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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17598, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39011383

RESUMO

Background: In Europe, avian schistosomes of the genus Trichobilharzia are the most common etiological agents involved in human cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch). Manifested by a skin rash, the condition is caused by an allergic reaction to cercariae of nonhuman schistosomes. Humans are an accidental host in this parasite's life cycle, while water snails are the intermediate, and waterfowl are the final hosts. The study aimed to conduct a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Trichobilharzia species occurring in recreational waters in North-Eastern Poland. Methodology: The study area covered three water bodies (Lake Skanda, Lake Ukiel, and Lake Tyrsko) over the summer of 2021. In total, 747 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix spp., Lymnaea stagnalis) were collected. Each snail was subjected to 1-2 h of light stimulation to induce cercarial expulsion. The phylogenetic analyses of furcocercariae were based on the partial sequence of the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2 and 28SrDNA). For Radix spp. phylogenetic analyses were based on the ITS-2 region. Results: The prevalence of the Trichobilharzia species infection in snails was 0.5%. Two out of 478 (0.4%) L. stagnaliswere found to be infected with Trichobilharzia szidati. Moreover, two out of 269 (0.7%) snails of the genus Radix were positive for schistosome cercariae. Both snails were identified as Radix auricularia. One of them was infected with Trichobilharzia franki and the other with Trichobilharzia sp. Conclusions: Molecular identification of avian schistosome species, both at the intermediate and definitive hosts level, constitutes an important source of information on a potential threat and prognosis of local swimmer's itch occurrence, and helps to determine species diversity in a particular area.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Schistosomatidae , Animais , Schistosomatidae/genética , Polônia/epidemiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Humanos , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 159: 9-14, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38989789

RESUMO

Glypthelmins quieta is a frog trematode native to North and Central America. This trematode was recently detected in Japan in the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus, which was introduced from North America to Japan. As the first intermediate host of G. quieta, typically a snail, has not yet been identified in Japan, we conducted a snail survey in eastern Japan to screen for an intermediate host using DNA barcoding based on the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1. We sampled 3 different snail species, Orientogalba ollula, Physella acuta, and Sinotaia quadrata histrica (157 individuals in total), and only the freshwater snail Physella acuta, which is also believed to have been introduced from North America to Japan, had sporocysts of G. quieta in its hepatopancreas. The introduction of the intermediate and definitive hosts from North America may have facilitated the invasion of G. quieta into Japan.


