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1.
Anesth Prog ; 70(2): 58-64, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37379094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the involvement of α1- and ß2-adrenergic receptors in skeletal muscle blood flow changes during variations in ETCO2. METHODS: Forty Japanese White rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 groups: phentolamine, metaproterenol, phenylephrine, butoxamine, and atropine. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), common carotid artery blood flow (CCBF), masseter muscle tissue blood flow (MBF), and quadriceps muscle tissue blood flow (QBF) were recorded and analyzed at 3 periods: (1) baseline, (2) during hypercapnia (phentolamine and metaproterenol groups) or hypocapnia (phenylephrine, butoxamine, and atropine groups), and (3) during or after receiving vasoactive agents. RESULTS: MBF and QBF decreased during hypercapnia. The decrease in MBF was smaller than that in QBF. SBP and CCBF increased, while HR decreased. Both MBF and QBF recovered to their baseline levels after phentolamine administration. MBF became greater than its baseline level, while QBF did not fully recover after metaproterenol administration. MBF and QBF increased during hypocapnia. The increase rate in MBF was larger than that in QBF. HR, SBP, and CCBF did not change. Both MBF and QBF decreased to ∼90% to 95% of their baseline levels after phenylephrine or butoxamine administration. Atropine showed no effects on MBF and QBF. CONCLUSION: These results suggest the skeletal muscle blood flow changes observed during hypercapnia and hypocapnia may mainly involve α1-adrenergic but not ß2-adrenergic receptor activity.


Assuntos
Hipercapnia , Hipocapnia , Animais , Coelhos , Fentolamina/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta , Butoxamina , Pressão Sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Metaproterenol , Derivados da Atropina , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional
2.
Neurol Res ; 45(4): 363-369, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This present study was undertaken to determine whether beta-blockers produce the cutaneous analgesic effect, comparing them with the long-acting local anesthetic bupivacaine. METHODS: Using a rat model of infiltrative cutaneous analgesia, the effect of 5 beta-blockers (oxprenolol, carteolol, butaxamine, metoprolol, and acebutolol) and bupivacaine was compared and eventually combined with epinephrine. RESULTS: Among 5 beta-blockers, oxprenolol exhibited the most potent and the longest duration of cutaneous analgesia. In dose-response studies, the rank order of efficacy (ED50 [50% effective dose]) was bupivacaine (0.40 [0.35-0.47] µmol) > oxprenolol (2.33 [2.06-2.64] µmol) > carteolol (4.86 [4.27-5.53] µmol) (p< 0.01). Carteolol provoked a longer duration of analgesia (p< 0.01) than oxprenolol or bupivacaine on an equipotent basis (ED25, ED50, and ED75). Adding epinephrine 1:200,000 to drug preparations (carteolol, oxprenolol, and bupivacaine) at ED95 had a peripheral action in prolonging the duration of action. CONCLUSIONS: Oxprenolol and carteolol had greater potencies and longer durations of cutaneous analgesia than butaxamine, metoprolol, and acebutolol. Oxprenolol produced a similar duration of action when compared to bupivacaine, while carteolol had a greater duration of action than bupivacaine. Cutaneous analgesia of oxprenolol (or carteolol) plus adrenaline was greater than that of bupivacaine plus adrenaline.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Carteolol , Ratos , Animais , Oxprenolol , Acebutolol , Metoprolol , Butoxamina , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Dor , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Bupivacaína/farmacologia , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
3.
Life Sci ; 277: 119593, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979569

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies have reported a relationship between periodontal disease and hypertension, and previous evidence suggests that the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the control of bone metabolism. This study sought to evaluate the effect of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR) blocker butoxamine on experimental periodontitis in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 6 per group) were orally administered butoxamine 1 mg/kg/day and experimental periodontitis was induced by applying an orthodontic ligature wire. The rats were sacrificed after 4 weeks and the residual alveolar bone was measured using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging analysis software for histological analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Micro-CT imaging analysis showed a higher ratio of residual alveolar bone, BV/TV, and Tb.N in both Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with butoxamine compared with the corresponding control rats. In histological analysis, compared with the Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rat control groups, the corresponding butoxamine-treated groups showed a lower ratio of attachment level, lower values of osteoclast number and surface. SIGNIFICANCE: ß2-AR blockers maintained the alveolar bone mass and attachment level by suppressing osteoclast activity. Thus, ß2-AR blockers may be effective in preventing periodontitis.


