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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842428

RESUMO

In a previous study characterizing Campylobacter strains deficient in selenium metabolism, 50 strains were found to be similar to, but distinct from, the selenonegative species Campylobacter lanienae. Initial characterization based on multilocus sequence typing and the phylogeny of a set of 20 core genes determined that these strains form three putative taxa within the selenonegative cluster. A polyphasic study was undertaken here to further clarify their taxonomic position within the genus. The 50 selenonegative strains underwent phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and an expanded set of 330 core genes. Standard phenotypic testing was also performed. All strains were microaerobic and anaerobic, Gram-negative, spiral or curved cells with some displaying coccoid morphologies. Strains were motile, oxidase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase positive, urease negative, and reduced nitrate. Strains within each clade had unique phenotypic profiles that distinguished them from other members of the genus. Core genome phylogeny clearly placed the 50 strains into three clades. Pairwise average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values were all below the recommended cut-offs for species delineation with respect to C. lanienae and other related Campylobacter species. The data presented here clearly show that these strains represent three novel species within the genus, for which the names Campylobacter devanensis sp. nov. (type strain RM3662T=LMG 33097T=NCTC 15074T), Campylobacter porcelli sp. nov. (type strain RM6137T=LMG 33098T=CCUG 77054T=NCTC 15075T) and Campylobacter vicugnae sp. nov. (type strain RM12175T=LMG 33099T=CCUG 77055T=NCTC 15076T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Campylobacter , DNA Bacteriano , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Suínos , Ruminantes/microbiologia
2.
Microb Biotechnol ; 17(6): e14480, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858807

RESUMO

The application of bacterial oligosaccharyltransferases (OSTs) such as the Campylobacter jejuni PglB for glycoengineering has attracted considerable interest in glycoengineering and glycoconjugate vaccine development. However, PglB has limited specificity for glycans that can be transferred to candidate proteins, which along with other factors is dependent on the reducing end sugar of glycans. In this study, we developed a cell-free glycosylation assay that offers the speed and simplicity of a 'yes' or 'no' determination. Using the assay, we tested the activity of eleven PglBs from Campylobacter species and more distantly related bacteria. The following assorted glycans with diverse reducing end sugars were tested for transfer, including Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule serotype 4, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium O antigen (B1), Francisella tularensis O antigen, Escherichia coli O9 antigen and Campylobacter jejuni heptasaccharide. Interestingly, while PglBs from the same genus showed high activity, whereas divergent PglBs differed in their transfer of glycans to an acceptor protein. Notably for glycoengineering purposes, Campylobacter hepaticus and Campylobacter subantarcticus PglBs showed high glycosylation efficiency, with C. hepaticus PglB potentially being useful for glycoconjugate vaccine production. This study demonstrates the versatility of the cell-free assay in rapidly assessing an OST to couple glycan/carrier protein combinations and lays the foundation for future screening of PglBs by linking amino acid similarity to glycosyltransferase activity.


Assuntos
Hexosiltransferases , Proteínas de Membrana , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Hexosiltransferases/metabolismo , Hexosiltransferases/química , Glicosilação , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/enzimologia , Campylobacter/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Sistema Livre de Células , Campylobacter jejuni/enzimologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Glicoconjugados/metabolismo
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1356907, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863832

