from exogenously supplied short-chain fatty acid precursors. This review explores current progress in bio-alkane gas production, and highlights the potential for implementation of scalable and sustainable commercial bioproduction hubs.


Assuntos
Alcanos/metabolismo , Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica , Biologia Sintética/métodos , Vias Biossintéticas , Butanos/metabolismo , Carboxiliases/metabolismo , Engenharia Genética , Microbiologia Industrial , Oxirredução , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Propano/metabolismo
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