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1.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 35(4): 277-279, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593784

RESUMO

Extreme heat events will become more frequent and intense across the globe. In this science and society article we summarize how heat affects our body and discuss the associated health threats, but also the potential health benefits of heat exposure. Moreover, we provide practical suggestions for sustainable and health-oriented strategies to cope with heat.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Mudança Climática , Medição de Risco
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1324662, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590812

RESUMO

With the growing climate change crisis, public health agencies and practitioners must increasingly develop guidance documents addressing the public health risks and protective measures associated with multi-hazard events. Our Policy and Practice Review aims to assess current public health guidance and related messaging about co-exposure to wildfire smoke and extreme heat and recommend strengthened messaging to better protect people from these climate-sensitive hazards. We reviewed public health messaging published by governmental agencies between January 2013 and May 2023 in Canada and the United States. Publicly available resources were eligible if they discussed the co-occurrence of wildfire smoke and extreme heat and mentioned personal interventions (protective measures) to prevent exposure to either hazard. We reviewed local, regional, and national governmental agency messaging resources, such as online fact sheets and guidance documents. We assessed these resources according to four public health messaging themes, including (1) discussions around vulnerable groups and risk factors, (2) symptoms associated with these exposures, (3) health risks of each exposure individually, and (4) health risks from combined exposure. Additionally, we conducted a detailed assessment of current messaging about measures to mitigate exposure. We found 15 online public-facing resources that provided health messaging about co-exposure; however, only one discussed all four themes. We identified 21 distinct protective measures mentioned across the 15 resources. There is considerable variability and inconsistency regarding the types and level of detail across described protective measures. Of the identified 21 protective measures, nine may protect against both hazards simultaneously, suggesting opportunities to emphasize these particular messages to address both hazards together. More precise, complete, and coordinated public health messaging would protect against climate-sensitive health outcomes attributable to wildfire smoke and extreme heat co-exposures.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Mudança Climática , Saúde Pública , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Tabaco
3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e71, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exposure to extreme heat events increases the risk for negative birth outcomes, including preterm birth. This study sought to determine the presence and content of web-based heat health information for pregnant people provided by federal, state, and local government public health websites. METHODS: This website content analysis consisted of 17 federal, 50 state, and 21 city websites, and noted which of 25 recognized pregnancy heat health data elements were included. Data for the analysis were collected from March 12, 2022, through March 16, 2022. RESULTS: The search identified 17 federal websites, 38 state websites, and 19 city websites with heat health information. Within these, only seven websites listed pregnant people as a vulnerable or at-risk population, and only six websites provided information related to heat health specifically for pregnancy. Of the 25 themes recognized as important for pregnancy risk during extreme heat exposure, only 11 were represented within these 6 websites. CONCLUSION: The presence of web-based pregnancy heat health information is infrequent and limited in content. Boosting web-based publication of extreme heat and pregnancy risks could mitigate negative maternal and child health outcomes.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Pública , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Alta , Comunicação , Internet
4.
Biol Lett ; 20(3): 20230457, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531416

RESUMO

Plastic pollution and ongoing climatic changes exert considerable pressure on coastal ecosystems. Unravelling the combined effects of these two threats is essential to management and conservation actions to reduce the overall environmental risks. We assessed the capacity of a coastal ecosystem engineer, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, to cope with various levels of aerial heat stress (20, 25, 30 and 35°C) after an exposure to substances leached from beached and virgin low-density polyethylene pellets. Our results revealed a significant interaction between temperature and plastic leachates on mussel survival rates. Specifically, microplastic leachates had no effect on mussel survival at 20, 25 and 30°C. In turn, mussel survival rates significantly decreased at 35°C, and this decrease was even more significant following an exposure to leachates from beached pellets; these pellets had a higher concentration of additives compared to the virgin ones, potentially causing a bioenergetic imbalance. Our results stress the importance of adopting integrated approaches combining the effects of multiple environmental threats on key marine species to understand and mitigate their potential synergistic effects on ecosystem dynamics and resilience in the face of the changing environment.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Mytilus edulis , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Resposta ao Choque Térmico
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 923: 171525, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458460