RESUMO

Introduction: Microbial community composition is closely associated with host disease onset and progression, underscoring the importance of understanding host-microbiota dynamics in various health contexts. Methods: In this study, we utilized full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing to conduct species-level identification of the microorganisms in the oral cavity of a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with oral malignant fibroma. Results: We observed a significant difference between the microbial community of the tumor side and non-tumor side of the oral cavity of the giant panda, with the latter exhibiting higher microbial diversity. The tumor side was dominated by specific microorganisms, such as Fusobacterium simiae, Porphyromonas sp. feline oral taxon 110, Campylobacter sp. feline oral taxon 100, and Neisseria sp. feline oral taxon 078, that have been reported to be associated with tumorigenic processes and periodontal diseases in other organisms. According to the linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis, more than 9 distinct biomarkers were obtained between the tumor side and non-tumor side samples. Furthermore, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the oral microbiota of the giant panda was significantly associated with genetic information processing and metabolism, particularly cofactor and vitamin, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, a significant bacterial invasion of epithelial cells was predicted in the tumor side. Discussion: This study provides crucial insights into the association between oral microbiota and oral tumors in giant pandas and offers potential biomarkers that may guide future health assessments and preventive strategies for captive and aging giant pandas.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Fusobacterium , Microbiota , Boca , Porphyromonas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ursidae , Ursidae/microbiologia , Animais , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Porphyromonas/genética , Porphyromonas/isolamento & purificação , Porphyromonas/classificação , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/classificação , Boca/microbiologia , Fusobacterium/genética , Fusobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fibroma/microbiologia , Fibroma/veterinária , Neisseria/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria/genética , Neisseria/classificação , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/veterinária , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Helicobacter ; 29(3): e13095, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38798008

RESUMO

The prevalence of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter species in wastewater effluents presents a formidable challenge at the intersection of environmental sustainability and public health. This study examined the presence of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter in wastewater effluents in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, and its implications for environmental ecosystems and public health. Forty-five samples from household effluent (HHE) and wastewater treatment plant effluent (WWTPE) were collected at different geographical locations within the province between April and September 2022. The counts of the presumptive Campylobacter genus ranged from 5.2 × 103 to 6.03 × 104 CFU/mL for HHE and 4.93 × 103 to 1.04 × 104 CFU/mL for WWTPE. About 42.55% of the samples were positive for Campylobacter species. Five virulence determinants including the cadF and wlaN were detected in all the isolates; however, flgR (19.23%), ciaB, and ceuE (15.38%) were less prevalent. The antibiogram profiles of confirmed Campylobacter isolates revealed high resistance (>55%) against all tested antibiotics ranging from 55.77% (nalidixic acid) to 92.30% (erythromycin), and resistance against the other antibiotics followed the order ciprofloxacin (51.92%), azithromycin (50%), and levofloxacin (48.08%). On the contrary, gentamicin was sensitive against 61.54% of the isolates, followed by imipenem (57.69%) and streptomycin (51.92%). The WWTPE's antibiotic resistance index (ARI) was 0.19, lower than the permitted Krumperman threshold of 0.2; and HHE's ARIs were higher. The isolates' respective multiple antibiotic resistance indexes (MARI) varied between 0.08 and 1.00. Among the phenotypically resistant Campylobacter isolates examined, 21 resistance determinants encoding resistance against ß-lactam, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, phenicol, quinolones, tetracyclines, and macrolides were detected, which explains the phenotypic resistance observed in the study. This study concludes that the wastewaters in the study areas are important reservoirs of multidrug-resistant and potentially pathogenic Campylobacter species, suggesting the need for proper treatment of the wastewaters to eliminate the organisms in the effluents before discharge the final effluent to the receiving watershed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Campylobacter , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Águas Residuárias , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302861, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820282

