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1.
J Insect Sci ; 24(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597910

RESUMO

Larval habitats of blood-feeding stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), overlap with foraging sites of black blow flies, Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We tested the hypothesis that bacteria in blow fly excreta inform oviposition decisions by female stable flies. In laboratory 2-choice bioassays, we offered gravid female stable flies fabric-covered agar plates as oviposition sites that were kept sterile or inoculated with either a blend of 7 bacterial strains isolated from blow fly excreta (7-isolate-blend) or individual bacterial isolates from that blend. The 7-isolate-blend deterred oviposition by female stable flies, as did either of 2 strains of Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii. Conversely, Exiguobacterium sp. and Serratia marcescens each prompted oviposition by flies. The flies' oviposition decisions appear to be guided by bacteria-derived semiochemicals as the bacteria could not be physically accessed. Oviposition deterrence caused by semiochemicals of the 7-isolate-blend may help stable flies avoid competition with blow flies. The semiochemicals of bioactive bacterial strains could be developed as trap lures to attract and capture flies and deter their oviposition in select larval habitats.


Assuntos
Morganella , Muscidae , Feminino , Animais , Calliphoridae , Oviposição , Larva , Bactérias , Feromônios
2.
Acta Trop ; 253: 107164, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431136

RESUMO

The anthropization process exerts a profound effect on ecosystems, causing alterations in biodiversity, habitat structure, and species composition, ultimately disrupting the delicate balance of natural environments. The aim of the present study was to explore the ecological dynamics of necrophagous Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae flies along an anthropization gradient. This research investigated alpha and beta diversity patterns to unravel the impact of human-induced environmental changes on these insect communities and also assesses the dynamics of functional groups in relation to their impact on medical and forensic fields. Five distinct habitats, ranging from urban to forested areas, were surveyed in two Departments in the Province of Chaco, Argentina. Necrophagous flies were collected using van Someren-Rydon canopy traps across three seasons. Two main functional groups were analyzed: oviparous flies (Calliphoridae) and larviparous flies (Sarcophagidae). Results indicated a significant negative correlation between Sarcophagidae species richness and anthropization, whereas Calliphoridae showed increased abundance in highly anthropized sites. The combined assemblage of Calliphoridae+Sarcophagidae exhibited significant relationships across all community parameters evaluated. Beta diversity analysis revealed turnover as the main process shaping dipteran communities along the anthropization gradient, with spatial species replacement dominating. This underscores the importance of interspecific spatial segregation in dipteran community composition. In conclusion, this study enhances our understanding of the ecological adaptations of necrophagous dipterans to anthropogenic disturbances. The observed shifts in diversity and abundance have implications for forensic investigations and public health, emphasizing the need for nuanced monitoring and conservation strategies. This research contributes valuable insights into the intricate ecological interactions of these insect communities within changing ecosystems.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Sarcofagídeos , Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Dípteros/fisiologia , Sarcofagídeos/fisiologia , Calliphoridae , Insetos , Biodiversidade
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 357: 111972, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430653

