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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48304

RESUMO

A TCV Televisão de Cabo Verde exibiu uma matéria em repercussão ao evento realizado para celebrar os 10 anos do primeiro Banco de Leite Humano, localizado no Hospital Central da Praia - Agostinho Neto. As conquistas do BLH e suas contribuições na redução das taxas de mortalidade infantil e má nutrição e o aumento das de aleitamento materno exclusivo foram ressaltadas pela emissora; assim como o apoio do Brasil e da rBLH-BR no desenvolvimento do BLH caboverdiano.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano , Promoção da Saúde , Cabo Verde
2.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201179

RESUMO

Previous molecular characterization of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) samples from Cabo Verde pointed out a vast HIV-1 pol diversity, with several subtypes and recombinant forms, being 5.2% classified as AU-pol. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the characterization of these AU sequences. The genomic DNA of seven HIV-1 AU pol-infected individuals were submitted to four overlapping nested-PCR fragments aiming to compose the full-length HIV-1 genome. The final classification was based on phylogenetic trees that were generated using the maximum likelihood and bootscan analysis. The genetic distances were calculated using Mega 7.0 software. Complete genome amplification was possible for two samples, and partial genomes were obtained for the other five. These two samples grouped together with a high support value, in a separate branch from the other sub-subtypes A and CRF26_A5U. No recombination was verified at bootscan, leading to the classification of a new sub-subtype A. The intragroup genetic distance from the new sub-subtype A at a complete genome was 5.2%, and the intergroup genetic varied from 8.1% to 19.0% in the analyzed fragments. Our study describes a new HIV-1 sub-subtype A and highlights the importance of continued molecular surveillance studies, mainly in countries with high HIV molecular diversity.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , Adulto , Cabo Verde , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 170: 112633, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171630

RESUMO

Organotin (OT) based Antifouling Systems (AFS) were globally banned by the AFS Convention since 2008, but the Republic of Cabo Verde did not ratify this Convention, nor did it develop a national legislation to control OT-AFS. Gemophos viverratus imposex and butyltin tissue contamination were assessed around the São Vicente Island (Cabo Verde) in 2019 and compared with the data available from 2012. The vas deferens sequence index (VDSI), the relative penis length (RPL), the percentage of females with imposex (%I) and the percentage of sterilized females (%S) in 2019 ranged from 0 to 4.0, 0-84.4%, 0-100% and 0-5.1%, respectively, whilst TBT reached maximum values of ≈30 ng TBT-Sn g-1 dw in the whelk tissues. These values are very similar to those registered in 2012, which indicates that TBT pollution has not decreased over the years, in contrast to the declining trend observed worldwide.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual , Gastrópodes , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho , Compostos de Trialquitina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cabo Verde , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/induzido quimicamente , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/toxicidade , Compostos de Trialquitina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Malar J ; 20(1): 172, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cape Verde is an archipelago located off the West African coast and is in a pre-elimination phase of malaria control. Since 2010, fewer than 20 Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have been reported annually, except in 2017, when an outbreak in Praia before the rainy season led to 423 autochthonous cases. It is important to understand the genetic diversity of circulating P. falciparum to inform on drug resistance, potential transmission networks and sources of infection, including parasite importation. METHODS: Enrolled subjects involved malaria patients admitted to Dr Agostinho Neto Hospital at Praia city, Santiago island, Cape Verde, between July and October 2017. Neighbours and family members of enrolled cases were assessed for the presence of anti-P. falciparum antibodies. Sanger sequencing and real-time PCR was used to identify SNPs in genes associated with drug resistance (e.g., pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfmdr1, pfk13, pfcrt), and whole genome sequencing data were generated to investigate the population structure of P. falciparum parasites. RESULTS: The study analysed 190 parasite samples, 187 indigenous and 3 from imported infections. Malaria cases were distributed throughout Praia city. There were no cases of severe malaria and all patients had an adequate clinical and parasitological response after treatment. Anti-P. falciparum antibodies were not detected in the 137 neighbours and family members tested. No mutations were detected in pfdhps. The triple mutation S108N/N51I/C59R in pfdhfr and the chloroquine-resistant CVIET haplotype in the pfcrt gene were detected in almost all samples. Variations in pfk13 were identified in only one sample (R645T, E668K). The haplotype NFD for pfmdr1 was detected in the majority of samples (89.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in pfk13 associated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) tolerance in Southeast Asia were not detected, but the majority of the tested samples carried the pfmdr1 haplotype NFD and anti-malarial-associated mutations in the the pfcrt and pfdhfr genes. The first whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for Cape Verdean parasites that showed that the samples cluster together, have a very high level of similarity and are close to other parasites populations from West Africa.