RESUMO

Campylobacter hepaticus, the causative agent of Spotty Liver Disease (SLD) is an important disease in cage-free egg producing chickens causing mortality and production drops. C. hepaticus is a slow growing Campylobacter easily overgrown by fecal bacteria. It is currently only reliably isolatable from bile samples. A selective media for isolation from feces or environment would assist diagnosis and impact assessment. Growth of five Australian C. hepaticus isolates was studied using Horse blood agar (HBA), sheep blood agar (SBA), Bolton, Preston and Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) base media. Blood and/or bile were added to Bolton, Preston and BHI medias. C. jejuni was used as a positive control. Plates were incubated in duplicate under microaerophilic conditions at 42°C for 10 days and examined at days 3-5 and 7-10 of incubation. Each isolate was examined for sensitivity to 14 antimicrobials using HBA sensitivity plates. Growth was inhibited by BHI and by added bile, while blood improved growth. Further replicates using SBA, HBA, Bolton and Preston media showed best growth on Bolton agar with blood. All five C. hepaticus isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and vancomycin, while four were also resistant to rifampicin and bacitracin. Media based upon Bolton plus blood supplemented with vancomycin and trimethoprim might be used as the most appropriate media for selective growth of C. hepaticus. The addition of bile to media for C. hepaticus isolation and growth will inhibit growth and is not advised.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Campylobacter , Meios de Cultura , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia
6.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2356638, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swift identification and diagnosis of gastrointestinal infections are crucial for prompt treatment, prevention of complications, and reduction of the risk of hospital transmission. The radiological appearance on computed tomography could potentially provide important clues to the etiology of gastrointestinal infections. We aimed to describe features based on computed tomography of patients diagnosed with Campylobacter, Salmonella or Shigella infections in South Sweden. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational population-based cohort study conducted between 2019 and 2022 in Skåne, southern Sweden, a region populated by 1.4 million people. Using data from the Department of Clinical Microbiology combined with data from the Department of Radiology, we identified all patients who underwent computed tomography of the abdomen CTA two days before and up to seven days after sampling due to the suspicion of Campylobacter, Salmonella or Shigella during the study period. RESULTS: A total of 215 CTAs scans performed on 213 patients during the study period were included in the study. The median age of included patients was 45 years (range 11-86 years), and 54% (114/213) of the patients were women. Of the 215 CTAs, 80% (n = 172) had been performed due to Campylobacter and 20% (n = 43) due to Salmonella enteritis. CTA was not performed for any individual diagnosed with Shigella during the study period. There were no statistically significant differences in the radiological presentation of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections. CONCLUSION: The most common location of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections was the cecum, followed by the ascending colon. Enteric wall edema, contrast loading of the affected mucosa, and enteric fat stranding are typical features of both infections. The CTA characteristics of Campylobacter and Salmonella are similar, and cannot be used to reliably differentiate between different infectious etiologies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Infecções por Salmonella , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Adolescente , Suécia/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 512, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778271

RESUMO

AIM: Diarrhea is a common disease in immunocompromised patients and can be associated with greater morbidity and even mortality. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Aeromonas spp., Campylobacter spp., and C. difficile among immunocompromised children. METHODS: This study was conducted on 130 stool samples from patients with diarrhea who had defects in the immune system and were referred to Hazrat Masoumeh Children's Hospital in Qom. Demographic information, clinical symptoms, immune status, and duration of chemotherapy were also recorded for each child. DNAs were extracted from the stool, and then direct PCR assays were done by specific primers for the detection of Aeromonas spp., Campylobacter spp., and toxigenic C. difficile, including tcdA/B and cdtA/B genes. Co-infection in patients was also evaluated. RESULTS: 60.8% and 39.2% were male and female, respectively, with a m ± SD age of 56.72 ± 40.49 months. Most cases of immunocompromised states were related to Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (77.7%) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (14.6%). 93.1% of patients were undergoing chemotherapy during the study. Among patients, most clinical symptoms were related to bloody diarrhea (98.5%) and fever (92.3%). Based on PCR, 14.6, 9.2, and 1.5% were positive for Aeromonas spp., C. difficile, and C. jejuni, respectively. Among the C. difficile-positive cases, the tcdA gene was only detected in one patient. In total, three co-infections were identified, which included Aeromonas spp./C. difficile (tcdA+), C. jejuni/C. difficile, and C. jejuni/Aeromonas spp. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Iran to investigate the simultaneous prevalence of some pathogens in immunocompromised children with diarrhea. Because Aeromonas spp., Campylobacter spp., and C. difficile are not routinely detected in some laboratories, infections caused by them are underappreciated in the clinic. Our results showed that these pathogens are present in our region and can cause gastroenteritis in children, especially those with underlying diseases. Therefore, increasing the level of hygiene in some areas and controlling bacterial diarrheal diseases should be given more attention by health officials.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Campylobacter , Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Diarreia , Fezes , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Criança , Aeromonas/isolamento & purificação , Aeromonas/genética , Prevalência , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Clostridioides difficile/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/genética , Lactente , Fezes/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 34(5): 987-993, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719774