Assuntos
Butoxamina/farmacologia , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/metabolismo , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Butoxamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
4.
Mol Carcinog ; 60(3): 172-178, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482042

RESUMO

Although beta 2 adrenergic receptors (ß2 ADR) are present in the keratinocytes, their role in cutaneous squamous cell tumorigenesis needs to be ascertained. For the first time, we report here that selective ß2 ADR antagonists by inhibiting ß2 ADR actions significantly retarded the progression of ultraviolet B (UVB) induced premalignant cutaneous squamous cell lesions. These antagonists acted by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) mediated angiogenesis to prevent UVB radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacologia , Animais , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Xamoterol/farmacologia
5.
Oral Dis ; 26(3): 621-629, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Regulation of bone metabolism by the sympathetic nervous system has recently been clarified. Tooth movement is increased by increased bone metabolic turnover due to sympathetic activation. This study aimed to compare the effects of the ß-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) blockers atenolol (ß1-AR blocker), butoxamine (ß2-AR blocker) and propranolol (non-selective ß-AR blocker) on tooth movement in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with sympathicotonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats were divided into the following four groups: an SHR control group and groups treated with 0.1 mg/kg atenolol, 1 mg/kg butoxamine or 1 mg/kg propranolol (n = 6 rats/group). Atenolol, butoxamine or propranolol was administered daily to each treatment group, and orthodontic force was applied using a closed-coil spring. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis was performed for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and sclerostin (SOST). RESULTS: Atenolol, butoxamine and propranolol inhibited tooth movement and increased maxillary alveolar bone volume. Histological analysis revealed that these ß-AR blockers decreased osteoclast activity on the compression side. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that atenolol, butoxamine and propranolol decreased the number of RANKL- and SOST-positive osteocytes on the compression side. CONCLUSIONS: ß-AR blockers decreased tooth movement and downregulated SOST in osteocytes, accompanied by increasing alveolar bone resorption.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/metabolismo , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Animais , Atenolol , Remodelação Óssea , Reabsorção Óssea , Butoxamina , Marcadores Genéticos , Osteoclastos , Osteócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteócitos/fisiologia , Propranolol , Ligante RANK , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
6.
Behav Pharmacol ; 31(6): 535-543, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860562

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder with a known cause, yet effective behavioral and pharmacotherapies remain elusive for many afflicted patients. Propranolol is suggested to be effective as a fear-reducing agent when paired with behavioral therapy soon after trauma when psychological stress is high, possibly dampening or preventing the later development of posttraumatic stress disorder. In our previous study, we found propranolol efficaciously reduced fear retention induced by reactivation via ß-adrenergic receptors in lateral amygdala. However, it is unclear which subtypes of ß-adrenergic receptors dominate the function of adrenergic activation in lateral amygdala. In this study, we investigated the action of ß1-adrenergic receptor antagonist-metoprolol and ß2-adrenergic receptor antagonist-butoxamine on the retention of conditioned fear memory and synaptic adaptation in the lateral amygdala of rats. We found metoprolol not butoxamine attenuated the reactivation-induced strengthening of fear retention and restored the impaired long-term depression in lateral amygdala. Intra-amygdala infusion of metoprolol not butoxamine attenuated reactivation-induced enhancement of fear retention. Our results suggest that ß1-adrenergic receptor antagonist-metoprolol may be more suitable for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão Sináptica de Longo Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Metoprolol/farmacologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Metoprolol/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/fisiologia
7.
Amino Acids ; 51(1): 39-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926197