Assuntos
Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Cabo Verde/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zootaxa ; 4963(2): zootaxa.4963.2.7, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903556

RESUMO

The Aderidae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) of Cabo Verde (or Cape Verde in English transcription) Archipelago in the Central Atlantic Ocean is revised based on an examination of types and additional material. Four species are confirmed for the archipelago, three of the genus Cobososia Collado et Alonso-Zarazaga, 1996 and one of the genus Aderus Stephens, 1829. We also propose to transfer Anthicus reductus Wollaston, 1867 (Anthicidae: Anthicinae: Anthicini) to the genus Cobososia (Aderidae), as Cobososia reducta (Wollaston, 1867) comb. nov. and demonstrate, that Cobososia angulithorax (Desbrochers des Loges, 1881) is conspecific with Cobososia reducta (Wollaston, 1867) syn. nov. Finally, we present new records and an illustrated identification key to the ant-like leaf beetles of Cabo Verde.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Cabo Verde , Classificação , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Besouros/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917540

RESUMO

Consumption of cereals and cereal-based products represents 47% of the total food energy intake in Cape Verde. However, cereals also contribute to dietary exposure to metals that may pose a risk. Strengthening food security and providing nutritional information is a high-priority challenge for the Cape Verde government. In this study, toxic metal content (Cr, Ni, Sr, Al, Cd, and Pb) is determined in 126 samples of cereals and derivatives (rice, corn, wheat, corn flour, wheat flour, corn gofio) consumed in Cape Verde. Wheat flour samples stand out, with the highest Sr (1.60 mg/kg), Ni (0.25 mg/kg) and Cr (0.13 mg/kg) levels. While the consumption of 100 g/day of wheat would contribute to 13.2% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of Ni, a consumption of 100 g/day of wheat flour would contribute to 8.18% of the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of Cd. Results show relevant Al levels (1.17-13.4 mg/kg), with the highest level observed in corn gofio. The mean Pb average content in cereals is 0.03-0.08 mg/kg, with the highest level observed in corn gofio. Al and Pb levels are lower in cereals without husks. Without being a health risk, the consumption of 100 g/day of wheat contributes to 17.5% of the European benchmark doses lower confidence limit (BMDL) of Pb for nephrotoxic effects; the consumption of 100 g/day of corn gofio provides an intake of 1.34 mg Al/day (13.7% of the TWI) and 8 µg Pb/day (20% of the BMDL for nephrotoxic effects). A strategy to minimize the dietary exposure of the Cape Verdean population to toxic metals from cereals should consider the continuous monitoring of imported cereals on arrival in Cape Verde, the assessment of the population's total diet exposure to toxic metals and educational campaigns.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Metais Pesados , Cabo Verde , Grão Comestível/química , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Triticum
7.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1345-1353, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689039

