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1.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(239): 709-711, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508503

RESUMO

Myiasis is a skin infection caused by developing larvae (maggots) of various Diptera fly species. The two most frequent flies that cause human infestations around the world are Dermatobia hominis (human botfly) and Cordylobia anthropophaga (tumbu fly). Maggots have been found to infest the nose, ear, orbit, tracheostomy wound, face, gums, and serous cavities, among other places. Maggots at the colostomy site are an uncommon occurrence. We report a case of maggots infestation surrounding the colostomy site. We came across a rather rare finding in a patient with advanced inoperable rectum cancer who initially complained of persistent nonspecific pain, discomfort, and foul-smelling discharge from the colostomy site. The issue at hand was identified to be maggots, and their removal alleviated the patient's symptoms. We underline the importance of regularly monitoring stoma sites to avoid maggot infestation, especially in tropical regions.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Miíase , Animais , Calliphoridae , Colostomia , Humanos , Larva , Miíase/diagnóstico , Miíase/etiologia , Miíase/terapia
2.
Int J Legal Med ; 135(6): 2625-2635, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570269

RESUMO

Estimating the age of the developmental stages of the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is of forensic relevance for the determination of the minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin). Fly eggs and larvae can be aged using anatomical and morphological characters and their modification during development. However, such methods can only hardly be applied for aging fly pupae. Previous study described age estimation of C. vicina pupae using gene expression, but just when reared at constant temperatures, but fluctuating temperatures represent a more realistic scenario at a crime scene. Therefore, age-dependent gene expression of C. vicina pupae were compared at 3 fluctuating and 3 constant temperatures, the latter representing the mean values of the fluctuating profiles. The chosen marker genes showed uniform expression patterns during metamorphosis of C. vicina pupae bred at different temperature conditions (constant or fluctuating) but the same mean temperature (e.g. constant 10 °C vs. fluctuating 5-15 °C). We present an R-based statistical tool, which enables estimation of the age of the examined pupa based on the analysed gene expression data.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Calliphoridae/genética , Expressão Gênica , Metamorfose Biológica , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/genética , Temperatura , Animais , Entomologia Forense , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
3.
Ecol Lett ; 24(11): 2406-2417, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412157

RESUMO

Predicting complex species-environment interactions is crucial for guiding conservation and mitigation strategies in a dynamically changing world. Phenotypic plasticity is a mechanism of trait variation that determines how individuals and populations adapt to changing and novel environments. For individuals, the effects of phenotypic plasticity can be quantified by measuring environment-trait relationships, but it is often difficult to predict how phenotypic plasticity affects populations. The assumption that environment-trait relationships validated for individuals indicate how populations respond to environmental change is commonly made without sufficient justification. Here we derive a novel general mathematical framework linking trait variation due to phenotypic plasticity to population dynamics. Applying the framework to the classical example of Nicholson's blowflies, we show how seemingly sensible predictions made from environment-trait relationships do not generalise to population responses. As a consequence, trait-based analyses that do not incorporate population feedbacks risk mischaracterising the effect of environmental change on populations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Meio Ambiente , Animais , Calliphoridae , Fenótipo , Dinâmica Populacional
4.
J Insect Physiol ; 133: 104292, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371061

RESUMO

Several studies have highlighted the impact of environmental factors such as food type or larval density on the development of blowfly larvae. We investigated how changes in development speed (due to larval density and group composition) are divided among feeding and post-feeding stages. Even if these parameters impinge only on feeding larvae, they may ultimately also affect their subsequent development, and especially metamorphosis duration. Therefore, this study analysed the effect of larval density and group composition on the rhythm of necrophagous blowfly development. Based on laboratory studies, we highlighted that Calliphora vicina individuals with a fast development during their feeding phase developed slower in the later post-feeding phase (i.e., they had a compensatory effect). Lucilia sericata, a calliphorid species also frequently found on carrion at the same time as C. vicina, showed a different developmental strategy by not making its post-larval development speed dependent on the larval development speed. Finally, while a compensatory effect may exist, variations in the development rate more often accumulate through life-stages and resulted in a larger variability for later development instars. In this respect, the inclusion of detailed development duration covering all life stages, including post-feeding, is recommended in future studies, especially those dedicated to forensic entomology.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Entomologia Forense , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 670159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456904