RESUMO

The cosmopolitan blow fly Lucilia sericata is often used in forensic case work for estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). For this, the age of immature specimens developing on the dead body is calculated by measuring the time taken to reach the sampled developmental stage at a given temperature. To test whether regional developmental data of L. sericata is valid on a global scale, the time taken to reach different developmental stages was compared between a population from Mexico and one from Germany at two different constant temperatures. The German population of L. sericata was collected in Frankfurt/Main, while the Mexican population originated near Oaxaca de Juarez and was transported to Germany in the larval stage. Only the F1 generation was used to avoid adaption of the Mexican flies. Eggs were immediately placed at 20 °C and 30 °C. Five times 30 freshly eclosed larvae per replicate (n = 5) were then transferred to a cup of minced meat in separate containers. The larvae were checked every 8 h for migration, pupariation or emergence of adult flies. The time at which the first individual and 50 % of the specimens per container entered each of these stages, was recorded. Significant differences in the time of development between the two populations were observed at both temperatures. At 20 °C, the first specimens of the Mexican population reached all developmental stages a little (< 1 day to < 2 days) earlier than the German L. sericata. At 30 °C, the Mexican flies also reached the post-feeding stage slightly earlier (0.2 days). However, at 30 °C, the German flies started pupariation significantly earlier (after 5 days) than the Mexican flies (6.9 days) and the adults from Germany also emerged earlier (10.5 days compared to 13.1 days). The same pattern was observed when looking at 50 % of the total number of specimens per container. A comparison with previously published developmental studies was difficult as the experimental design varied widely between studies. However, the results were within the range of most studies. Our study has shown that age estimation can vary widely depending on the population on which the reference data used for the calculations are based. This highlights the importance of using local and population-specific developmental data for estimating the age of blow flies in case work.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Dípteros , Animais , Entomologia , Larva , Temperatura
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012027, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human myiasis is a parasitic dipteran fly infestation that infects humans and vertebrates worldwide. However, the disease is endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it is under-reported and therefore its prevalence is unknown. This systematic review aims to elucidate the prevalence of human myiasis, factors that influence the infection, and myiasis-causing fly species in SSA. The review also dwelled on the common myiasis types and treatment methods of human myiasis. METHODS: Here, we collect cases of human myiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa based on literature retrieved from PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct from 1959 to 2022. A total of 75 articles and 157 cases were included in the study. The recommendations of PRISMA 2020 were used for the realization of this systematic review. RESULTS: In total, 157 cases of human myiasis in SSA were reviewed. Eleven fly species (Cordylobia anthropophaga, Cordylobia rodhaini, Dermatobia hominis, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, Oestrus ovis, Sarcophaga spp., Sarcophaga nodosa, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya chloropyga and Clogmia albipuntum) were found to cause human myiasis in SSA. Cordylobia anthropophaga was the most prevalent myiasis-causing species of the reported cases (n = 104, 66.2%). More than half of the reported cases were from travelers returning from SSA (n = 122, 77.7%). Cutaneous myiasis was the most common clinical presentation of the disease (n = 86, 54.7%). Females were more infected (n = 78, 49.6%) than males, and there was a higher infestation in adults than young children. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study reveals that international travelers to Sub-Saharan Africa were mostly infested therefore, we recommend that both international travelers and natives of SSA be enlightened by public health officers about the disease and its risk factors at entry points in SSA and the community level respectively. Clinicians in Sub-Saharan Africa often misdiagnose the disease and most of them lack the expertise to properly identify larvae, so we recommend the extensive use of molecular identification methods instead.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Dípteros , Miíase , Psychodidae , Masculino , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Miíase/parasitologia , Larva , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 101, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a region with a subtropical climate, Rhipicephalus microplus is present in taurine cattle raised for beef and milk. In addition, ticks resistant to multiple acaricides are present in this region. Recently, fluralaner (isoxazoline) was launched on the market. Thus, there is a need to evaluate the effects of fluralaner for the control of R. microplus on taurine cattle. In addition, occurrence of myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae after tick parasitism and weight gain of cattle during the experimental period were evaluated. METHODS: Thirty naturally infested cattle were divided into two experimental groups: T01, treated with fluralaner (2.5 mg/kg) pour-on; T02, control. T01 received fluralaner on Days 0 (early summer in January), 42 and 84 (early autumn), whereas T02, a control group, received palliative treatment with a spray formulation when the group mean was ≥ 30 ticks. Counts of R. microplus females and calculation of the efficacy of fluralaner were performed on Days 3, 7, 14, 28, 35, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 and 126. The occurrence of myiasis was assessed throughout the study period. In addition, the weight, weight gain and daily weight gain of the animals were evaluated. RESULTS: In the 12 evaluations performed, the parasitic load of T01 was near zero. Fluralaner showed 99.5% efficacy on the 3rd day after the first treatment and 100% efficacy from Day 7 to Day 126. Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae (n = 6; p = 0.0251) were found only in the control group (T02). At the end of the study, the animals subjected to treatments with fluralaner gained 32.8 kg more than the animals in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Application of fluralaner in summer and autumn, with 42-day intervals between treatments, was effective to control R. microplus on taurine cattle, which also gained more weight than control cattle. Additionally, no cases of myasis were documented in animals treated with fluralaner.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Isoxazóis , Miíase , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Miíase/veterinária , Larva , Calliphoridae , Aumento de Peso , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
6.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 49: 101005, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462306