RESUMO

Human pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) belongs to the genus Pegivirus, family Flaviviridae, and until now has been considered a non-pathogenic agent, despite being considered a risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, a beneficial impact of HPgV-1 on HIV disease progression has been extensively reported. Given the high prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and the scarcity of epidemiological data for many countries of West Africa, we conducted the first study of HPgV-1 in HIV-infected individuals from Cabo Verde. To obtain new data regarding prevalence and genetic diversity of HPgV-1 in Africa, serum samples from 102 HIV-infected Cabo Verdeans were tested for the presence of viral RNA, and the circulating genotypes were identified by sequencing of the 5' untranslated region. HPgV-1 RNA was detected in 19.6% (20/102) of the samples. In 72.2% (13/18) of the samples, the virus was identified as genotype 2 (11/13 subtype 2a and 2/13 subtype 2b), and in 27.8% (5/18), it was identified as genotype 1. The estimated substitution rate of HPgV-1 genotype 2 was 5.76 × 10-4, and Bayesian analysis indicated the existence of inner clusters within subtypes 2a and 2b. The prevalence of HPgV-1 viremia in Cabo Verde agrees with that reported previously in Africa. Genotypes 1 and 2 cocirculate, with genotype 2 being more common, and HIV/HPgV-1 coinfection was not associated with higher CD4 T cell counts in the studied population. This finding contributes for the expansion of the pegivirus research agenda in African countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flaviviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus GB C/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Cabo Verde/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Flaviviridae/virologia , Vírus GB C/classificação , Vírus GB C/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hepatite Viral Humana/virologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Viremia/epidemiologia , Viremia/virologia
8.
Elife ; 102021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393457

RESUMO

Humans have undergone large migrations over the past hundreds to thousands of years, exposing ourselves to new environments and selective pressures. Yet, evidence of ongoing or recent selection in humans is difficult to detect. Many of these migrations also resulted in gene flow between previously separated populations. These recently admixed populations provide unique opportunities to study rapid evolution in humans. Developing methods based on distributions of local ancestry, we demonstrate that this sort of genetic exchange has facilitated detectable adaptation to a malaria parasite in the admixed population of Cabo Verde within the last ~20 generations. We estimate that the selection coefficient is approximately 0.08, one of the highest inferred in humans. Notably, we show that this strong selection at a single locus has likely affected patterns of ancestry genome-wide, potentially biasing demographic inference. Our study provides evidence of adaptation in a human population on historical timescales.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Malária/parasitologia , Seleção Genética , Cabo Verde , Humanos
9.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(2): 200-206, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706614

RESUMO

Background: Telemedicine systems increase access to care, particularly in remote and developing countries. Nationwide telemedicine programs in Cabo Verde and Albania have been built by the International Virtual e-Hospital Foundation (IVeH) and based on the effective Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer (IBOT) strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results between the two programs and examine the relationship between the clinical teleconsultations as an indicator of health care system needs and the contribution of local telemedicine champions. Methods: Data were prospectively collected between 2014 and 2018 from Albania and Cabo Verde. Telemedicine champions were defined as programs, physicians, or hospitals who have contributed at least 100 telemedicine consultations during the study periods. Chi-squared test was utilized to analyze the data. Results: There were 2,442 teleconsultations in Cabo Verde and 2,724 teleconsultations in Albania during the study periods. Using the 100-consultation benchmark as the indicator of telemedicine champion, we identified radiology (n = 1,061), neurotrauma (n = 742), and general neurology or stroke (n = 489) as champion clinical disciplines in Albania. With the same method of 100 consultations, we identified eight champion clinical disciplines in Cabo Verde, including neurology (n = 720), cardiology (n = 313), orthopedics (n = 190), surgery (143), endocrinology (141), otolaryngology (n = 139), urology (n = 139), and dermatology (126). The patient transfer/nontransfer ratio was 0.5 in Cabo Verde and 0.3 in Albania (p < 0.001). Three hospitals in Albania and eight community hospitals/health care centers in Cabo Verde requested the majority of teleconsultations. Two main hospitals in Cabo Verde and Albania responded to the consultations. Conclusion: The successful implementation of a telemedicine program depends on many factors. However, physician champions, who eventually create clinical discipline champions, and represent the hospital champions, are the backbone of the sustainability and progress of any telemedicine program. The number of consultations reflects the lack of local specialty expertise to provide health care service and thus can be used for future planning and investment.