Assuntos
Caramujos , Trematódeos , Animais , Japão , Trematódeos/genética , Caramujos/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 291, 2024 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the exclusive intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control is an essential component of schistosomiasis elimination programme. With 70 years of continuous efforts, the range of O. hupensis had reduced significantly, but slowed down in last decades. A large number of levees against flooding were constructed along Yangtze River and its affiliated lakes in the middle and lower reaches, which influenced the hydrology and ecology in the alluvial plains. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of levees on the distribution of O. hupensis in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. METHODS: The snail habitats were digitalised by hand-held GPS system. The years for discovery and elimination of snail habitats were extracted from historical records. The accumulated snail-infested range for each habitat was calculated on the basis of annual reports. The current distribution of O. hupensis was determined by systematic and environmental sampling. The geographical distribution of levees was obtained from satellite imagery. To assess the impact of levees, the data pertaining to O. hupensis were divided into two parts: inside and outside the Yangtze River. Joinpoint regression was utilised to divide the study time span and further characterise the regression in each period. The 5-year-period moving averages of eliminated area infested by snails were calculated for the habitats inside and outside Yangtze River. The moving routes of corresponding geographical median centres were simulated in ArcGIS. Hotspot analysis was used to determine the areas with statistical significance clustering of O. hupensis density. RESULTS: Three periods were identified according to Joinpoint regression both inside and outside Yangtze River. The area infested by O. hupensis increased in the first two periods. It decreased rapidly outside Yangtze River year over year after 1970, while that inside the Yangtze River did not change significantly. Furthermore, the latter was significantly higher than the former. It was observed that the present density of O. hupensis inside Yangtze River was lower than outside the Yangtze River. The median centre for eliminated ranges inside Yangtze River wavered between the east (lower reach) and the west (middle reach). In contrast, the median centre for eliminated ranges continuously moved from the east to the west. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that the levees had a considerable negative impact on the distribution of O. hupensis outside Yangtze River. Some hotspots observed in the irrigation areas need a sluice system at the inlet of branch for snail control. The major distribution of O. hupensis located in Hubei might be caused by severe waterlogging. The intensive surveillance should be implemented there. The biggest two freshwater lakes, the major endemic regions historically, were identified as cold spots. The long-term impact of Three Gorges Dam on the distribution of O. hupensis in the lakes should be monitored and evaluated.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Schistosoma japonicum , Caramujos , Animais , Caramujos/parasitologia , Rios/parasitologia , China , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/transmissão , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(3): 299-303, 2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential risk of transmission of angiostrongyliasis by common freshwater snails in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into local surveillance of angiostrongyliasis. METHODS: Common freshwater snails were collected from Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province from March to April, 2020, and identified and bred in laboratory. SD rats were infected with third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonensis that were isolated from commercially available Pomacea canaliculata snails in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, and freshwater snails were infected with the first-stage larvae of A. cantonensis that were isolated from the feces of SD rats 39 days post-infection at room temperature. The developmental process and morphological characteristics of worms in hosts were observed, and the percentages of A. cantonensis infections in different species of freshwater snails were calculated. Then, SD rats were infected with the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis that were isolated from A. cantonensis-infected freshwater snails, and the larval development and reproduction was observed. RESULTS: More than 3 000 freshwater snail samples were collected from farmlands, ditches and wetlands around Erhai Lake in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, and Cipangopaludina chinensis, P. canaliculata, Parafossarulus striatulus, Oncomelania hupensis robertsoni, Galba pervia, Physa acuta, Radix swinhoei, Assiminea spp., Tricula spp. and Bellamya spp. were morphologically identified. A total of 105 commercially available P. canaliculata snails were tested for A. cantonensis infections, and 2 P. canaliculata snails were found to be infected with A. cantonensis, in which the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis were isolated. Ten species of freshwater snails were artificially infected with the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis, and all 10 species of freshwater snails were found to be infected with A. cantonensis, with the highest positive rate of A. cantonensis infections in Bellamya spp. (62.3%, 137/204), and the lowest in C. chinensis (35.5%, 11/31). After SD rats were infected with the third-stage larvae of A. cantonensis isolated from different species of freshwater snails, mature adult worms of A. cantonensis were yielded. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple species of freshwater snails may serve as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis under laboratory conditions in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan Province. Further investigations on natural infection of A. cantonensis in wild snails in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture seem justified.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Água Doce , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Caramujos , Animais , Caramujos/parasitologia , China , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/fisiologia , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Água Doce/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1454: 391-440, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39008272

RESUMO

The trematodes are a species-rich group of parasites, with some estimates suggesting that there are more than 24,000 species. However, the complexities associated with their taxonomic status and nomenclature can hinder explorations of the biology of wildlife trematodes, including fundamental aspects such as host use, life cycle variation, pathology, and disease. In this chapter, we review work on selected trematodes of amphibians, birds, mammals, and their snail intermediate hosts, with the goal of providing a tool kit on how to study trematodes of wildlife. We provide a brief introduction to each group of wildlife trematodes, followed by some examples of the challenges each group of trematodes has relative to the goal of their identification and understanding of the biology and interactions these organisms have with their wildlife hosts.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Aves/parasitologia , Anfíbios/parasitologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15888, 2024 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38987615