RESUMO

Intestinal fibrosis is induced by excessive myofibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, which has been regarded as a general pathological feature in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, identifying clinical markers and targets to treat and prevent intestinal fibrosis is urgently needed. The traditional Chinese medicine maggot, commonly known as "wu gu chong", has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate inflammation in chronic colitis. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of maggot extract (ME) on inflammation-associated intestinal fibrosis in TGF-ß1-stimulated human intestinal fibroblasts (CCD-18Co cells) and dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis murine model. To assess the severity of inflammation and fibrosis, histological and macroscopic evaluation were carried out. The results showed that ME was a significant inhibitor of body weight loss and colon length shortening in mice with chronic colitis. In addition, ME suppressed the intestinal fibrosis by downregulating TGF-ß1/SMADs pathway via upregulation of Nrf2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels. ME markedly increased the expression of Nrf2, thus resulting in a higher level of HO-1. After treatment with Nrf2 inhibitor (ML385) or siRNA-Nrf2 for deactivating Nrf2 pathway, the protective effects of ME were abolished both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the histopathological results for the major organs of DSS mice treated with ME showed no signs of clinically important abnormalities. Treatment with ME had no effect on the viability of CCD-18Co cells, suggesting its low in vitro cytotoxicity. Furthermore, ME could mediate intestine health by keeping the balance of the gut microbes through the enhancement of beneficial microbes and suppression of pathogenic microbes. In conclusion, this is the first ever report demonstrating that ME ameliorates inflammation-associated intestinal fibrosis by suppressing TGF-ß1/SMAD pathway via upregulation of Nrf2 expression. Our findings highlight the potential of Nrf2 as an effective therapeutic target for alleviating intestinal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Calliphoridae/química , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos de Tecidos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Calliphoridae/embriologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Larva/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais , Extratos de Tecidos/isolamento & purificação , Regulação para Cima
6.
Parasitol Int ; 85: 102436, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389491

RESUMO

Myiasis is a parasitosis characterized by an infestation of living vertebrates (humans and other animals) by Diptera larvae, whose occurrence and etiological identification are still neglected by health professionals. Here we analyzed the human myiasis cases registered from 2010 to 2018 in health care units in the municipality of Natal, Northeast region of Brazil. Specifically, we aimed to: I) analyze the medical records of cases documented from 2010 to 2017; II) list the patients predisposing factors; and III) monitor the recent cases diagnosed in health units between August 2017 and March 2018 and report the taxonomic identity of the infesting species. Our data revealed that myiases mainly affect the elderly and individuals with predisposing medical conditions (e.g. senility, filariasis). Regarding the new cases, larvae of Calliphoridae (C. hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858)) and Sarcophagidae [Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1794), Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830), and Helicobia morionella (Aldrich, 1930)] were identified. Furthermore, this was the first report of a co-infestation with three Sarcophagidae species and also the presence of H. morionella in a human wound. These results reinforce that myiasis is an underreported parasitosis, which may underestimate the ability of previously unreported fly species to feed on living human tissues in the Neotropical Region.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/fisiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Miíase/parasitologia , Sarcofagídeos/fisiologia , Idoso , Animais , Brasil , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Sarcofagídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 327: 110940, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418648

RESUMO

Connecticut and the Northeastern United States in general, lacks forensically relevant entomological survey data. To determine which forensically relevant calliphorid (blow flies, Diptera: Calliphoridae) and non-calliphorid species dominate Connecticut, 5 traps using pork bait were set out 7 times over a 2-year period to collect adult and immature specimens. Insects collected from human corpses in this region were also tabulated to collaborate the forensic relevance of trapped specimens. The survey identified a total of 8 species of blow flies of the Lucilia and Calliphora genera, 6 of which colonized the baits, and 5 of which have been found to colonize human corpses in the area. Non-calliphorid genera Sarcophaga and Muscina were also found to be colonizers of the baited traps but in relatively lower numbers. Trap sites differed significantly in the degree of urbanization which was determined by using GIS mapping to classify a 1 kilometer (km) radius around each site using land use and the percent of urban impervious surfaces. The 1 km radius revealed the highly fragmented nature of the immediate habitats of the trap sites and no habitat or seasonal preference was demonstrated by blow flies under these trap conditions. Temperature was the one variable which significantly affected the number of flies trapped and the colonizing species. All trapped species have been described previously as widespread and common in the United States and as synanthropic. Further research in this region should trap at the constantly changing extreme ends of the urban-rural gradient and in the colder temperatures of winter to explore the limits of the flexibility of these blow fly species.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/classificação , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura , Urbanização
8.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 325-331, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379900