RESUMO

We previously obtained evidence suggesting that physical exercise increases the release of L-carnosine (CAR) from muscles and that CAR affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological phenomena in rats. It has also been reported that exercise elicits an increase in activity of the sympathetic nerve innervating the skeletal muscle. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of CAR application, onto the surface of the right femoral muscle, on activity of the sympathetic nerve innervating the left femoral muscle, in urethane-anesthetized rats. Topical application of 10 pg (44.2 fmol) of CAR increased either skeletal muscle sympathetic nerve activity (skeletal muscle-SNA) or skeletal muscle blood flow (skeletal muscle-BF) of the contralateral skeletal muscle. Furthermore, thioperamide, a histamine H3-antagonist, inhibited the increase in skeletal muscle-SNA, and butoxamine, a ß2-antagonist, abolished the increase in skeletal muscle-BF caused by topical application of CAR. The present results suggest that CAR released from muscles during physical exercise might affect skeletal muscle-SNA and skeletal muscle-BF on the opposite side of the body via a CAR evoked effect in muscles.


Assuntos
Carnosina/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Injeções Intramusculares , Cinética , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/irrigação sanguínea , Simpatolíticos/farmacologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 127: 41-48, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28099883

RESUMO

Human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) offer great promises to cardiac cell therapy for heart failure. Many in vivo studies have shown their therapeutic benefits, paving the way for clinical translation. The 3D model of cardiospheres (CSs) represents a unique niche-like in vitro microenvironment, which includes CPCs and supporting cells. CSs have been shown to form through a process mediated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ß2-Adrenergic signaling significantly affects stem/progenitor cells activation and mobilization in multiple tissues, and crosstalk between ß2-adrenergic signaling and EMT processes has been reported. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the biological response of CSs to ß2-adrenergic stimuli, focusing on EMT modulation in the 3D culture system of CSs. We treated human CSs and CS-derived cells (CDCs) with the ß2-blocker butoxamine (BUT), using either untreated or ß2 agonist (clenbuterol) treated CDCs as control. BUT-treated CS-forming cells displayed increased migration capacity and a significant increase in their CS-forming ability, consistently associated with increased expression of EMT-related genes, such as Snai1. Moreover, long-term BUT-treated CDCs contained a lower percentage of CD90+ cells, and this feature has been previously correlated with higher cardiogenic and therapeutic potential of the CDCs population. In addition, long-term BUT-treated CDCs had an increased ratio of collagen-III/collagen-I gene expression levels, and showed decreased release of inflammatory cytokines, overall supporting a less fibrosis-prone phenotype. In conclusion, ß2 adrenergic receptor block positively affected the stemness vs commitment balance within CSs through the modulation of type1-EMT (so called "developmental"). These results further highlight type-1 EMT to be a key process affecting the features of resident cardiac progenitor cells, and mediating their response to the microenvironment.