RESUMO

Bulk zinc oxide (ZnO-BPs) and its nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are frequently used in various products for humans. Helisoma duryi embryos can serve as effective model organisms for studying the toxicity of NPs. This study aimed to compare the teratogenic potency of ZnO-BPs and ZnO NPs in the embryonic stages of H. duryi to evaluate the utility of this snail as a bioindicator for ZnO-NPs in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms of teratogenesis were evaluated by determination of the LC50, studying the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of both ZnO forms on the embryos, and studying their enzyme activity, oxidative stress, and biochemical analysis. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was undertaken to assess the effect of ZnO-BPs and ZnO NPs on protein synthesis. The results revealed that the veliger stage of H. duryi is the specific stage for bulk and nano ZnO. ZnO-NPs proved to be more toxic to snails' embryos than ZnO-BPs. Exposure to ZnO influences specific types of defects in development, which in the case of BPs are far less drastic than those caused by NPs. Thus, the toxicity of ZnO-NPs in embryonic development is due to their unique physicochemical properties. The observed malformations include mainly hydropic malformation, exogastrulation, monophthalmia, shell misshapen, and cell lyses. Almost all tested oxidative biomarkers significantly changed, revealing that ZnONPs display more oxidative stress than ZnO-BPs. Also, the low concentration of ZnO induces many disturbances in the organic substances of veliger larvae, such as a decrease in the total protein and total lipid levels and an increase in the glycogen level. The results indicated that ZnO-BPs increase the number of protein bands. Conversely, ZnO-NPs concealed one band from treated egg masses, which was found in the control group. Embryos of snail are an appropriate model to control freshwater snails. This study demonstrates that H. duryi embryos can serve as effective model organisms to study the toxicity of ZnO-NPs.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero , Estresse Oxidativo , Caramujos , Teratogênicos , Óxido de Zinco , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/química , Animais , Caramujos/embriologia , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Água Doce , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 298, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiostrongyliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis are gastropods, and snail species such as Pomacea canaliculata play a key role in the transmission of human angiostrongyliasis. Detecting A. cantonensis infection in snails is an important component of epidemiological surveillance and the control of angiostrongyliasis. METHODS: In this study, a new method for diagnosing A. cantonensis infection in gastropods was developed by recovering larvae from the buccal cavity of three snail species. The entire buccal cavity of a snail was extracted, and the tissue was pressed between two microscope slides to observe whether A. cantonensis larvae were present. Our new method was compared with traditional pathogenic detection methods of lung microscopy, tissue homogenization, and artificial digestion. We artificially infected 160 P. canaliculata, 160 Cipangopaludina chinensis, and 160 Bellamya aeruginosa snails with A. cantonensis. Then, the four different detection methods were used to diagnose infection in each snail species at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post exposure. RESULTS: We found no significant difference in the percentages of infected P. canaliculata snails using the four methods to detect A. cantonensis larvae. The radula pressing method had a mean detection rate of 80%, while the lung microscopy (81.3%), tissue homogenization (83.8%), and artificial digestion (85%) methods had slightly greater detection rates. Similarly, the percentages of infected C. chinensis snails that were detected using the radula pressing (80%), tissue homogenization (82.1%), and artificial digestion (83.8%) methods were not significantly different. Finally, the percentages of infected B. aeruginosa snails that were detected using the radula pressing (81.3%), tissue homogenization (81.9%), and artificial digestion (81.4%) methods were not significantly different. These results showed that the radula pressing method had a similar detection rate to traditional lung microscopy, tissue homogenization, or artificial digestion methods. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a new method for the qualitative screening of gastropods that act as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis (and other Angiostrongylus species), provides technical support for the control of human angiostrongyliasis, and furthers research on A. cantonensis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Larva , Caramujos , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/fisiologia , Boca/parasitologia , Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Angiostrongylus/fisiologia , Ratos , Humanos
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 283, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymnaeid snails of the genus Austropeplea are an important vector of the liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica), contributing to livestock production losses in Australia and New Zealand. However, the species status within Austropeplea is ambiguous due to heavy reliance on morphological analysis and a relative lack of genetic data. This study aimed to characterise the mitochondrial genome of A. cf. brazieri, an intermediate host of liver fluke in eastern Victoria. METHODS: The mitochondrial genome was assembled and annotated from a combination of second- and third-generation sequencing data. For comparative purposes, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 16S genes. RESULTS: The assembled mt genome was 13,757 base pairs and comprised 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The mt genome length, gene order and nucleotide compositions were similar to related species of lymnaeids. Phylogenetic analyses of the mt nucleotide sequences placed A. cf. brazieri within the same clade as Orientogalba ollula with strong statistical supports. Phylogenies of the cox1 and 16S mt sequences were constructed due to the wide availability of these sequences representing the lymnaeid taxa. As expected in both these phylogenies, A. cf. brazieri clustered with other Austropeplea sequences, but the nodal supports were low. CONCLUSIONS: The representative mt genome of A. cf. brazieri should provide a useful resource for future molecular, epidemiology and parasitological studies of this socio-economically important lymnaeid species.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Caramujos , Animais , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Caramujos/parasitologia , Austrália , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciola hepatica/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e283314, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958298