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To identify species of common sarcosaprophagous flies based on digital image analysis of veins, in order to provide new idea for fast and accurate species identification of sarcosaprophagous flies in forensic entomology. Methods Random trapping of 226 male and female sarcosaprophagous flies that comprised of 7 common species, including Sarcophaga peregrina, Parasarcophaga ruficornis, Sarcophaga dux, Seniorwhitea reciproca, Bercaea cruentata, Aldrichina grahami, and Synthesiomysia nudiseta with carrion in the field was conducted. The 17 landmarks on the right wing of each fly were digitally processed and the images were analyzed. The effects of allometry were evaluated using a permutation test. Wing shape variations among 7 sarcosaprophagous fly species and female species was analyzed using canonical variate analysis (CVA). Additionally, cross-validation test was used to evaluate the reliability of classification. Results Among 7 sarcosaprophagous fly species and female species, the effect of allometry had statistical significance (P<0.05). The CVA results showed that among 7 sarcosaprophagous fly species and female species, differences in the wing shape were significant, and the first two canonical variates accounted for 82.9% and 84.1% of the total variation of vein shape. Vein digital image analysis can be used to separate the 7 common sarcosaprophagous flies, with an overall species identification accuracy of 81.2%-100.0%, and with a species identification accuracy of 75.0%-100.0% to distinguish the female flies of the 7 sarcosaprophagous flies species. Conclusion Vein digital image analysis is a relatively convenient and reliable method for identification of insect species, which can be used for species identification of common sarcosaprophagous flies.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Calliphoridae , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 338-343, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379902

RESUMO

Abstract: Insect samples found on human corpses can provide the information important to estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). A female cadaver, found in a deserted factory in Chongqing of China, was confirmed as a homicide case after the forensic investigation and autopsy. Determining the time of death was difficult due to the inconsistent degree of decomposition in different parts of the decedent. The insect specimens found on the cadaver were identified to be Chrysomya rufifacies (C. rufifacies, Macquart) by morphology and mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. The PMImin was estimated to be 452 h, based on the developmental rate of C. rufifacies. The PMImin was estimated successfully to be almost precise, which provided an important entomological evidence for case investigation and suspect prosecution. In so doing, this highlights the usefulness of entomological evidence of specific species in the geographic area for PMI accurate estimation, especially in the case of advanced decomposed corpses.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Autopsia , Calliphoridae , China , Feminino , Humanos , Larva , Mudanças Depois da Morte
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15963, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354188

RESUMO

One group of promising pest control agents are the entomopathogenic fungi; one such example is Conidiobolus coronatus, which produces a range of metabolites. Our present findings reveal for the first time that C. coronatus also produces dodecanol, a compound widely used to make surfactants and pharmaceuticals, and enhance flavors in food. The main aim of the study was to determine the influence of dodecanol on insect defense systems, i.e. cuticular lipid composition and the condition of insect immunocompetent cells; hence, its effect was examined in detail on two species differing in susceptibility to fungal infection: Galleria mellonella and Calliphora vicina. Dodecanol treatment elicited significant quantitative and qualitative differences in cuticular free fatty acid (FFA) profiles between the species, based on gas chromatography analysis with mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and had a negative effect on G. mellonella and C. vicina hemocytes and a Sf9 cell line in vitro: after 48 h, almost all the cells were completely disintegrated. The metabolite had a negative effect on the insect defense system, suggesting that it could play an important role during C. coronatus infection. Its high insecticidal activity and lack of toxicity towards vertebrates suggest it could be an effective insecticide.