Assuntos
Butoxamina/farmacologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Clembuterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Clembuterol/farmacologia , Colágeno/biossíntese , Citocinas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/biossíntese , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Antígenos Thy-1/biossíntese
9.
Surgery ; 162(4): 901-916, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia of critical illness is resistant to exogenous erythropoietin. Packed red blood cells transfusions is the only treatment option, and despite related cost and morbidity, there is a need for alternate strategies. Erythrocyte development can be divided into erythropoietin-dependent and erythropoietin-independent stages. We have shown previously that erythropoietin-dependent development is intact in burn patients and the erythropoietin-independent early commitment stage, which is regulated by ß1/ß2-adrenergic mechanisms, is compromised. Utilizing the scald burn injury model, we studied erythropoietin-independent late maturation stages and the effect of ß1/ß2, ß-2, or ß-3 blockade in burn mediated erythropoietin-resistant anemia. METHODS: Burn mice were randomized to receive daily injections of propranolol (nonselective ß1/ß2 antagonist), nadolol (long-acting ß1/ß2 antagonist), butoxamine (selective ß2 antagonist), or SR59230A (selective ß3 antagonist) for 6 days after burn. Total bone marrow cells were characterized as nonerythroid cells, early and late erythroblasts, nucleated orthochromatic erythroblasts and enucleated reticulocyte subsets using CD71, Ter119, and Syto-16 by flow cytometry. Multipotential progenitors were probed for MafB expressing cells. RESULTS: Although propranolol improved early and late erythroblasts, only butoxamine and selective ß3-antagonist administrations were positively reflected in the peripheral blood hemoglobin and red blood cells count. While burn impeded early commitment and late maturation stages, ß1/ß2 antagonism increased the early erythroblasts through commitment stages via ß2 specific MafB regulation. ß3 antagonism was more effective in improving overall red blood cells through late maturation stages. CONCLUSION: The study unfolds novel ß2 and ß3 adrenergic mechanisms orchestrating erythropoietin resistant anemia after burn, which impedes both the early commitment stage and the late maturation stages, respectively.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Queimaduras/complicações , Eritropoese , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/fisiologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Animais , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Nadolol/farmacologia , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Propranolol/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 20(1): 111-121, 2017 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525334

RESUMO

This study analysed the relaxant properties of salbutamol (ß2-adrenoceptors agonist) and BRL 37344 (ß3-adrenoceptors agonist) regarding the contractility of porcine myometrium on days 10-14 of the oestrous cycle (cyclic group; n = 10) and on days 3-5 of pregnancy (early pregnant group; n = 6). The activity of myometrial strips (tension, frequency and amplitude) was recorded under isometric conditions using force transducers. The contractility was assessed further following the administration of increasing concentrations of the agonists (10-9-10-4 M), both with and without ß-adrenoceptor antagonists (butaxamine - a selective ß2- adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol- a non-selective ß1- and ß2-adrenoceptor antagonist and bupranolol - a non-selective ß1-, ß2- and ß3-adrenoceptor antagonist) at a concentration of 10-4 M. Although neither salbutamol nor BRL 37344 caused changes in the tension, at the highest concentrations they decreased the frequency and amplitude of contractions. These changes were more evident after salbutamol treatment and in the early pregnant group. Antagonists given alone did not cause changes in the parameters examined but changed some activity of the agonists. Butoxamine reduced the decrease in frequency and amplitude induced by salbutamol and produced a decrease in the tension after BRL 37344 treatment in the early pregnant group. Propranolol reduced the decrease in frequency and amplitude induced by salbutamol in both examined groups and did not cause significant changes in BRL 37344 activity. The administration of bupranolol before salbutamol treatment caused an increase in the tension and reduced the decrease in the frequency in the cyclic group. Moreover, bupranolol eliminated a decrease in frequency and induced an increase in amplitude caused by BRL 37344 in both groups and these changes were more evident in the early pregnant group. The data indicates that both ß2- and ß3-adenoreceptors are involved in the regulation of the contractility in both groups, but the changes after agonists and antagonists treatment are more evident in the early pregnant myometrium.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/farmacologia , Corpo Lúteo/efeitos dos fármacos , Miométrio/fisiologia , Prenhez , Suínos/fisiologia , Albuterol/farmacocinética , Albuterol/farmacologia , Animais , Bupranolol/farmacocinética , Bupranolol/farmacologia , Butoxamina/farmacocinética , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Corpo Lúteo/fisiologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Etanolaminas/farmacocinética , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Prenhez/fisiologia , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 99: 584-592, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27616615