RESUMO

Flystrike remains an important animal health issue on New Zealand sheep farms. To date no useful predictive tool to assist farmers to develop control options has been available. The aim of this study was to use National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) virtual climate station data in New Zealand to develop a weather-based model to accurately predict the presence of Lucilia spp. on sheep farms throughout New Zealand. Three LuciTrap® baited fly traps were positioned on each of eight sheep farms throughout New Zealand (5 in the North Island and 3 in the South Island). The traps were put out for both the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 seasons. They were emptied each week and the flies morphologically identified; with the counts of Lucilia cuprina and L. sericata combined as Lucilia spp. The count data for Lucilia spp. for each week of trapping was transformed into a binary outcome and a generalised linear mixed effects models fitted to the data, with farm as a random effect. The dependent variable was Lucilia spp. flies caught, yes or no, and the independent variables were mean weekly climate variables from the nearest NIWA virtual climate station to that farm. The model was trained on the 2018-2019 catch data and tested on the 2019-2020 catch data. A cut point was identified which maximised the model's ability to correctly predict whether Lucilia spp. were present or not for the 2019-2020 catch data, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC) of the model calculated. The final model included just 3 significant variables, mean weekly 10 cm soil temperature, mean weekly soil moisture index, and mean weekly wind speed at 10 m. Mean weekly 10 cm soil temperature accounted for 64.7% of the variance explained by the model, mean weekly soil moisture index 34.7% and mean weekly wind speed at 10 m only 0.6%. The results showed that the predictive model had a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI = 0.80-0.98) and a specificity of 0.75 (95% CI = 0.62-0.85), using a cut point for the probability of Lucilia spp. being present on farm = 0.383. This model provides New Zealand farmers with a tool which will allow them to know when Lucilia spp. flies will likely be present and thus more accurately plan their interventions to prevent flystrike.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Miíase , Animais , Ovinos , Fazendas , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Miíase/veterinária , Calliphoridae , Solo
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(1): e012323, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324883

RESUMO

Chrysomya albiceps (Calliphoridae) is among the earliest successional fauna on human and animal cadavers. Some immature Calliphoridae can be useful for determination of post-mortem interval. Toxins, particularly pesticides, can affect the rate of insect growth. Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is an affordable insecticide that has not been adequately entomotoxicologically evaluated. So, the impact of AlP on the developmental rate of different stages of C. albiceps was investigated. Larvae of C. albiceps were reared on the rabbit carcasses containing AlP as a treated group, and distilled water as a control group. The substances were administered by a gastric tube. The duration needed for development of C. albiceps stages was documented. Body length, width and weight of larvae were measured after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h from egg hatching. The duration of development increased significantly in the treated group compared to the control group. Larvae body measurements were significantly smaller in the treated group than in the control group. Therefore, it was demonstrated that AlP significantly influences the size of C. albiceps larvae and extends their development. During forensic application, interpretation of C. albiceps data should be used with caution when aluminum phosphide may be the cause of death.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio , Dípteros , Fosfinas , Humanos , Animais , Coelhos , Calliphoridae , Larva , Cadáver
8.
Acta Trop ; 252: 107126, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316241

RESUMO

Fly identification is the primary step of analysis in forensic entomology. Although morphology and molecular techniques are considered satisfactory methods, some constraints may arise from a financial or even human point of view. Over the past decade, the geometric morphometric approach has been increasingly advocated for the classification and identification of arthropods. This study explored the method for species identification of 800 third-instar larvae of eight blow fly species of medical and forensic importance: Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya (Ceylonomyia) nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya (Achoetandrus) rufifacies (Macquart), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker). Based on the posterior spiracles geometry, the cross-validation revealed a relatively high percentage of correct classification in most species, ranking from 86% to 100%. The results of this study confirmed that the geometric morphometric (GM) analysis of posterior spiracles might be utilized as a larva identification tool. Therefore, this GM method represents one way of overcoming difficulties with the identification of blow fly larvae and can support further studies of these flies.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Tailândia , Calliphoridae
9.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(2): 650-659, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401129