Assuntos
Conidiobolus/metabolismo , Dodecanol/metabolismo , Dodecanol/farmacologia , Animais , Calliphoridae , Conidiobolus/química , Conidiobolus/patogenicidade , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Fungos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo
11.
Acta Trop ; 222: 106052, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273305

RESUMO

In most species, several factors like time of emergence, age at maturation, reproductive life span, survival of males and females, mating behavior, differential resource use, and migration patterns may affect the adult sex ratio. Anthropogenic landscape transformation is known to change diversity, favoring colonization by exotic species but other populational parameters, such as the sex ratio, have not been assessed. The aim of the present study was to describe the sex-ratio patterns of adult necrophagous blow flies captured using carrion-baited traps along habitats representing different levels of human impact. We describe the sex bias for four species: the exotic Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya putoria, and the native Cochliomyia macellaria. Three types of habitats were selected: highly anthropized (urbanized), moderately anthropized (rural), and native forest (natural) within a humid subtropical ecoregion in Northeastern Argentina. We found an overall trend to female bias among the four species when considering the total number of each sex. However, our study showed a changing sex-ratio pattern along the gradient of human influence. Our results indicate that a higher likelihood of trapping more males in unsuitable habitats seems to be widespread among blow flies. Urban exploiters, such as Ch. megacephala and Ch. putoria, locally shifted their trends, becoming male-biased in natural habitats. The opposite trend was detected in the urban avoider Co. macellaria (which shifted to male-biased in urban habitats). The exception was Ch. albiceps, whose sex proportion did not shift to a male-biased sex ratio. The results of this study highlight the changing sex-ratio patterns displayed by Calliphoridae in response to different conditions along a human-influence gradient. The biological traits and underlying mechanisms promoting the intraspecific changes of the sex ratio are discussed.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Ecossistema , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 192: 114693, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302796

RESUMO

In the face of increasing drug resistance, the development of new anthelmintics is critical for controlling nematodes that parasitise livestock. Although hymenopteran venom toxins have attracted attention for applications in agriculture and medicine, few studies have explored their potential as anthelmintics. Here we assessed hymenopteran venoms as a possible source of new anthelmintic compounds by screening a panel of ten hymenopteran venoms against Haemonchus contortus, a major pathogenic nematode of ruminants. Using bioassay-guided fractionation coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified four novel anthelmintic peptides (ponericins) from the venom of the neotropical ant Neoponera commutata and the previously described ponericin M-PONTX-Na1b from Neoponera apicalis venom. These peptides inhibit H. contortus development with IC50 values of 2.8-5.6 µM. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry indicated that the ponericins are unstructured in aqueous solution but adopt α-helical conformations in lipid mimetic environments. We show that the ponericins induce non-specific membrane perturbation, which confers broad-spectrum antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, hemolytic, and algogenic activities, with activity across all assays typically correlated. We also show for the first time that ponericins induce spontaneous pain behaviour when injected in mice. We propose that the broad-spectrum activity of the ponericins enables them to play both a predatory and defensive role in neoponeran ants, consistent with their high abundance in venom. This study reveals a broader functionality for ponericins than previously assumed, and highlights both the opportunities and challenges in pursuing ant venom peptides as potential therapeutics.


Assuntos
Venenos de Formiga/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hemolíticos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Venenos de Formiga/genética , Venenos de Formiga/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Formigas , Brugia Malayi/efeitos dos fármacos , Brugia Malayi/fisiologia , Calliphoridae , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Hemolíticos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
13.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 81: 102207, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214895