Assuntos
Neurologia , Consulta Remota , Telemedicina , Albânia , Cabo Verde , Humanos
10.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(2): 172-177, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598240

RESUMO

Introduction: The Cabo Verde Telemedicine program (CVTP) was established by the International Virtual e-Hospital Foundation using the Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer strategy to improve access to specialty care for the population in the archipelago of Cabo Verde in 2012. Since its inception, the CVTP has proven a great success story of telemedicine in Africa. Our first report on the initial results of a nationwide CVTP was published in 2014. The aim of this article is to analyze the follow-up data and analyze the activity of CVTP. Methods: All telemedicine consultations of the CVTP from 2014 to 2018 were analyzed. Patient demographics, clinical discipline, and transfer status were analyzed. Categorical variables were compared with a chi-squared test. Results: There were 2,442 telemedicine consultations in 24 clinical programs performed during the study period. The most common clinical disciplines with >100 consultations were neurology, cardiology, orthopedic surgery, general surgery, endocrinology, otolaryngology, urology, and dermatology. Overall, the transfer rate was 34.3%. Conclusion: The nationwide CVTP continues to increase access to specialized care, prevent unnecessary and costly transfers, and has become a great success story of telemedicine in Africa. Moreover, this program should serve as a model for establishing island-nations telemedicine programs worldwide.


Assuntos
Consulta Remota , Telemedicina , África , Cabo Verde , Humanos
11.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 156: 107021, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248204

RESUMO

Nibblers (family Girellidae) are reef fishes that are mostly distributed in the Indo-Pacific, with one exception: Girella stuebeli, which is found in the Cabo Verde Archipelago, in the Atlantic Ocean. We capitalized on this unusual distribution to study the evolutionary history of the girellids, and determine the relationship between G. stuebeli and the remaining nibbler taxa. Based on thousands of genomic markers (RAD sequences), we identified the closest relatives of G. stuebeli as being a clade of three species endemic to the northwestern Pacific, restricted to the Sea of Japan and vicinity. This clade diverged from G. stuebeli approximately 2.2 Mya. Two alternative potential routes of migration may explain this affinity: a western route, from the Tropical Eastern Pacific and the Tropical Western Atlantic, and an eastern route via the Indian Ocean and Southern Africa. The geological history and oceanography of the regions combined with molecular data presented here, suggest that the eastern route of invasion (via the Indian Ocean and Southern Africa) is a more likely scenario.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Recifes de Corais , Perciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Cabo Verde , Calibragem , Geografia , Mitocôndrias/genética , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Coimbra; s.n; 2021. 123 p. tab.
Tese em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1281349

RESUMO

Enquadramento: A promoção do crescimento e desenvolvimento é considerada como um eixo referencial para atenção integral à saúde da criança. Esta é uma área onde o papel do enfermeiro pode ser decisivo, realizando intervenções chave nas consultas de saúde infantil. Objetivos: Caraterizar as atividades desenvolvidas pelos Enfermeiros na consulta de enfermagem de Saúde Infantil de crianças de 0 a 24 meses, tendo como foco o crescimento e desenvolvimento; identificar as áreas mais fortes e menos fortes no conjunto de atividades ligadas à promoção do crescimento e desenvolvimento, de crianças 0 a 24 meses realizados pelos enfermeiros na consulta de enfermagem de saúde infantil. Metodologia: Estudo de tipo exploratório e descritivo com abordagem quantitativa. Constituiu-se uma amostra não probabilística, obtida de modo consecutivo, de 106 consultas de saúde infantil, realizadas pelos enfermeiros em Centros de Saúde da cidade da Praia. Os dados foram obtidos através da observação direta das consultas, com um instrumento de observação formulado para este efeito. Resultados: As atividades de avaliação do crescimento apresentam melhores resultados comparativamente à avaliação do desenvolvimento e realização de cuidados antecipatórios. As áreas do crescimento identificadas como fortes foram: a avaliação do peso, da estatura, do perímetro cefálico e uso das curvas de crescimento. Nas atividades de avaliação de desenvolvimento e realização de cuidados antecipatórios foram identificadas áreas que necessitam de maior investimento e atenção, nomeadamente: a avaliação de desenvolvimento com escala, avaliação dos comportamentos pré-linguísticos do bebé, avaliação da audição, dos comportamentos de vínculos dos pais para com o recém-nascido e lactente, esclarecimento dos pais acerca do comportamento e temperamento e avaliação da família. Nos cuidados antecipatórios, as áreas alvo de melhorias são: informações e esclarecimentos aos pais sobre problemas correntes da criança ao longo das várias etapas de crescimento, importância da atividade lúdica da criança no desenvolvimento, efeitos dos ecrãs, importância da creche/amas e das reações da criança, sono e/ou rituais de ir para a cama e o processo progressivo de controlo de esfíncteres. Neste contexto, este diagnóstico da situação cria condições para poderem implementadas ações que contribuirão para a melhoria da saúde e desenvolvimento das crianças no país.