RESUMO

Transgenic insect strains with tetracycline repressible (Tet-Off) female-lethal genes provide significant advantages over traditional sterile insect techniques for insect population control, such as reduced diet and labor costs and more efficient population suppression. Tet-Off systems are suppressed by tetracycline-class antibiotics, most commonly tetracycline (Tc) or doxycycline (Dox), allowing for equal sex ratio colonies of transgenic insects when reared with Tc or Dox and male-only generations in their absence. Dox is a more stable molecule and has increased uptake than Tc, which could be advantageous in some insect mass-rearing systems. Here, we evaluated the suitability of Dox for rearing Tet-Off female-lethal strains of Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, 1858) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and the effects of dosage on strain performance. For both species, colonies were able to be maintained with mixed-sex ratios at much lower dosages of Dox than Tc. Biological yields of C. hominivorax on either antibiotic were not significantly different. Reduction of Dox dosages in C. hominivorax diet did not affect biological performance, though rearing with 10 or 25 µg/mL was more productive than 50 µg/mL. Additionally, C. hominivorax mating performance and longevity were equal on all Dox dosages. Overall, Dox was a suitable antibiotic for mass-rearing Tet-Off female-lethal L. cuprina and C. hominivorax and was functional at much lower dosages than Tc.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Dípteros/genética , Calliphoridae , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Austrália , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 356: 111962, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359753

RESUMO

Burning of human remains is a common method to conceal or destroy evidence associated with homicides and illegal activities. However, data regarding blow fly colonization of burned remains are scarce, with all previously published empirical studies focusing only on non-human animals. It is critically important to obtain basic data on blow fly colonization patterns of burned human remains as such evidence may represent the only feasible method for PMI estimation in cases of burning. In this study, we thermally altered six human donors to a Crow-Glassman Scale Level 3 (CGS-3) and placed them at the Anthropology Research Facility at the University of Tennessee in Summer 2021, Spring 2022, and Summer 2022. Six unburned human donors were used as controls. Observations for insect activity began within 24 h of placement and continued twice weekly through decomposition. Age estimations were performed with immature blow flies to estimate the time of colonization (TOC), and accuracy was assessed against the time of placement for each donor. All burned donors examined in this study were colonized by blow flies. No significant difference in species composition was determined between treatments, though TOC estimations from burned donors were slightly (but significantly) less accurate than TOC estimations from unburned donors (80% vs. 83% accuracy; χ2 = 0.041, df = 1, P = 0.840). These results indicate that blow flies can successfully colonize human remains burned to CGS-3 and that accurate TOC estimations can still be generated from larval specimens. Though several limitations to this study exist (e.g., inconsistent donor BMI, lack of donor temperature data), our results underscore the utility of entomological evidence in cases of burned human remains.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Dípteros , Animais , Humanos , Calliphoridae , Restos Mortais , Insetos , Entomologia , Larva
11.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 203: 108073, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346575

RESUMO

Male-killing bacteria are found in a broad range of arthropods. Arsenophonus nasoniae is a male-killing bacterium, causing a 80% reduction of the male progeny in infected Nasonia vitripennis wasps. Although the discovery of A. nasoniae dates from the early 80's, knowledge about the biology and ecology of this endosymbiont is still scarce. One of these poorly studied features is the ecological factors underlying A. nasoniae incidence on its Nasonia spp. hosts in different geographical locations. Here, we studied the prevalence of A. nasoniae in Iberian wild populations of its host N. vitripennis. This wasp species is a common parasitoid of the blowfly Protocalliphora azurea pupae, which in turn is a parasite of hole-nesting birds, such as the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We also examined the effects of bird rearing conditions on the prevalence of A. nasoniae through a brood size manipulation experiment (creating enlarged, control and reduced broods). Both the wasp and bacterium presence were tested through PCR assays in blowfly pupae. We found A. nasoniae in almost half (47%) of nests containing blowflies parasitized by N. vitripennis. The prevalence of A. nasoniae was similar in the two geographical areas examined (central Portugal and southeastern Spain) and the probability of infection by A. nasoniae was independent of the number of blowfly pupae in the nest. Experimental manipulation of brood size did not affect the prevalence of A. nasoniae nor the prevalence of its host, N. vitripennis. These results suggest that the incidence of A. nasoniae in natural populations of N. vitripennis is high in the Iberian Peninsula, and the infestation frequency of nests by N. vitripennis carrying A. nasoniae is spatially stable in this geographical region independently of bird rearing conditions.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Gammaproteobacteria , Vespas , Masculino , Animais , Prevalência , Enterobacteriaceae , Vespas/microbiologia , Dípteros/parasitologia , Calliphoridae
12.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(1): 281-288, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37081128