RESUMO

The determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) is one of the main tasks of forensic entomology, where growth and stages of development of arthropods are used for PMI determination. It is well acknowledged that maggot development is significantly influenced by temperature. Attention has also been paid to the microbial populations of the cadaver, because toxic substances contained in the substrate can influence the microorganisms and affect arthropods growth and development. However, little is known about the influence of antibiotics taken during lifetime of a person on insect development after that persons death. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the antibiotics ceftriaxone and levofloxacin cause inhibition of growth and delay of pupation of the blow fly Calliphora vomitoria, which would then lead to an incorrect determination of the post-mortem interval in forensic cases. It was found that maggot development was delayed by levofloxacin mixed in minced pork, where a mixture of both antibiotics increased this effect. The maggot growth in the samples with ceftriaxone was not delayed. Pupation was delayed in treatments with a mixture of both antibiotics. The mortality was reduced by separate or combined application of ceftriaxone and levofloxacin, which we attribute to a bactericidal effect of the antibiotics on maggot pathogens. Depending on the concentration of the antibiotics, an underestimation of the post-mortem interval between 24 and 48 h could be suspected. We conclude that antibiotics need to be considered if instar stages are to be used to determine the PMI and that some antibiotics may improve the breeding conditions of maggots.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Levofloxacino/farmacologia , Animais , Entomologia Forense , Mudanças Depois da Morte
14.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200587, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of antibiotics has led to the accelerated growth of resistance to antibiotics. The search for new therapeutic strategies (i.e., antimicrobial peptides-AMPs) has thus become a pressing need. OBJECTIVE: Characterising and evaluating Sarconesiopsis magellanica larval fat body-derived AMPs. METHODS: Fat body extracts were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC); mass spectrometry was used for characterising the primary structure of the AMPs so found. ProtParam (Expasy) was used for analysing the AMPs' physico-chemical properties. Synthetic AMPs' antibacterial activity was evaluated. FINDINGS: Four new AMPs were obtained and called sarconesin III, IV, V and VI. Sarconesin III had an α-helix structure and sarconesins IV, V and VI had linear formations. Oligomer prediction highlighted peptide-peptide interactions, suggesting that sarconesins III, V and VI could form self-aggregations when in contact with the microbial membrane. AMPs synthesised from their native molecules' sequences had potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and, to a lesser extent, against Gram-negative and drug-resistant bacteria. Sarconesin VI was the most efficient AMP. None of the four synthetic AMPs had a cytotoxic effect. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: S. magellanica larval fat body-derived antimicrobial peptides are an important source of AMPs and could be used in different antimicrobial therapies and overcoming bacterial resistance.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Calliphoridae , Corpo Adiposo , Larva , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros
15.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2351-2356, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100111

RESUMO

Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) acts as a vector of many disease-causing pathogens. It causes myiasis in human beings and other living vertebrates. In the present study, the effect of a juvenile hormone analog (JHA), fenoxycarb, was evaluated on pupal-adult transformation by exposing pupae (0 and 1-day-old) of blowfly. Pupae were topically treated with different concentrations of the compound, viz., 20, 40, and 80 µg/µl applied on the posterior dorsum with the help of a micropipette. The effects comprised various developmental aberrations, such as delayed pupal-adult ecdysis duration, pupal mortality, formation of pupal-adult intermediates, eclosion failure, reduced adult emergence, and formation of abnormal adults. The freshly molted pupae (0 day) were more susceptible as compared to 1-day-old pupae. Pupal mortality was highest at 80 µg. Normal adult emergence was completely inhibited at day 0 pupae treated with 80 µg of the fenoxycarb. These results demonstrate that fenoxycarb was capable of successfully inhibiting the pupal-adult transformation, and thus, it can be used to control this myiasis-causing agent.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Fenilcarbamatos/farmacologia , Adulto , Animais , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Hormônios Juvenis/uso terapêutico , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Miíase/tratamento farmacológico , Miíase/parasitologia , Fenilcarbamatos/uso terapêutico , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Med Entomol ; 58(4): 1673-1679, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942875

RESUMO

Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the hairy maggot blow fly, is of great importance for the field of forensic entomology due to its habit as an early colonizer of decomposing vertebrate remains and myiasis producer. Development studies on this species have been conducted in scattered regions of the world, using types of tissue from several species of animals as a rearing medium. Despite the commonality of C. rufifacies in Sri Lanka, developmental studies have never been performed in this region. As well, the effects of diet on development have not been tested. In the current study, C. rufifacies immatures were reared on skeletal muscle, liver, and heart from domestic swine, with flies from colonies maintained at 25 and 28°C. The minimum time needed to complete each stage at 25°C on liver (224.14 h) was fastest followed by skeletal muscle (249.33 h) and heart (251.64 h) respectively, whereas at 28°C, fly development was quickest on heart muscle (178.27 h) followed by liver (178.50 h) and skeletal muscle (186.17 h) respectively. A significant difference in total development time was determined for temperature, while the rearing medium was not significant. Temperature also showed a significant effect on the length and the width of the larvae, while the type of tissue statistically impacted only the width.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Coração/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Sri Lanka , Suínos , Temperatura
17.
Parasitol Int ; 83: 102363, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901677