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis is a significant foodborne illness caused by Campylobacter bacteria. It is one of the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis worldwide, with poultry being a major reservoir and source of infection in humans. In poultry farms, Campylobacters colonize the intestinal tract of chickens and contaminate meat during processing. Vaccines under development against Campylobacters in poultry showed partial or no protection against their cecal colonization. Therefore, this review will elaborate on campylobacteriosis and emphasize the control strategies and recent vaccine trials against Campylobacters in poultry farms. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Campylobacter infection, along with specific mention of poultry Campylobacter contamination events in Malaysia, will also be discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Galinhas , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Humanos , Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Carne/microbiologia
9.
Microb Genom ; 10(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739120

RESUMO

Cutaneous ulcers are common in yaws-endemic areas. Although often attributed to 'Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue' and Haemophilus ducreyi, quantitative PCR has highlighted a significant proportion of these ulcers are negative for both pathogens and are considered idiopathic. This is a retrospective analysis utilising existing 16S rRNA sequencing data from two independent yaws studies that took place in Ghana and the Solomon Islands. We characterized bacterial diversity in 38 samples to identify potential causative agents for idiopathic cutaneous ulcers. We identified a diverse bacterial profile, including Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, Campylobacter concisus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus pyogenes, consistent with findings from previous cutaneous ulcer microbiome studies. No single bacterial species was universally present across all samples. The most prevalent bacterium, Campylobacter ureolyticus, appeared in 42% of samples, suggesting a multifactorial aetiology for cutaneous ulcers in yaws-endemic areas. This study emphasizes the need for a nuanced understanding of potential causative agents. The findings prompt further exploration into the intricate microbial interactions contributing to idiopathic yaw-like ulcers, guiding future research toward comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Úlcera Cutânea , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Gana , Masculino , Bouba/microbiologia , Bouba/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Feminino , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Melanesia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/classificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/classificação , Arcanobacterium/genética , Arcanobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter/classificação
10.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 155, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The in-depth understanding of the role of lateral genetic transfer (LGT) in phage-prophage interactions is essential to rationalizing phage applications for human and animal therapy, as well as for food and environmental safety. This in silico study aimed to detect LGT between phages of potential industrial importance and their hosts. METHODS: A large array of genetic recombination detection algorithms, implemented in SplitsTree and RDP4, was applied to detect LGT between various Escherichia, Listeria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio phages and their hosts. PHASTER and RAST were employed respectively to identify prophages across the host genome and to annotate LGT-affected genes with unknown functions. PhageAI was used to gain deeper insights into the life cycle history of recombined phages. RESULTS: The split decomposition inferences (bootstrap values: 91.3-100; fit: 91.433-100), coupled with the Phi (0.0-2.836E-12) and RDP4 (P being well below 0.05) statistics, provided strong evidence for LGT between certain Escherichia, Listeria, Salmonella, and Campylobacter virulent phages and prophages of their hosts. The LGT events entailed mainly the phage genes encoding for hypothetical proteins, while some of these genetic loci appeared to have been affected even by intergeneric recombination in specific E. coli and S. enterica virulent phages when interacting with their host prophages. Moreover, it is shown that certain L. monocytogenes virulent phages could serve at least as the donors of the gene loci, involved in encoding for the basal promoter specificity factor, for L. monocytogenes. In contrast, the large genetic clusters were determined to have been simultaneously exchanged by many S. aureus prophages and some Staphylococcus temperate phages proposed earlier as potential therapeutic candidates (in their native or modified state). The above genetic clusters were found to encompass multiple genes encoding for various proteins, such as e.g., phage tail proteins, the capsid and scaffold proteins, holins, and transcriptional terminator proteins. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that phage-prophage interactions, mediated by LGT (including intergeneric recombination), can have a far-reaching impact on the co-evolutionary trajectories of industrial phages and their hosts especially when excessively present across microbially rich environments.