RESUMO

A lot of epidemiological and intervention studies support the hypotensive action resulting from ingestion of foods rich in flavan 3-ols. However, the mechanisms of this action remain unclear. We have reported previously on the alteration of the micro- and systemic circulations after administration of a flavan 3-ol fraction (FL) derived from cocoa in mammals. We also confirmed that blood catecholamine levels increase significantly after administration of FL. In the present study, we examined whether adrenaline receptors are involved in the hemodynamic changes using several adrenaline receptor (AR) blockers. First, we confirmed that mean blood pressure (MBP) decreased significantly and aortic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels increased significantly following oral treatment of 10mg/kg FL for 2 weeks in normal rats compared with vehicle administration. However, these changes were not observed with treatment of 1mg/kg (-)-epicatechin (EC), which contains nearly equivalent amount of 10mg/kg FL. Secondly, we observed that a single dose of FL produced different hemodynamic changes, such as a transient elevation in heart rate (HR) after ingestion of 1-100mg/kg FL, but not with 1mg/kg EC. Furthermore, although MBP rose transiently after 1 and 10mg/kg FL, this effect was not observed with 100mg/kg or 1mg/kg EC. The increases in HR, MBP, and aortic phosphorylated eNOS (p-eNOS) induced by 10mg/kg FL were prevented completely by pretreatment with the AR blocker, carvedilol. Combination treatment with 100mg/kg FL and an α1AR blocker, prazosin, significantly reduced MBP, whereas the elevation in HR was enhanced. In addition, after pretreatment with the ß2AR blocker, butoxamine, we observed no significant hemodynamic changes with or without 100mg/kg FL. Moreover, the combination of 100mg/kg FL and the α2AR blocker, yohimbine, markedly increased MBP, HR and aortic p-eNOS level. These results suggested that the postprandial hemodynamic changes after a single oral dose of FL were induced by an adrenergic effect. This adrenomimetic activity suggested the involvement of a hypotensive effect of FL.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos/genética , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/isolamento & purificação , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Cacau/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carvedilol , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Catequina/farmacologia , Epinefrina/sangue , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Prazosina/farmacologia , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Ioimbina/farmacologia
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(3): e5011, Mar. 2016. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-771943

RESUMO

There is evidence for participation of peripheral β-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether β-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, β1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, β2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, β3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that β2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antipirina/administração & dosagem , Ganglionectomia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Ampirona/farmacologia , Atenolol/farmacologia , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Dipirona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gânglios Simpáticos/cirurgia , Modelos Animais , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 49(3)2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26840714