RESUMO

Wasps are part of the entomofauna associated with vertebrate carrion. They are known to parasitize and prey on specific life stages of insect hosts such as eggs, larvae, pupae, and/or adults associated with vertebrate carrion. However, reports of parasitic behavior of wasps on carrion-associated insect life stages and their possible forensic implications are non-existent in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This study is part of ongoing research investigating the entomofauna and their pattern of succession on an adult pig carcass in Cape Town, South Africa. During this study, the parasitic wasp Alysia manducator was noted parasitizing and preying on blow fly larvae associated with the decomposing carcass. The arrival of A. manducator coincides with the occurrence of blow fly eggs and/or larvae on the carcass. These wasps were seen in close association with the eggs and larvae of blow flies on various parts of the carcass and some wasps were seen dragging fly larvae attached to their ovipositors away from one part of the carcass to another. Some A. manducator were also observed walking over several larvae on the carcass while exhibiting a stabbing behavior presumably in search of a host for oviposition. We suggest that the observations recorded in this study are of considerable forensic importance as the dragging effect and predatory and stabbing behavior exhibited by A. manducator could potentially disrupt the feeding and development of the fly larvae on the carcass. This could subsequently alter the process of carcass decomposition and/or affect minimum post-mortem interval estimations.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Himenópteros , Animais , Feminino , Suínos , Calliphoridae , Comportamento Predatório , África do Sul , Larva , Insetos , Cadáver , Comportamento Alimentar , Mudanças Depois da Morte
13.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(1): 165-175, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37272984

RESUMO

Forensic entomology requires knowledge of the developmental rates of the species that colonize a body after death to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). These developmental rates may vary depending not only on the species but also on the geographic location due to population differences. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to determine the developmental duration of the forensically important fly Chrysomya megacephala under constant controlled and field condition temperatures and to compare these results, through a meta-analysis, with data reported by other authors on populations from different localities. For this, C. megacephala colonies were established in the laboratory, and the duration of the life cycle was studied at two controlled temperatures (25 °C and 27 °C) and field conditions (27.5 ± 3.2 °C). Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in developmental time and larval length between constant laboratory temperatures and field conditions. A generalized linear model was performed with predictor variables extracted from the literature (diet, relative humidity, latitude, longitude) to evaluate the effect of population variation on developmental times. The results showed significant differences in developmental times between 25 and 27 °C. As expected, the complete life cycle of C. megacephala was shorter at 27 °C. Finally, the meta-analysis suggested differences between the developmental times of different populations, based on temperature and geographic location. The results of this study provide fundamental developmental data to use C. megacephala in PMI estimations. Finally, we suggest that, when making expert reports, information from local populations should be used to determine a more accurate and reliable PMI.


Assuntos
Besouros , Dípteros , Entomologia Forense , Animais , Calliphoridae , Temperatura , Larva , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
14.
J Forensic Sci ; 69(1): 213-221, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861183

RESUMO

The most widely used herbicides in the world are glyphosate formulations. These have been used in self-poisoning and accidental poisoning. Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are associated with decomposing human and animal remains. The aim of the study was to evaluate Roundup Full® II effects on saprophagous insects´ development. For this, green bottle flies and hide beetles were exposed to different doses of the herbicide. The duration of life cycles was recorded by observations made every 8 and 24 h. To register possible variations in size, external morphology, and female proportion, specimens of all developmental stages were collected. The duration of developmental stages in L. sericata did not change due to the herbicide, but this reduced all size parameters of puparium with pupae inside, the weight of L1, and of adults. The larval stage and total duration in D. maculatus were decreased by the highest dose, while size parameters of hide beetles remained unchanged at all development stages. In both flies and beetles, there was no evidence of abnormal external morphology and the female proportion did not change in response to the herbicide. Finally, this study exhibited an impact on L. sericata and D. maculatus, so the possibility that the herbicide may affect other forensically important species should be considered, but more work is needed. Taxonomic determination could be done as usual; however, caution should be exercised when estimating the postmortem interval. This study represents the first to analyze a glyphosate-based herbicide associated with Forensic Entomology.