Assuntos
Enfermagem Pediátrica , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cabo Verde
13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 587046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344398

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, there are 370 million children receiving school meals every day. Coverage is least in low-income countries, where the need is greatest and where program costs are viewed as high in comparison with the benefits to public health alone. Here we explore the policy implications of including the returns of school feeding to other sectors in an economic analysis. Methods: We develop an economic evaluation methodology to estimate the costs and benefits of school feeding programs across four sectors: health and nutrition; education; social protection; and the local agricultural economy. We then apply this multi-sectoral benefit-cost analytical framework to school feeding programs in 14 countries (Botswana, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Côte d'Ivoire, Ecuador, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mali, Mexico, Namibia, Nigeria, and South Africa) for which input data are readily available. Results: Across the 14 countries, we estimate that 190 million schoolchildren benefit from school feeding programs, with total program budgets reaching USD11 billion per year. Estimated annual human capital returns are USD180 billion: USD24 billion from health and nutrition gains, and USD156 billion from education. In addition, school feeding programs offer annual social protection benefits of USD7 billion and gains to local agricultural economies worth USD23 billion. Conclusions: This multi-sectoral analysis suggests that the overall benefits of school feeding are several times greater than the returns to public health alone, and that the overall benefit-cost ratio of school feeding programs could vary between 7 and 35, with particular sensitivity to the value of local wages. The scale of the findings suggests that school feeding programs are potentially much more cost-beneficial when viewed from the perspective of their multi-sectoral returns, and that it would be worthwhile following up with more detailed analyses at the national level to enhance the precision of these estimates.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Pública , Botsuana , Brasil , Cabo Verde , Criança , Chile , Costa do Marfim , Equador , Gana , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Quênia , Mali , México , Namíbia , Nigéria , Política Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul
14.
Zootaxa ; 4878(3): zootaxa.4878.3.4, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311144

RESUMO

A new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from São Nicolau Island, Cabo Verde Archipelago, and the Sal and Boavista island populations of Hemidactylus boavistensis (i.e., Hemidactylus boavistensis boavistensis comb. nov. and Hemidactylus boavistensis chevalieri comb. nov.) are recognized as subspecies. Hemidactylus nicolauensis sp. nov. is genetically distinct from H. bouvieri, to which it has previously been referred, and from all other closely related endemic Hemidactylus from Cabo Verde Islands in mitochondrial (12S cyt b) and nuclear (RAG2, MC1R) markers. It is characterized morphologically by its distinct colouration and a diagnostically different arrangement of digital lamellae. With the description of this new species, São Nicolau is now known to harbour three single-island endemic gecko species, and the documented reptile diversity in Cabo Verde is raised to 23 endemic species. As a result of our taxonomic changes, existing conservation regulations should be updated and the conservation status of these taxa should be re-evaluated.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Cabo Verde , Ilhas , Mitocôndrias , Filogenia
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21798, 2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311534

RESUMO

Distribution patterns of fragile gelatinous fauna in the open ocean remain scarcely documented. Using epi-and mesopelagic video transects in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which features a mild but intensifying midwater oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), we established one of the first regional observations of diversity and abundance of large gelatinous zooplankton. We quantified the day and night vertical distribution of 46 taxa in relation to environmental conditions. While distribution may be driven by multiple factors, abundance peaks of individual taxa were observed in the OMZ core, both above and below the OMZ, only above, or only below the OMZ whereas some taxa did not have an obvious distribution pattern. In the eastern eropical North Atlantic, OMZ expansion in the course of global climate change may detrimentally impact taxa that avoid low oxygen concentrations (Beroe, doliolids), but favour taxa that occur in the OMZ (Lilyopsis, phaeodarians, Cydippida, Colobonema, Haliscera conica and Halitrephes) as their habitat volume might increase. While future efforts need to focus on physiology and taxonomy of pelagic fauna in the study region, our study presents biodiversity and distribution data for the regional epi- and mesopelagic zones of Cape Verde providing a regional baseline to monitor how climate change may impact the largest habitat on the planet, the deep pelagic realm.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Zooplâncton , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Cabo Verde , Zooplâncton/classificação , Zooplâncton/fisiologia
16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014975