RESUMO

There is evidence for participation of peripheral ß-adrenoceptors in delayed liquid gastric emptying (GE) induced in rats by dipyrone (Dp), 4-aminoantipyrine (AA), and antipyrine (At). The present study aimed to determine whether ß-adrenoceptors are involved in delayed GE induced by phenylpyrazole derivatives and the role of the prevertebral sympathetic nervous system in this condition. Male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were used in the study. In the first experiment rats were intravenously pretreated with vehicle (V), atenolol 30 mg/kg (ATE, ß1-adrenergic antagonist), or butoxamine 25 mg/kg (BUT, ß2-adrenergic antagonist). In the second experiment, rats were pretreated with V or SR59230A 2 mg/kg (SRA, ß3-adrenergic antagonist). In the third experiment, rats were subjected to surgical resection of the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex or to sham surgery. The groups were intravenously treated with saline (S), 240 µmol/kg Dp, AA, or At, 15 min after pretreatment with the antagonists or V and nine days after surgery. GE was determined 10 min later by measuring the percentage of gastric retention (%GR) of saline labeled with phenol red 10 min after gavage. The %GR (means±SE, n=6) values indicated that BUT abolished the effect of Dp (BUT+Dp vs V+Dp: 35.0%±5.1% vs 56.4%±2.7%) and At (BUT+At vs V+At: 33.5%±4.7% vs 52.9%±2.6%) on GE, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the effect of AA (BUT+AA vs V+AA: 48.0%±5.0% vs 65.2%±3.8%). ATE, SRA, and sympathectomy did not modify the effects of treatments. These results suggest that ß2-adrenoceptor activation occurred in delayed liquid gastric emptying induced by the phenylpyrazole derivatives dipyrone, 4-aminoantipyrine, and antipyrine. Additionally, the released neurotransmitter did not originate in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antipirina/administração & dosagem , Ganglionectomia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Ampirona/farmacologia , Animais , Atenolol/farmacologia , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Dipirona/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gânglios Simpáticos/cirurgia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 38(2): 252-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26825432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, induces endothelial dysfunction. Nebivolol, a highly selective ß1-adrenergic receptor (AR) blocker, is the only beta-blocker known to induce vascular production of nitric oxide. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect and mechanism of nebivolol on ADMA-induced vascular response in rat aorta in vitro. METHODS: In vitro, the effects of nebivolol and ADMA on resting tone or contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE, 10(-6 )mol/L) and relaxation induced by acetylcholine (Ach, 10(-10)-10(-5 )mol/L) were evaluated. RESULTS: ADMA in a concentration-dependent manner increased the resting and PE-induced tone and reduced Ach-induced relaxation. Nebivolol inhibited the ADMA-induced enhancements in tone and reversed the effects of ADMA on Ach-induced relaxation. These effects of nebivolol were blocked by selective ß3 receptor blocker cyanopindolol (1 µM), but not by selective ß2 receptor blocker butoxamine (50 µM). CONCLUSIONS: Nebivolol ameliorates the ADMA-induced vascular responses in rat aorta, at least in part, by mechanisms involving ß3 adrenoceptor.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Nebivolol/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/metabolismo , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Arginina/farmacologia , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Pindolol/análogos & derivados , Pindolol/farmacologia , Ratos
15.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 91: 256-63, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26738802

RESUMO

Numerous clinical studies have found that ingestion of chocolate reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome, however, the mechanisms were remain unclear. We have reported that a single dose of a flavan-3-ol fraction derived from cocoa (FL) enhanced energy expenditure (EE) and increased the mRNA expression levels of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), and the protein level of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α in tissues, along with plasma adrenaline level. In the present study, we examined whether the EE enhancing activity of FL is mediated by adrenergic effect using several adrenalin receptor (AR) blockers. In the first study, mice were butoxamine, as ß2AR blocker, with vehicle or 10mg/kg FL orally. We found that pretreatment with butoxamine prevented the increases of EE, the mRNA expression of UCP-3, and phosphorylated AMPKα that were induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice by 10mg/kg FL. Secondly, mice were given SR52930, as ß3AR blocker. Pretreatment with SR52930 prevented the increases of EE, the mRNA expression of UCP-3, and phosphorylated AMPKα that were induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice by 10mg/kg FL. Pretreatment with a combination of both blockers also reduced the increments in mRNA expression levels of UCPs and PGC-1α, however, phosphorylated AMPKα in skeletal muscle was rather increased. These results suggest that the ability of a single oral dose of FL to enhance metabolic activity is mediated by sympathetic nerve system (SNS).


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/farmacologia , Animais , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
16.
Neuroreport ; 26(17): 1003-10, 2015 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26426856

RESUMO

Chronic stress is widely considered to trigger or enhance itch, especially for pruritic dermatitis. However, the molecular mechanisms linking chronic stress and itch are still unknown. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of adrenergic signaling in itch hypersensitivity following heterotypic chronic intermittent stress (HIS) in rats. HIS significantly increased hindlimb scratching, but not forepaw swiping, induced by intradermal injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the rat cheek. Coadministration of stress mediators such as norepinephrine or epinephrine dose-dependently increased both 5-HT-induced hindlimb scratching and 5-HT-induced forepaw swiping. HIS-induced itch hypersensitivity was attenuated by blockade of sympathetic signaling through guanethidine treatment, and systemic administration of the ß-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol and the ß2-adrenoceptor antagonist butoxamine, but not on treatment with an α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine and a ß1-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol. Moreover, HIS selectively increased the expression of ß2-adrenoceptors and proinflammatory factors [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and nerve growth factor (NGF)] in rat skin. The ß-blockers propranolol and butoxamine abolished the upregulation of proinflammatory factors. The ß2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline was sufficient to enhance the skin expression of TNF-α and IL-1ß and to increase 5-HT-induced scratching in naive rats. Pretreatment with TNF-α could increase 5-HT-induced scratching. Together, these results demonstrate that ß2-adrenoceptors mediate itch hypersensitivity following chronic stress by inducing proinflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, in the skin.