RESUMO

In this study, cloacal myiasis caused by dipterans of Lucilia genus was found in a rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and two Harris's hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) from Peru. Larval dipteran were collected and preserved in ethanol. Morphological analysis indicated two species: Lucilia sericata in the rooster and in one Harris's hawk, and Lucilia cuprina in the other Harris's hawk. Molecular analysis confirmed the diagnosis by amplification of the nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 region. The sequences were compared with sequence references from a public sequence database, which showed a 100% matched identity. This study demonstrated for first time cloacal myiasis by L. sericata in a domestic bird from Peru and in Harris's hawk. Also, for the first time, L. cuprina was found in a bird of prey.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Calliphoridae/fisiologia , Galinhas , Falcões , Miíase/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloaca/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Miíase/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
18.
Neotrop Entomol ; 50(4): 537-550, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914274

RESUMO

The present study investigated the potential association between the richness and abundance of species of the dipteran families Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae, and Sarcophagidae in anthropogenic and preserved environments of five phytophysiognomies (Cerrado, Amazon forest, Palm forest, marshland, and mangrove) that occur throughout the state of Maranhão, in northeastern Brazil. We sampled 90 sites (45 preserved and 45 anthropogenic areas) where we collected 26,036 specimens: 15,023 calliphorids (11 species), 231 mesembrinellids (one species), and 10,772 sarcophagids (52 species). Four environmental factors, canopy openness, temperature, leaf litter depth, and vegetation height, contributed most to the separation of preserved and anthropogenic sites in all five phytophysiognomies. Leaf litter depth was positively associated with the species richness of the calliphorids and mesembrinellids (C+ M group), while tree/shrub density, vegetation height, and temperature were associated negatively with the richness of the sarcophagids. Tree/shrub density and vegetation height were also associated negatively with abundance in both C+M and sarcophagid species. Overall, then, the structural characteristics of the environment affected the species richness and abundance, and deforestation may favor certain synanthropic species, leading to a decrease in the richness and abundance of the species that are adapted to preserved environments.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Sarcofagídeos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Calliphoridae/classificação , Florestas , Sarcofagídeos/classificação , Áreas Alagadas
19.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249422, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852607

RESUMO

Response to human impacts on the environment are typically initiated too late to remediate negative consequences. We present the novel use of stable isotope analysis (SIA) of blow flies to determine human influences on vertebrate communities in a range of human-inhabited environments, from a pristine national park to a dense metropolitan area. The refrain "you are what you eat" applies to the dietary isotope record of all living organisms, and for carrion-breeding blow flies, this translates to the type of carcasses present in an environment. Specifically, we show that carnivore carcasses make up a large proportion of the adult fly's prior larval diet, which contrasts to what has been reportedly previously for the wild adult fly diet (which consists of mostly herbivore resources). Additionally, we reveal the potential impact of human food on carcasses that were fed on by blow flies, underscoring the human influences on wild animal populations. Our results demonstrate that using SIA in conjunction with other methods (e.g., DNA analysis of flies) can reveal a comprehensive snapshot of the vertebrate community in a terrestrial ecosystem.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae/fisiologia , Dieta , Cadeia Alimentar , Animais , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcação por Isótopo , Larva/fisiologia
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 225: 108104, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812979

RESUMO

The insecticidal activity of Myristica fragrans (Houtt) essential seed oil, (Nutmeg) was evaluated against Musca domestica (Linnaeus) and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann); both important infectious pathogenic disease vectors. The oil was extracted by distillation, and 21 components were identified during chemical analysis; principally ß-pinene (26%), α-pinene (10.5%), Sabinene (9.1%) and γ-terpinen (8.5%). Insecticidal properties were identified through larvicide and adulticide tests. Using the immersion method, the oil at 5% was found to be very effective (90 ± 1%) against M. domestica larvae. The results for adulticide activity varied by fly species, dosage, time, and method of exposure. Topical application (on the insect thorax) was more toxic to C. albiceps, where the lethal concentration at 50% (LC50) was 2.02 ± 0.56, and 8.57 ± 2.41 for the common flies. When the insects were exposed to oil impregnated paper, the results were similar for M. domestica and C. albiceps adults with respective LC50 values of 2.74 ± 0.24, and 3.65 ± 0.48. Thus, the results demonstrated that M. fragrans oil presents insecticidal activity and can be used for control of Musca domestica and Chrysomya albiceps.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas , Myristica/química , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Calliphoridae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Moscas Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Insetos , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/análise , Larva , Dose Letal Mediana , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Sementes/química , Especificidade da Espécie
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