RESUMO

Extreme heat is a current and growing global health concern. Current heat exposure models include meteorological and human factors that dictate heat stress, comfort, and risk of illness. However, radiation models simplify the human body to a cylinder, while convection ones provide conflicting predictions. To address these issues, we introduce a new method to characterize human exposure to extreme heat with unprecedented detail. We measure heat loads on 35 body surface zones using an outdoor thermal manikin ("ANDI") alongside an ultrasonic anemometer array and integral radiation measurements (IRM). We show that regardless of body orientation, IRM and ANDI agree even under high solar conditions. Further, body parts can be treated as cylinders, even in highly turbulent flow. This geometry-rooted insight yields a whole-body convection correlation that resolves prior conflicts and is valid for diverse indoor and outdoor wind flows. Results will inform decision-making around heat protection, adaptation, and mitigation.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Humanos , Manequins , Vento
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5250, 2024 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438488

RESUMO

The frequency and intensity of summer extreme climate events are increasing over time, and have a substantial negative effect on plants, which may be evident in their impact on photosynthesis. Here, we examined the photosynthetic responses of Larix kaempferi and Pinus densiflora seedlings to extreme heat (+ 3 °C and + 6 °C), drought, and heavy rainfall by conducting an open-field multifactor experiment. Leaf gas exchange in L. kaempferi showed a decreasing trend under increasing temperature, showing a reduction in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and net photosynthetic rate by 135.2%, 102.3%, and 24.8%, respectively, in the + 6 °C treatment compared to those in the control. In contrast, P. densiflora exhibited a peak function in the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate under + 3 °C treatment. Furthermore, both species exhibited increased total chlorophyll contents under extreme heat conditions. However, extreme precipitation had no marked effect on photosynthetic activities, given the overall favorable water availability for plants. These results indicate that while extreme heat generally reduces photosynthesis by triggering stomatal closure under high vapor pressure deficit, plants employ diverse stomatal strategies in response to increasing temperature, which vary among species. Our findings contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying the photosynthetic responses of conifer seedlings to summer extreme climate events.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Larix , Pinus , Plântula , Fotossíntese
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(3): 35001, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme heat events are a major public health concern and are only expected to increase in intensity and severity as climate change continues to accelerate. Pregnant people are physiologically more vulnerable to the effects of extreme heat, and exposure can induce harm on both the pregnant person and the fetus. OBJECTIVES: This commentary argues that there is a need for greater epidemiological research on indoor heat exposure and energy insecurity as potential drivers of maternal and child environmental health disparities. DISCUSSION: While there is substantial evidence linking ambient (outdoor) high temperature to pregnancy-related outcomes, there is a lack of epidemiological evidence to date on pregnant people's exposure to high indoor temperature and adverse maternal and/or child health outcomes. Energy insecurity is disproportionately experienced by people with low incomes and/or people of color, and indoor temperature may play a role in shaping socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in maternal and child health in the United States. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between indoor heat exposure, energy insecurity, and pregnancy outcomes in both parents and children and to inform potential policies and practices to enhance resilience and reduce maternal/child health disparities. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13706.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Temperatura , Saúde da Criança , Mudança Climática , Iniquidades em Saúde
8.
Sci Adv ; 10(5): eadj7264, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306434

RESUMO

Extreme heat and wildfire smoke events are increasingly co-occurring in the context of climate change, especially in California. Extreme heat and wildfire smoke may have synergistic effects on population health that vary over space. We leveraged high-resolution satellite and monitoring data to quantify spatially varying compound exposures to extreme heat and wildfire smoke in California (2006-2019) at ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) level. We found synergistic effects between extreme heat and wildfire smoke on daily cardiorespiratory hospitalizations at the state level. We also found spatial heterogeneity in such synergistic effects across ZCTAs. Communities with lower education attainment, lower health insurance coverage, lower income, lower proportion of automobile ownership, lower tree canopy coverage, higher population density, and higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities experienced higher synergistic effects. This study highlights the need to incorporate compound hazards and environmental justice considerations into evidence-based policy development to protect populations from increasingly prevalent compound hazards.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , California
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171239, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417511