Assuntos
Prurido/fisiopatologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Agonistas alfa-Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Propranolol/farmacologia , Prurido/induzido quimicamente , Prurido/complicações , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Serotonina/farmacologia , Pele/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 27(6): 875-84, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25846270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rikkunshito (RKT) is a gastroprotective herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the role of RKT in the relaxation of the gastric body (fundus and corpus) and antrum. METHODS: We used Suncus murinus, a unique small model animal with similar gastrointestinal motility to humans and dogs. RKT was added at 0.1, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/mL to induce relaxation in vitro; the outcome measure was the intensity of relaxation. The number of spontaneous antral contractions in the absence or the presence of RKT was also counted. KEY RESULTS: Rikkunshito induced the relaxation of the gastric body and antrum and decreased the number of spontaneous antral contractions in a dose-dependent manner. The responses to RKT (1.0 mg/mL) were not affected by pretreatment with atropine, N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, ritanserin, or ondansetron. On the other hand, timolol almost completely reversed the relaxation induced by RKT (1.0 mg/mL) on the gastric body and antrum and the occurrence of the spontaneous antral contractions. Both butoxamine, a ß(2) -adrenoreceptor antagonist, and L 748337, a ß(3) -adrenoreceptor antagonist, but not CGP 20712, a ß(1) -adrenoreceptor antagonist, significantly reversed the RKT-induced (1.0 mg/mL) gastric relaxation. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: These results indicate that RKT stimulates and modulates gastric relaxation through ß(2) - and ß(3) -adrenergic, but not ß(1) -adrenergic, pathways in S. murinus.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fundo Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Antro Pilórico/efeitos dos fármacos , Musaranhos , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Aminofenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Timolol/farmacologia
18.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 754: 32-40, 2015 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25725113

RESUMO

We investigated the presence of ß3-adrenoceptor and its functional effects on pacemaker potentials in colonic interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from mice. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the mRNA transcript levels ß-adrenoceptors. The ß3-adrenoceptor agonist, BRL37344, reduced the frequency of pacemaker potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of BRL37344 were blocked by the pretreatment of propranolol, a nonspecific ß-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not by the selective ß1-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol and the selective ß2-adrenoceptor antagonist butoxamine. ß3-adrenoceptor antagonists SR59230A and L748337 blocked the inhibitory effects of BRL37344. RT-PCR revealed mRNA transcripts of ß1- and ß3-adrenoceptor, but not ß2-adrenoceptor, in c-kit- and Ano-1-positive colonic ICCs. The K(+) channel blockers tetraethylammonium, apamin, and glibenclamide did not block the effects of BRL37344. N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor, and chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, also did not block the effects of BRL37344. Noradrenaline mimicked the effects of BRL37344 in colonic ICCs. However, the inhibitory effects of noradrenaline on pacemaker potentials were blocked only by pretreatment with atenolol but not by butoxamine, SR59230A, or L748337. In small intestinal ICCs, BRL37344 had no effect on pacemaker potentials and mRNA transcripts of ß1-and ß2-adrenoceptor, but not ß3-adrenoceptor were detected. These results suggest that ß3-adrenoceptors are present in colonic ICCs and may play a role in regulating gastrointestinal motility by the inhibition of pacemaker potentials.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Colo/citologia , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/fisiologia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Aminofenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Atenolol/farmacologia , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Relógios Biológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanolaminas/antagonistas & inibidores , Etanolaminas/farmacologia , Feminino , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/fisiologia , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Propanolaminas/farmacologia , Propranolol/farmacologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/biossíntese , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia
19.
J Dent Res ; 93(8): 807-12, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24868013