Assuntos
Prófagos , Recombinação Genética , Prófagos/genética , Campylobacter/virologia , Campylobacter/genética , Staphylococcus/virologia , Staphylococcus/genética , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Bacteriófagos/genética , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Listeria/virologia , Listeria/genética , Salmonella/virologia , Salmonella/genética , Evolução Molecular , Bactérias/virologia , Bactérias/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9218, 2024 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649444

RESUMO

For reducing Campylobacter (C.) in the food production chain and thus the risk to the consumer, the combined application of different measures as a multiple-hurdle approach is currently under discussion. This is the first study to investigate possible synergistic activities in vivo, aiming at reducing intestinal C. jejuni counts by administering (i) bacteriophages (phages) in combination with a competitive exclusion (CE) product and (ii) carvacrol combined with organic acids. The combined application of the two selected phages (Fletchervirus phage NCTC 12673 and Firehammervirus phage vB_CcM-LmqsCPL1/1) and the CE product significantly reduced C. jejuni loads by 1.0 log10 in cecal and colonic contents as well as in cloacal swabs at the end of the trial (33 and 34 days post hatch). The proportion of bacterial isolates showing reduced phage susceptibility ranged from 10.9% (isolates from cecal content) to 47.8% (isolates from cloacal swabs 32 days post hatch) for the Fletchervirus phage, while all tested isolates remained susceptible to the Firehammervirus phage. The use of carvacrol combined with an organic acid blend (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, and acetic acid) significantly reduced Campylobacter counts by 1.0 log10 in cloacal swabs on day 30 only.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Galinhas , Cimenos , Cimenos/farmacologia , Animais , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Campylobacter jejuni/virologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/virologia
12.
Environ Res ; 252(Pt 1): 118796, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous work has found climate change-induced weather variability is suspected to increase the transmission of enteric pathogens, including Campylobacter, a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. While the relationship between extreme weather events and diarrheal diseases has been documented, the specific impact on Campylobacter infections remains underexplored. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the peer-reviewed literature exploring the effect of weather variability on Campylobacter infections in humans. METHODS: The review included English language, peer-reviewed articles, published up to September 1, 2022 in PubMed, Embase, GEOBASE, Agriculture and Environmental Science Database, and CABI Global Health exploring the effect of an antecedent weather event on human enteric illness caused by Campylobacter (PROSPERO Protocol # 351884). We extracted study information including data sources, methods, summary measures, and effect sizes. Quality and weight of evidence reported was summarized and bias assessed for each article. RESULTS: After screening 278 articles, 47 articles (34 studies, 13 outbreak reports) were included in the evidence synthesis. Antecedent weather events included precipitation (n = 35), temperature (n = 30), relative humidity (n = 7), sunshine (n = 6), and El Niño and La Niña (n = 3). Reviewed studies demonstrated that increases in precipitation and temperature were correlated with Campylobacter infections under specific conditions, whereas low relative humidity and sunshine were negatively correlated. Articles estimating the effect of animal operations (n = 15) found presence and density of animal operations were significantly associated with infections. However, most of the included articles did not assess confounding by seasonality, presence of animal operations, or describe estimates of risk. DISCUSSION: This review explores what is known about the influence of weather events on Campylobacter and identifies previously underreported negative associations between low relative humidity and sunshine on Campylobacter infections. Future research should explore pathogen-specific estimates of risk, which can be used to influence public health strategies, improve source attribution and causal pathways, and project disease burden due to climate change.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mudança Climática , Animais
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 382, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe disorder characterized by excessive activation of the immune system, leading to hypercytokinemia and damage to multiple organs. We report a rare case of HLH with myopericarditis caused by Campylobacter infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 28-year-old male patient with a history of hypertension without medicine control presented at the hospital after a four-day fever, decreasing urine amount, rashes on his trunk and limbs, and other symptoms. He was admitted with a provisional diagnosis of atypical infection and allergic skin rash related to diclofenac. However, his condition deteriorated, and he developed shock, tachycardia, chest distress, and bilateral pleural effusion after admission. Further investigations revealed cardiogenic shock related to myopericarditis, and he was transferred to the ICU. In addition, a stool PCR panel subsequently revealed a positive result for Campylobacter. On day 6, he was diagnosed with HLH. Under Clarithromycin and dexamethasone infusion, leukocytosis, anemia and thrombocytopenia with cardiogenic shock status improved. Then, he was later discharged in stable condition. CONCLUSIONS: HLH and myopericarditis caused by Campylobacter are very rare. Early detection of Campylobacter-induced HLH and multiple organ failure, as well as prompt use of antibiotics and immunosuppressants, can be helpful for prognosis.