RESUMO

Climate change is generating increased heatwaves and wildfires across much of the world. With these escalating environmental changes comes greater impacts on human health leading to increased numbers of people suffering from heat- and wildfire smoke-associated respiratory and cardiovascular impairment. One area of health impact of climate change that has received far less attention is the effects of extreme heat and wildfire smoke exposure on human brain health. As elevated temperatures, and wildfire-associated smoke, are increasingly experienced simultaneously over summer periods, understanding this combined impact is critical to management of human health especially in the elderly, and people with dementia, and other neurological disorders. Both extreme heat and wildfire smoke air pollution (especially particulate matter, PM) induce neuroinflammatory and cerebrovascular effects, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment, however the combined effect of these impacts are not well understood. In this narrative review, a comprehensive examination of extreme heat and wildfire smoke impact on human brain health is presented, with a focus on how these factors contribute to cognitive impairment, and dementia, one of the leading health issues today. Also discussed is the potential impact of combined heat and wildfire smoke on brain health, and where future efforts should be applied to help advance knowledge in this rapidly growing and critical field of health research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Demência , Calor Extremo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Incêndios Florestais , Humanos , Idoso , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Encéfalo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 3)2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382997

RESUMO

Climate change is an increasing threat to the health of populations in Africa, with a shift in seasonal temperatures towards more extreme heat exposures. In Burkina Faso, like other countries in the Sahel, many women have little protection against exposure to high temperatures, either outside or inside the home or place of work. This paper investigates how women perceive the impacts of heat on their physical and mental health, in addition to their social relationships and economic activities. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions) were conducted with women, community representatives and healthcare professionals in two regions in Burkina Faso. A thematic analysis was used to explore the realities of participants' experiences and contextual perspectives in relation to heat. Our research shows extreme temperatures have a multifaceted impact on pregnant women, mothers and newborns. Extreme heat affects women's functionality and well-being. Heat undermines a woman's ability to care for themselves and their child and interferes negatively with breast feeding. Heat negatively affects their ability to work and to maintain harmonious relationships with their partners and families. Cultural practices such as a taboo on taking the baby outside before the 40th day may exacerbate some of the negative consequences of heat. Most women do not recognise heat stress symptoms and lack awareness of heat risks to health. There is a need to develop public health messages to reduce the impacts of heat on health in Burkina Faso. Programmes and policies are needed to strengthen the ability of health professionals to communicate with women about best practices in heat risk management.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Burkina Faso , Antropologia Cultural , Mães , Relações Interpessoais
11.
Environ Health ; 23(1): 16, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Redlining has been associated with worse health outcomes and various environmental disparities, separately, but little is known of the interaction between these two factors, if any. We aimed to estimate whether living in a historically-redlined area modifies the effects of exposures to ambient PM2.5 and extreme heat on mortality by non-external causes. METHODS: We merged 8,884,733 adult mortality records from thirteen state departments of public health with scanned and georeferenced Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) maps from the University of Richmond, daily average PM2.5 from a sophisticated prediction model on a 1-km grid, and daily temperature and vapor pressure from the Daymet V4 1-km grid. A case-crossover approach was used to assess modification of the effects of ambient PM2.5 and extreme heat exposures by redlining and control for all fixed and slow-varying factors by design. Multiple moving averages of PM2.5 and duration-aware analyses of extreme heat were used to assess the most vulnerable time windows. RESULTS: We found significant statistical interactions between living in a redlined area and exposures to both ambient PM2.5 and extreme heat. Individuals who lived in redlined areas had an interaction odds ratio for mortality of 1.0093 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0084, 1.0101) for each 10 µg m-3 increase in same-day ambient PM2.5 compared to individuals who did not live in redlined areas. For extreme heat, the interaction odds ratio was 1.0218 (95% CI 1.0031, 1.0408). CONCLUSIONS: Living in areas that were historically-redlined in the 1930's increases the effects of exposures to both PM2.5 and extreme heat on mortality by non-external causes, suggesting that interventions to reduce environmental health disparities can be more effective by also considering the social context of an area and how to reduce disparities there. Further study is required to ascertain the specific pathways through which this effect modification operates and to develop interventions that can contribute to health equity for individuals living in these areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Calor Extremo , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
13.
JAMA Pediatr ; 178(4): 376-383, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407915