RESUMO

Recently, involvement of the sympathetic nervous system in bone metabolism has attracted attention. ß2-Adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR) is presented on osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. We previously demonstrated that ß-AR blockers at low dose improve osteoporosis with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system via ß2-AR blocking, while they may have a somewhat inhibitory effect on osteoblastic activity at high doses. In this study, the effects of butoxamine (BUT), a specific ß2-AR antagonist, on tooth movement were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showing osteoporosis with hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. We administered BUT (1 mg/kg) orally, and closed-coil springs were inserted into the upper-left first molar. After sacrifice, we calculated the amount of tooth movement and analyzed the trabecular microarchitecture and histomorphometry. The distance in the SHR control was greater than that in the Wistar-Kyoto rat group, but no significant difference was found in the SHR treated with BUT compared with the Wistar-Kyoto rat control. Analysis of bone volume per tissue volume, trabecular number, and osteoclast surface per bone surface in the alveolar bone showed clear bone loss by an increase of bone resorption in SHR. In addition, BUT treatment resulted in a recovery of alveolar bone loss. Furthermore, TH-immunoreactive nerves in the periodontal ligament were increased by tooth movement, and BUT administration decreased TH-immunoreactive nerves. These results suggest that BUT prevents alveolar bone loss and orthodontic tooth movement via ß2-AR blocking.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Processo Alveolar/efeitos dos fármacos , Butoxamina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Fosfatase Ácida/sangue , Processo Alveolar/inervação , Animais , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Isoenzimas/sangue , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fios Ortodônticos , Osteocalcina/sangue , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/patologia , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Ligamento Periodontal/inervação , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/enzimologia , Fosfatase Ácida Resistente a Tartarato , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/instrumentação , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/análise , Microtomografia por Raio-X/métodos
20.
PLoS One ; 9(4): e94726, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24733123

RESUMO

Chronic visceral pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been difficult to treat effectively partially because its pathophysiology is not fully understood. Recent studies show that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. In this study, we designed to investigate the role of adrenergic signaling in visceral hypersensitivity induced by heterotypical intermittent stress (HIS). Abdominal withdrawal reflex scores (AWRs) used as visceral sensitivity were determined by measuring the visceromoter responses to colorectal distension. Colon-specific dorsal root ganglia neurons (DRGs) were labeled by injection of DiI into the colon wall and were acutely dissociated for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Blood plasma level of NE was measured using radioimmunoassay kits. The expression of ß2-adrenoceptors was measured by western blotting. We showed that HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was attenuated by systemic administration of a ß-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, in a dose-dependent manner, but not by a α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Using specific ß-adrenoceptor antagonists, HIS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was alleviated by ß2 adrenoceptor antagonist but not by ß1- or ß3-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of a selective ß2-adrenoceptor antagonist also normalized hyperexcitability of colon-innervating DRG neurons of HIS rats. Furthermore, administration of ß-adrenoceptor antagonist suppressed sustained potassium current density (IK) without any alteration of fast-inactivating potassium current density (IA). Conversely, administration of NE enhanced the neuronal excitability and produced visceral hypersensitivity in healthy control rats, and blocked by ß2-adrenoceptor antagonists. In addition, HIS significantly enhanced the NE concentration in the blood plasma but did not change the expression of ß2-adrenoceptor in DRGs and the muscularis externa of the colon. The present study might provide a potential molecular target for therapy of visceral hypersensitivity in patents with IBS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Dor Visceral/metabolismo , Animais , Butoxamina/química , Colo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Neurônios/metabolismo , Norepinefrina/sangue , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Fentolamina/química , Propranolol/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
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