Assuntos
Besouros , Dípteros , Herbicidas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Calliphoridae , Larva
15.
Forensic Sci Int ; 354: 111889, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043499

RESUMO

Blowfly larvae are the insects primarily responsible for the active stage of decomposition of exposed vertebrate remains and are the most frequently collected entomological evidence during forensic investigations of death. The necrophagous calliphorids in continental Africa that consistently develop on large vertebrate carrion include 11 species belonging to four genera: Calliphora, Chrysomya, Hemipyrellia and Lucilia. Most of these species are widespread in Africa and frequently reported on large animal carcasses and carrion and human corpses. A few keys have been compiled for identification of their third instar larvae, but none of them covers the complete set of taxa. Therefore, we provide a new comprehensive key with original illustrations of all taxonomically significant characters. The key is based on characters that should be easily observable even in poorly equipped local laboratories and is a reliable taxonomic tool for material collected in either urban or rural areas where synanthropic species predominate. However, it should be used with some caution in areas with relatively pristine natural habitats, where additional carrion-breeding species may occur. The publication of the key will significantly facilitate both medical and forensic entomological research and practice in Africa.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Animais , Humanos , Larva , Calliphoridae , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Ciências Forenses , Cadáver
16.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(1): 187-196, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37221328

RESUMO

Insects, especially blow flies, are forensically relevant to determine the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin), based on the fact that they are usually the first colonisers of a body. By estimating the age of immature blow flies, interferences can be made about the time since death. Whilst morphological parameters are valuable for age estimation of blow fly larvae, gene expression profiling is more applicable for blow fly pupae. Here, the age-dependent changes in the gene expression levels during the development are analysed. 28 temperature-independent markers have already been described for the age estimation of pupae of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina and are analysed by RT-qPCR. To allow simultaneous analysis of these age markers, a multiplex assay was developed in the present study. After reverse transcription, the markers are analysed simultaneously in an endpoint PCR and subsequently separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). This method is highly attractive due to its quick and easy procedure and interpretation. The present age prediction tool was adapted and validated. The multiplex PCR assay reproduced the same expression profiles as the RT-qPCR assay based on the same markers. The statistical evaluation shows that the new assay has a lower precision but a better trueness for age determination compared to the RT-qPCR assay. Since the new assay is also qualified to estimate the age of C. vicina pupae and is practical, cost-effective and, even more importantly, time-saving, it is attractive for use in forensic casework.


Assuntos
Calliphoridae , Dípteros , Animais , Calliphoridae/genética , Dípteros/genética , Pupa , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Larva
17.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(2): 677-683, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37211557

RESUMO

A partially skeletonized human corpse was found in bushes in Selangor, Malaysia in June 2020. Entomological evidence was collected during the autopsy and sent to the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) for minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) analysis. Standard protocols were applied when processing preserved and live insect specimens of both larval and pupal stages. Entomological evidence revealed that the corpse was colonized by Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, 1932 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Diamesus osculans (Vigors, 1825) (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Chrysomya nigripes was chosen as the PMImin indicator as this fly species is an earlier colonizer compared to D. osculans beetle larvae which their presence is the indicative of late stage of decomposition. For the present case, the pupae of C. nigripes were the oldest insect evidence collected and based on the available developmental data, the estimated minimum PMI was established between 9 and 12 days. It is noteworthy to highlight that this is the first record of D. osculans colonization on a human corpse.


Assuntos
Besouros , Dípteros , Animais , Humanos , Cadáver , Calliphoridae , Larva , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Pupa
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 354: 111902, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088001