Assuntos
Anemia , Campylobacter , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Miocardite , Trombocitopenia , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Anemia/complicações , Trombocitopenia/complicações , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/complicações
14.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(4): 133, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480610

RESUMO

Campylobacter and Salmonella are the two most prominent foodborne zoonotic pathogens reported in the European Union. As poultry is one of the major sources of these pathogens, it is imperative to mitigate the colonization of these pathogens in poultry. Many strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have demonstrated anti-Salmonella and anti-Campylobacter characteristics to varying degrees and spectrums which are attributed to the production of various metabolites. However, the production of these compounds and consequent antimicrobial properties are highly strain dependent. Therefore, the current study was performed to select a potent LAB and determine its causal attribute in inhibiting Salmonella enterica and Campylobacter jejuni, in-vitro. Six LAB (Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (LP), Lacticaseibacillus casei (LC), Limosilactobacillus reuteri (LR), Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (LRh), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (LM) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (PP)) and three serovars of Salmonella enterica (Typhimurium, Enterica and Braenderup) and Campylobacter jejuni were used in the current study. Spot overlays, well diffusion, co-culture and co-aggregation assays against Salmonella and well diffusion assays against Campylobacter jejuni were performed. Organic acid profiling of culture supernatants was performed using HPLC. The results indicated that LRh, LM and PP had the most significant anti-Salmonella effects while LP, LC, LM and PP displayed the most significant anti-Campylobacter effects. Lactic acid and formic acid detected in the culture supernatants seem the most likely source of the anti-Salmonella and anti-Campylobacter effects exhibited by these LAB. In conclusion, Leuconostoc mesenteroides displayed the most significant overall anti-pathogenic effects when compared to the other LAB strains studied, indicating its potential application in-vivo.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Lactobacillales , Lactobacillus plantarum , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Salmonella , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012018, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427700

RESUMO

Campylobacter causes bacterial enteritis, dysentery, and growth faltering in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Campylobacter spp. are fastidious organisms, and their detection often relies on culture independent diagnostic technologies, especially in LMICs. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are most often the infectious agents and in high income settings together account for 95% of Campylobacter infections. Several other Campylobacter species have been detected in LMIC children at an increased prevalence relative to high income settings. After doing extensive whole genome sequencing of isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli in Peru, we observed heterogeneity in the binding sites for the main species-specific PCR assay (cadF) and designed an alternative rpsKD-based qPCR assay to detect both C. jejuni and C. coli. The rpsKD-based qPCR assay identified 23% more C.jejuni/ C.coli samples than the cadF assay among 47 Campylobacter genus positive cadF negative samples verified to have C. jejuni and or C. coli with shotgun metagenomics. This assay can be expected to be useful in diagnostic studies of enteric infectious diseases and be useful in revising the attribution estimates of Campylobacter in LMICs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Criança , Humanos , Campylobacter coli/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Campylobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 43(5): 895-904, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Campylobacter is a frequent cause of enteric infections with common antimicrobial resistance issues. The most recent reports of campylobacteriosis in Italy include data from 2013 to 2016. We aimed to provide national epidemiological and microbiological data on human Campylobacter infections in Italy during the period 2017-2021. METHODS: Data was collected from 19 Hospitals in 13 Italian Regions. Bacterial identification was performed by mass spectrometry. Antibiograms were determined with Etest or Kirby-Bauer (EUCAST criteria). RESULTS: In total, 5419 isolations of Campylobacter spp. were performed. The most common species were C. jejuni (n = 4535, 83.7%), followed by C. coli (n = 732, 13.5%) and C. fetus (n = 34, 0.6%). The mean age of patients was 34.61 years and 57.1% were males. Outpatients accounted for 54% of the cases detected. Campylobacter were isolated from faeces in 97.3% of cases and in 2.7% from blood. C. fetus was mostly isolated from blood (88.2% of cases). We tested for antimicrobial susceptibility 4627 isolates (85.4%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracyclines was 75.5% and 54.8%, respectively; resistance to erythromycin was 4.8%; clarithromycin 2% and azithromycin 2%. 50% of C. jejuni and C. coli were resistant to ≥ 2 antibiotics. Over the study period, resistance to ciprofloxacin and tetracyclines significantly decreased (p < 0.005), while resistance to macrolides remained stable. CONCLUSION: Campylobacter resistance to fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines in Italy is decreasing but is still high, while macrolides retain good activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Humanos , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Idoso , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Fezes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Recém-Nascido , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação
17.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103576, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430779