RESUMO

Background: Antimalarial antibody measurements are useful because they reflect historical and recent exposure to malaria. As such, they may provide additional information to assess ongoing transmission in low endemic or pre-elimination settings where cases are rare. In addition, the absence of antibody responses in certain individuals can indicate the cessation of transmission. Commercial malaria enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) detect antimalarial antibodies and are commonly used to screen blood donations for possible malaria infection. However, there is no standardized test to detect antimalarial antibodies for epidemiological use. Here we compared five commercially available ELISA kits (Trinity Biotech, newbio, DiaPro, Cellabs, and NovaTec) in search of a standardized tool for supporting claims of absence of malaria transmission. For comparison, a research-based (RB) ELISA protocol was performed alongside the commercial kits. Results: The commercial kits were first compared using serum samples from known malaria-unexposed individuals (n = 223) and Toxoplasma-infected individuals (n = 191) to assess specificity and cross-reactivity against non-malaria infections. In addition, 134 samples from ≥10-year-olds collected in a hyperendemic region in the Gambia in the early 1990s were used to assess sensitivity. Three out of five kits showed high sensitivity (90-92%), high specificity (98-99%), low cross-reactivity (0-3%) and were considered user-friendly (Trinity Biotech, newbio and NovaTec). Two of these kits (Trinity Biotech and NovaTec) were taken forward for epidemiological evaluation and results were compared to those using the RB-ELISA. Samples from two pre-elimination settings (Praia, Cape Verde; n = 1,396, and Bataan, the Philippines; n = 1,824) were tested. Serological results from both the Trinity Biotech kit and the RB-ELISA concurred with recent passively detected case counts in both settings. Results from the Trinity Biotech kit reflected a significant decrease in the number of reported cases in Bataan in the 1990s better than the RB-ELISA. Results from the NovaTec kit did not reflect transmission patterns in either setting. Conclusion: The Trinity Biotech commercial ELISA kit was considered reliable for epidemiological use and accurately described transmission patterns in two (previously) malaria endemic settings. The use of this simple and standardized serological tool may aid national control and elimination programs by confirming that regions are free from malaria.


Assuntos
Malária , Cabo Verde , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Gâmbia , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Filipinas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18001, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093463