RESUMO

Importance: Preterm birth (PTB) is associated with adverse health outcomes. The outcomes of heat exposure during pregnancy and the moderating association of greenness with PTB remain understudied. Objective: To investigate associations between heat exposure, greenness, and PTB, as well as interactions between these factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: Included in this cohort study were births occurring in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, between 2000 and 2020, retrieved from New South Wales Midwives Data Collection. Participants with incomplete or missing data on their residential address or those who resided outside of New South Wales during their pregnancy were excluded. Data were analyzed from March to October 2023. Exposures: Greenness measured using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tree cover derived from satellite images. Daily extreme heat and nighttime extreme heat were defined as above the 95th percentile of community- and trimester-specific daily mean temperatures and nighttime temperatures. Main Outcomes and Measures: Logistic regression models estimated the independent association of extreme heat with PTB, adjusting for individual- and area-level covariates, season of conception, and long-term trend. An interaction term between extreme heat exposure and greenness was included to explore potential modification. With a significant interaction observed, the number of preventable heat-associated PTBs that were associated with greenness was estimated. Results: A total of 1 225 722 births (median [IQR] age, 39 [38-40] weeks; 631 005 male [51.5%]) were included in the analysis, including 63 144 PTBs (median [IQR] age, 35 [34-36] weeks; 34 822 male [55.1%]). Compared with those without heat exposure, exposure to daily extreme heat and nighttime extreme heat in the third trimester was associated with increased risks of PTB, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.61 (95% CI, 1.55-1.67) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.46-1.56]), respectively (PTB rates: exposed, 4615 of 61 338 [7.5%] vs unexposed, 56 440 of 1 162 295 [4.9%] for daily extreme heat and 4332 of 61 337 [7.1%] vs 56 723 of 1 162 296 [4.9%] for nighttime extreme heat). Disparities in associations between extreme heat exposure and PTB were observed, with lower odds of PTB among pregnant individuals residing in greener areas. The associations between extreme heat exposure and PTB could be mitigated significantly by higher greenness. Improving NDVI and tree cover could reduce daily extreme heat-associated PTB by 13.7% (95% CI, 2.3%-15.1%) and 20.9% (95% CI, 5.8%-31.5%), respectively. For nighttime extreme heat-associated PTB, reductions were 13.0% (0.2%-15.4%) and 17.2% (4.1%-27.0%), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this large birth cohort study suggest that extreme heat exposure was adversely associated with PTB, with greenness playing a moderating role. Increasing greenness levels in residential communities could prevent heat-associated PTBs. These findings emphasize the importance of integrating heat mitigation strategies and improving green space in urban planning and public health interventions.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Nascimento Prematuro , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Adulto , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Alta , Estudos de Coortes , Austrália/epidemiologia
14.
J Environ Manage ; 354: 120300, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359625

RESUMO

Global warming has accentuated the effects of extreme heat on health. Health insurance, functioning as a risk management tool, has the potential to alleviate these impacts. Consequently, this paper investigates the correlation between extreme heat events and the demand for health insurance in China. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, we have observed a substantial increase in the likelihood of residents purchasing health insurance during extreme heat events. To be specific, for every extra day of extreme heat events annually, there is a 0.3% increase in the probability of purchasing health insurance. This effect is not uniform across different demographic groups. It is particularly pronounced among middle-aged and elderly individuals, rural residents, those with lower educational levels, higher income brackets, and individuals residing in underprivileged areas with limited access to green spaces and healthcare facilities. Furthermore, our study indicates that the increased frequency of extreme heat events not only impacts individuals' physical health but also triggers negative emotions, which in turn drive risk-averse behavior related to health insurance purchases. These findings carry substantial policy implications for mitigating the economic consequences of climate change.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Humanos , Calor Extremo/efeitos adversos , China , Seguro Saúde , Mudança Climática , Aquecimento Global
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 921: 171120, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382599