RESUMO

Chicken and chicken products have been associated with foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Poultry comprises an important segment of the agricultural economy (75 million birds processed as of 2019) in West Virginia (WV). The risk of pathogens on processed chickens has risen with the increased popularity of mobile poultry processing units (MPPUs). This study evaluated the microbial safety of broilers processed in a MPPU in WV. This study assessed aerobic plate counts (APCs), E. coli counts and the presence/absence of Salmonella and Campylobacter on 96 broiler carcasses following each MPPU step of scalding, eviscerating, and chilling. Samples were either chilled in ice water only (W) or ice water with 5 ppm chlorine (CW). The highest number of bacteria recovered from carcasses were APCs (4.21 log10CFU/mL) and E. coli (3.77 log10CFU/mL; P = 0.02). A total reduction of 0.30 (P = 0.10) and 0.63 (P = 0.01) log10CFU/mL for APCs and E. coli, respectively, occurred from chilling carcasses in CW. Overall, results show that E. coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from the initial scalding to the chilling step. However, Salmonella frequency doubled (15.63-34.38%) after the evisceration step, indicating that washing carcasses after evisceration may be a critical control point in preventing cross-contamination by Salmonella. Proper chilling is also an important microbial mitigation step in MPPU processing. Results indicate that Campylobacter was more resistant to chilling than Salmonella. Campylobacter was not completely inactivated until carcasses were chilled in CW, whereas W was sufficient to reduce Salmonella on carcasses. The results led to the conclusion that although 5 ppm chlorine (Cl2) achieved more bacterial reductions than water alone, the reductions were not always significant (P > 0.05). Further MPPU studies are needed to verify more effective chilling and processing strategies.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Galinhas , Escherichia coli , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonella , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , West Virginia , Carne/microbiologia , Carne/análise
18.
mSystems ; 9(4): e0121823, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530055

RESUMO

Campylobacter species are typically helical shaped, Gram-negative, and non-spore-forming bacteria. Species in this genus include established foodborne and animal pathogens as well as emerging pathogens. The accumulation of genomic data from the Campylobacter genus has increased exponentially in recent years, accompanied by the discovery of putative new species. At present, the lack of a standardized species boundary complicates distinguishing established and novel species. We defined the Campylobacter genus core genome (500 loci) using publicly available Campylobacter complete genomes (n = 498) and constructed a core genome phylogeny using 2,193 publicly available Campylobacter genomes to examine inter-species diversity and species boundaries. Utilizing 8,440 Campylobacter genomes representing 33 species and 8 subspecies, we found species delineation based on an average nucleotide identity (ANI) cutoff of 94.2% is consistent with the core genome phylogeny. We identified 60 ANI genomic species that delineated Campylobacter species in concordance with previous comparative genetic studies. All pairwise ANI genomic species pairs had in silico DNA-DNA hybridization scores of less than 70%, supporting their delineation as separate species. We provide the tool Campylobacter Genomic Species typer (CampyGStyper) that assigns ANI genomic species to query genomes based on ANI similarities to medoid genomes from each ANI genomic species with an accuracy of 99.96%. The ANI genomic species definitions proposed here allow consistent species definition in the Campylobacter genus and will facilitate the detection of novel species in the future.IMPORTANCEIn recent years, Campylobacter has gained recognition as the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, leading to a substantial rise in the collection of genomic data of the Campylobacter genus in public databases. Currently, a standardized Campylobacter species boundary at the genomic level is absent, leading to challenges in detecting emerging pathogens and defining putative novel species within this genus. We used a comprehensive representation of genomes of the Campylobacter genus to construct a core genome phylogenetic tree. Furthermore, we found an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 94.2% as the optimal cutoff to define the Campylobacter species. Using this cutoff, we identified 60 ANI genomic species which provided a standardized species definition and nomenclature. Importantly, we have developed Campylobacter Genomic Species typer (CampyGStyper), which can robustly and accurately assign these ANI genomic species to Campylobacter genomes, thereby aiding pathogen surveillance and facilitating evolutionary and epidemiological studies of existing and emerging pathogens in the genus Campylobacter.