RESUMO

Understanding the processes that underlie the current distribution of genetic diversity in endangered species is a goal of modern conservation biology. Specifically, the role of colonization and dispersal events throughout a species' evolutionary history often remains elusive. The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) faces multiple conservation challenges due to its migratory nature and philopatric behaviour. Here, using 4207 mtDNA sequences, we analysed the colonisation patterns and distribution of genetic diversity within a major ocean basin (the Atlantic), a regional rookery (Cabo Verde Archipelago) and a local island (Island of Boa Vista, Cabo Verde). Data analysis using hypothesis-driven population genetic models suggests the colonization of the Atlantic has occurred in two distinct waves, each corresponding to a major mtDNA lineage. We propose the oldest lineage entered the basin via the isthmus of Panama and sequentially established aggregations in Brazil, Cabo Verde and in the area of USA and Mexico. The second lineage entered the Atlantic via the Cape of Good Hope, establishing colonies in the Mediterranean Sea, and from then on, re-colonized the already existing rookeries of the Atlantic. At the Cabo Verde level, we reveal an asymmetric gene flow maintaining links across island-specific nesting groups, despite significant genetic structure. This structure stems from female philopatric behaviours, which could further be detected by weak but significant differentiation amongst beaches separated by only a few kilometres on the island of Boa Vista. Exploring biogeographic processes at diverse geographic scales improves our understanding of the complex evolutionary history of highly migratory philopatric species. Unveiling the past facilitates the design of conservation programmes targeting the right management scale to maintain a species' evolutionary potential.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Mitocôndrias/genética , Tartarugas/genética , Animais , Brasil , Cabo Verde , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Mar Mediterrâneo , México , Panamá , Estados Unidos
18.
Malar J ; 19(1): 380, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Located in West Africa, Cabo Verde is an archipelago consisting of nine inhabited islands. Malaria has been endemic since the settlement of the islands during the sixteenth century and is poised to achieve malaria elimination in January 2021. The aim of this research is to characterize the trends in malaria cases from 2010 to 2019 in Cabo Verde as the country transitions from endemic transmission to elimination and prevention of reintroduction phases. METHODS: All confirmed malaria cases reported to the Ministry of Health between 2010 and 2019 were extracted from the passive malaria surveillance system. Individual-level data available included age, gender, municipality of residence, and the self-reported countries visited if travelled within the past 30 days, therby classified as imported. Trends in reported cases were visualized and multivariable logistic regression used to assess risk factors associated with a malaria case being imported and differences over time. RESULTS: A total of 814 incident malaria cases were reported in the country between 2010 and 2019, the majority of which were Plasmodium falciparum. Overall, prior to 2017, when the epidemic occurred, 58.1% (95% CI 53.6-64.6) of infections were classified as imported, whereas during the post-epidemic period, 93.3% (95% CI 86.9-99.7) were imported. The last locally acquired case was reported in January 2018. Imported malaria cases were more likely to be 25-40 years old (AOR: 15.1, 95% CI 5.9-39.2) compared to those under 15 years of age and more likely during the post-epidemic period (AOR: 56.1; 95% CI 13.9-225.5) and most likely to be reported on Sao Vicente Island (AOR = 4256.9, 95% CI = 260-6.9e+4) compared to Boavista. CONCLUSIONS: Cabo Verde has made substantial gains in reducing malaria burden in the country over the past decade and are poised to achieve elimination in 2021. However, the high mobility between the islands and continental Africa, where malaria is still highly endemic, means there is a constant risk of malaria reintroduction. Characterization of imported cases provides useful insight for programme and enables better evidence-based decision-making to ensure malaria elimination can be sustained.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cabo Verde/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 726, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098502

RESUMO

Air quality degradation due to road traffic emissions is one of the topics of major interest for the scientific community and urban planners worldwide. Cabo Verde does not have regulations for traffic emission control or air quality guidelines, although the number of road vehicles has grown steadily over the past decade. Moreover, studies focusing on the impact of road transport on air quality in this archipelago are sparse. In this study, we present a first detailed air pollutant inventory of road traffic emissions through a bottom-up methodology, along with snapshots of the state of air quality on the islands of Santiago, São Vicente, and Sal. For the year 2017, emission estimates for the main island (Santiago) are 654 tons of CO, 35 tons of PM10, 562 tons of NOx, and 84 tons of NMVOCs. The air quality assessment was carried out using the TAPM model for a period of 6 months from January to July 2017. The results showed that the mean concentration values for Sao Vicente, Sal, and Santiago Islands ranged between 2.0 and 18 µg m-3 for NO2 and 3.8 and 5.6 µg m-3 for PM10. NO2 concentrations show an increasing trend from January to July in Santiago and Sal, and no clear trend in São Vicente Island. The simulated PM10 concentrations showed values in the same range over the year, even though they appeared slightly higher in July than in January. It was observed that both NO2 and PM10 average concentrations have been consistently above healthful levels, according to air quality guidelines fixed by the WHO.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cabo Verde , Monitoramento Ambiental , Emissões de Veículos/análise
20.
Zootaxa ; 4768(2): zootaxa.4768.2.7, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056527

RESUMO

A new species of sponge-dwelling palaemonid shrimp of the genus Typton Costa, 1844 is described based on specimens collected in Enseada de Corais da Matiota, São Vicente Island, Cabo Verde. Typton anaramosae sp. nov., is the twentieth species known in this genus and is morphologically most similar to T. prionurus from the western Atlantic and T. granulosus and T. serratus from the eastern Pacific, all four sharing the serrated distal part of the outer margin of the uropodal exopod and the absence of a median tooth on the posterodorsal margin of the sixth pleonite. The more specific features, which distinguish the new species from its related congeners are discussed.


Assuntos
Decápodes , Palaemonidae , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Cabo Verde
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