RESUMO

Increasing anthropogenic global warming has emerged as a significant challenge to human health in China, as extreme heat hazards increasingly threaten outdoor-exposed populations. Differences in thermal comfort, outdoor activity duration, and social vulnerability between females and males may exacerbate gender inequalities in heat-related health risks, which have been overlooked by previous studies. Here, we combine three heat hazards and outdoor activity duration to identify the spatiotemporal variation in gender-specific heat risk in China during 1991-2020. We found that females' heat risk tends to be higher than that of males. Gender disparities in heat risk decrease in southern regions, while those in northern regions remain severe. Males are prone to overheating in highly urbanized areas, while females in low urbanized areas. Males' overheating risk is mainly attributed to population clustering associated with prolonged outdoor activity time and skewed social resource allocation. In contrast, females' overheating risk is primarily affected by social inequalities. Our findings suggest that China needs to further diminish gender disparities and accelerate climate adaptation planning.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Golpe de Calor , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Temperatura Alta , Estações do Ano , Fatores Socioeconômicos , China/epidemiologia
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(1): 15003, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38261303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme heat and air pollution are important human health concerns; exposure can affect mental and physical well-being, particularly during periods of co-occurrence. Yet, the impacts on people are largely determined by underlying health conditions, coupled with the length and intensity of exposure. Preexisting adverse health conditions and prolonged exposure times are more common for people experiencing homelessness, particularly those with intersectional identity characteristics (e.g., disease, ability, age, etc.). Partially due to methodological limitations, such as data scarcity, there is a lack of research at the intersection of this at-risk population within the climate-health domain. OBJECTIVES: We have three distinct objectives throughout this article: a) to advance critical discussions around the state of concurrent high heat and air pollution exposure research as it relates to people experiencing homelessness; b) to assert the importance of heat and air pollution exposure research among a highly vulnerable, too-often homogenized population-people experiencing homelessness; and c) to underline challenges in this area of study while presenting potential ways to address such shortcomings. DISCUSSION: The health insights from concurrent air pollution and heat exposure studies are consequential when studying unhoused communities who are already overexposed to harmful environmental conditions. Without holistic data sets and more advanced methods to study concurrent exposures, appropriate and targeted prevention and intervention strategies cannot be developed to protect this at-risk population. We highlight that a) concurrent high heat and air pollution exposure research among people experiencing homelessness is significantly underdeveloped considering the pressing human health implications; b) the severity of physiological responses elicited by high heat and air pollution are predicated on exposure intensity and time, and thus people without means of seeking climate-controlled shelter are most at risk; and c) collaboration among transdisciplinary teams is needed to resolve data resolution issues and enable targeted prevention and intervention strategies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13402.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Calor Extremo , Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Humanos , Temperatura Alta , Clima
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2015): 20232305, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228180

RESUMO

Environmental temperature fundamentally shapes insect physiology, fitness and interactions with parasites. Differential climate warming effects on host versus parasite biology could exacerbate or inhibit parasite transmission, with far-reaching implications for pollination services, biocontrol and human health. Here, we experimentally test how controlled temperatures influence multiple components of host and parasite fitness in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and their protozoan parasites Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Using five constant-temperature treatments spanning 18-34°C, we measured monarch development, survival, size, immune function and parasite infection status and intensity. Monarch size and survival declined sharply at the hottest temperature (34°C), as did infection probability, suggesting that extreme heat decreases both host and parasite performance. The lack of infection at 34°C was not due to greater host immunity or faster host development but could instead reflect the thermal limits of parasite invasion and within-host replication. In the context of ongoing climate change, temperature increases above current thermal maxima could reduce the fitness of both monarchs and their parasites, with lower infection rates potentially balancing negative impacts of extreme heat on future monarch abundance and distribution.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Borboletas , Calor Extremo , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Borboletas/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Apicomplexa/fisiologia
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 224: 106131, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38277818

RESUMO

Supporting dairy farmers in becoming resilient towards extreme weather requires a broad understanding of the experiences and perceived risks associated with these events from those who undergo them. We used a mixed methods approach to explore national trends of biological consequences on dairy cow udder health and fertility, combined with in-depth farmer conversations around extreme weather events, focusing on heat. The aim is to provide a comprehensive picture of how dairy farmer perceptions, priorities and decision-making are related to the season and extreme weather to identify preventive pathways that can reduce biological costs of heat stress on Swedish dairy cattle during summer. Data collected monthly at cow and farm level between 2016-2019 as part of the Swedish milk and disease recording system confirm seasonal trends and show increased somatic cell counts (SCC) and negatively impacted fertility during summers. In addition, transcriptions of 18 interviews with dairy farmers across the country and seasonal variations of SCC and fertility were thematically analysed. The results suggest that farmers have a broad definition of extreme weather and are aware of the negative impacts. Yet handling of extreme weather events can mainly be classified as reactive. Nevertheless, there are long-term effects on the farm economy, health and herd dynamics. Swedish dairy farmers are currently showing resilience, albeit a fragile one. The capability to ensure sufficient feed production in extreme weather is critical for farm self-perceived resilience. However, acknowledging the long-term biological costs related to fertility, currently not perceived by farmers, has the potential to support proactive planning and improve farm resilience and profitability.


Assuntos
Calor Extremo , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Humanos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Fertilidade , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos
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