Assuntos
Campylobacter , Animais , Filogenia , Campylobacter/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genes Bacterianos , DNA
19.
Poult Sci ; 103(5): 103568, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447312

RESUMO

Campylobacter is the most reported zoonotic pathogen in humans in the European Union. Poultry is a major source of human infection with Campylobacter. Although many studies are done on the presence of Campylobacter in broilers and theoretically effective control measures are known, their relative importance at broiler farms remains poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Campylobacter on selected broiler farms in the Netherlands, to determine the moment of introduction, and associated risk factors. A longitudinal study on 25 broiler farms was carried out between June 2017 and December 2020. Fecal samples were collected weekly from 43 broiler houses. In total 497 flocks were sampled. Putative variables on flock and farm characteristics for a risk factor analysis were gathered through questionnaires. Risk factors associated with the presence of Campylobacter in a broiler flock were determined using regression models. In total 30% of the flocks included in the study were positive for Campylobacter. Factors associated with presence of Campylobacter at slaughter age included: season, mowing lawns and presence of agricultural side activities. While summer/autumn and mowing lawns were associated with an increase in Campylobacter presence in flocks, the farmer having agricultural side activities other than poultry production was associated with a decrease. Analysis of the age at which flocks first tested Campylobacter positive revealed that slower growing breeds became positive on average 1 wk later compared to regular growers. This study revealed a delayed introduction of Campylobacter in slower grower vs. regular grower broiler flocks reared indoors. In addition, it confirmed importance of season as major risk factor. The relevance of mowing and preceding positive flocks as risk factors needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fezes/microbiologia , Estações do Ano
20.
Poult Sci ; 103(4): 103548, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442560

RESUMO

Campylobacter is a major cause of bacterial foodborne diarrhea worldwide. Consumption of raw or undercooked chicken meat contaminated with Campylobacter is the most common causative agent of human infections. Given the high prevalence of contamination in poultry meat and the recent rise of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Campylobacter strains, an effective intervention method of reducing bird colonization is needed. In this study, the Campylobacter-specific lytic phage CP6 was isolated from chicken feces. Phage CP6 exhibited a broad host range against different MDR Campylobacter isolates (97.4% of strains were infected). Some biological characteristics were observed, such as a good pH (3-9) stability and moderate temperature tolerance (<50 ℃). The complete genome sequence revealed a linear double-stranded DNA (178,350 bp, group II Campylobacter phage) with 27.51% GC content, including 209 predicted open reading frames, among which only 54 were annotated with known functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the phage major capsid protein demonstrated that phage CP6 was closely related to Campylobacter phage CPt10, CP21, CP20, IBB35, and CP220. CP6 phage exerted good antimicrobial effects on MDR Campylobacter in vitro culture and reduced CFUs of the host cells by up to 1-log compared with the control in artificially contaminated chicken breast meat. Our findings suggested the potential of CP6 phage as a promising antimicrobial agent for combating MDR Campylobacter in food processing.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Humanos , Animais , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Carne/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos
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