RESUMO

There is a consensus that forensic methods must be valid. The high quality of the method may be fully demonstrated only through validation. Unfortunately, there are very few experimental or casework validations of entomological methods for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI). Here, we present the first part of the results from the field validation of minimum PMI (PMImin) estimates based on insect development. From eight pig carcasses (24-46.4 kg) exposed in a forest habitat of Western Poland, one every one or two months, we collected insect evidence with standard entomological techniques. Using weather station temperatures and the thermal summation method, PMImin was estimated based on insect life stages that were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. Through rearing an insect until the next developmental landmark (or until eclosion), its age at the time of collection (and eventually PMImin) may be estimated by subtracting thermal accumulation in the laboratory from the corresponding thermal constant. We hypothesized that rearing insect evidence significantly improves the accuracy of PMImin compared to the estimation based on non-reared insect evidence. The results clearly supported this hypothesis. However, the accuracy significantly increased only in the case of these insects that developed normally during rearing. When their development in the laboratory was prolonged, PMImin was significantly less accurate. For the normal development sample the accuracy improved in all species and life stages. The largest accuracy gains from rearing were recorded for Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Stearibia nigriceps (Diptera: Piophilidae). Moreover, when puparia or third instar larvae were reared, gains were larger than in the case of earlier life stages. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the method of rearing insect evidence to improve the accuracy of PMImin is valid. However, it needs to be used with caution, since substantial part of the evidence may die or slow down their development in the laboratory, which violates assumptions of the method.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Insetos , Suínos , Animais , Larva , Autopsia , Cadáver , Temperatura , Calliphoridae , Mudanças Depois da Morte
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 354: 111916, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141350

RESUMO

Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blowfly species widely studied in medical, veterinary, and entomological research. Our study examined the impact of constant (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) and variable (ranging from 21.0 to 25.4 °C, with an average of 23.31 °C) temperatures on the development and larval body length of C. megacephala. Additionally, we analyzed the age of the adult C. megacephala through pteridine content and related metabolic genes analysis. Our findings revealed three distinct growth patterns: isomorphen diagram, isomegalen diagram, and thermal accumulated models. At constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C, egg-hatching times were 44.5 ± 8.9, 26.7 ± 4.6, 12.6 ± 1.1, 11.0 ± 1.0, and 9.9 ± 1.9 h, respectively, while it was 15.3 ± 5.9 h at variable temperatures. The total development times from oviposition to adult eclosion in C. megacephala required 858.1 ± 69.2, 362.3 ± 5.9, 289.6 ± 17.8, 207.3 ± 9.3, and 184.7 ± 12.1 h at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C, respectively. This duration was extended to 282.0 ± 64.1 h under variable temperatures. However, no significant differences were found in hatching times and the total developmental durations between 25 °C and variable temperatures. A developmental threshold temperature (D0) of 9.90 ± 0.77 °C and a thermal summation constant (K) of 4244.0 ± 347.0° hours were ascertained. Pteridine content patterns varied significantly across constant temperatures, but not between 25 °C and variable temperatures. Sex and temperature were identified as the primary factors influencing pteridine levels in the head of C. megacephala. Gene expression associated with pteridine metabolism decreased following adult eclosion, matching with increased pteridine concentration. Further investigations are needed to explore the use of pteridine cofactors for age-grading adult necrophagous flies. These findings provide valuable insights into the lifespan of C. megacephala, thereby offering valuable groundwork for forthcoming investigations and PMImin determination.


Assuntos
Besouros , Dípteros , Animais , Feminino , Dípteros/genética , Calliphoridae , Temperatura , Longevidade , Larva , Expressão Gênica
20.
J Med Entomol ; 61(2): 400-409, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38157316

RESUMO

Necrophagous Diptera are the most important group of insects used for the purposes of forensic entomology. While the most utilized fly family in this context is the family Calliphoridae, there are several other families that can be of great importance during real-case investigations. This article analyzes the necrophagous flies of all families recorded from 160 real cases in Switzerland between 1993 and 2007. A total of 56 species belonging to 16 families was identified with Calliphoridae being the most dominant family (90.63% of all cases), followed by Muscidae (26.25%), Sarcophagidae (19.38%), Phoridae (14.38%), and Fanniidae (12.50%). For specimens that were difficult to identify morphologically, a new PCR primer has been specifically designed for the amplification of a short, informative COI barcode in degraded museum samples of forensically important Diptera taxa. The richest family in terms of species was the family Muscidae with 16 species. Fannia fuscula (Fallen) and Fannia monilis (Haliday) were recorded from human cadavers for the first time. The study highlights the importance of different fly families in forensic investigation, enhancing our comprehension of their prevalence and dispersion in real cases in Central Europe. The results pave the way for additional exploration, especially regarding the involvement of less frequently observed species in forensic entomology.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Muscidae , Sarcofagídeos , Humanos , Animais , Suíça , Entomologia , Calliphoridae
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