RESUMO

Aestivation and hibernation represent distinct forms of animal quiescence, characterized by physiological changes, including ion composition. Intracellular ion flows play a pivotal role in eliciting alterations in membrane potential and facilitating cellular communication, while outward K+ currents aid in the restitution and upkeep of the resting membrane potential. This study explores the relationship between inward and outward currents during aestivation in Achatina fulica snails. Specimens were collected near MSUBIT University in Shenzhen and divided into two groups. The first group was kept on a lattice diet, while the second one consisted of aestivating individuals, that were deprived of food and water until a cork-like structure sealed their shells. Recording of current from isolated neurons were conducted using the single-electrode voltage clamp mode with an AxoPatch 200B amplifier. Electrophysiological recordings on pedal ganglia neurons revealed significant differences in the inactivation processes of the Ia and Ikdr components. Alterations in the Ikdr component may inhibit pacemaker activity in pedal ganglion neurons, potentially contributing to locomotion cessation in aestivated animals. The KS current remains unaffected during aestivation. Changes in slow K+ current components could disrupt the resting membrane potential, possibly leading to cell depolarization and influx of Ca2+ and Na+ ions, impacting cell homeostasis. Thus, maintaining the constancy of outward K+ current is essential for cell stability.


Assuntos
Potenciais da Membrana , Neurônios , Caramujos , Animais , Caramujos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Estivação/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Potássio/metabolismo , Canais de Potássio/fisiologia
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 16427, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39013912

RESUMO

The ecotoxicological consequences of azoxystrobin on land snails have not yet been addressed. Therefore, the present study aims to provide novel data on the threat of a commercial grade azoxystrobin (AMISTAR) at two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.3 µg/ml) and tenfold (3 µg/ml) on the model species, Theba pisana by physiological, biochemical, and histopathological markers for 28 days. Our results showed a reduction in animal food consumption and growth due to exposure to both azoxystrobin concentrations. It also induced oxidative stress and led to a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels after 7 days of exposure, while the opposite effect occurred after 28 days. Except for the 7-day exposure, all treated snails had significantly reduced glutathione (GSH) content and increased catalase (CAT) activity at all-time intervals. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, and protein content (PC) were elevated in treated snails at all-time intervals. Moreover, alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity between a decrease and an increase were noticed. Additionally, azoxystrobin exerted changes in T. pisana hepatopancreas architecture. Our study suggests that azoxystrobin may have negative ecological consequences for T. pisana and highlights its potential risks to the natural environment.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Glutationa , Metacrilatos , Estresse Oxidativo , Pirimidinas , Caramujos , Estrobilurinas , Animais , Estrobilurinas/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Metacrilatos/toxicidade , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caramujos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13161, 2024 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849440

RESUMO

Physella acuta is a freshwater snail native to North America. Understanding the phylogeography and genetic structure of P. acuta will help elucidate its evolution. In this study, we used mitochondrial (COI and 16S rDNA) and nuclear (ITS1) markers to identify the species and examine its genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of P. acuta in Thailand. Phylogenetic and network analyses of P. acuta in Thailand pertained to clade A, which exhibits a global distribution. Analysis of the genetic structure of the population revealed that the majority of pairwise comparisons showed no genetic dissimilarity. An isolation-by-distance test indicates no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances among P. acuta populations, suggesting that gene flow is not restricted by distance. Demographic history and haplotype network analyses suggest a population expansion of P. acuta, as evidenced by the star-like structure detected in the median-joining network. Based on these results, we concluded that P. acuta in Thailand showed gene flow and recent population expansion. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the genetic variation of P. acuta in Thailand.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Tailândia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Gastrópodes/genética , Gastrópodes/classificação , Fluxo Gênico , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Haplótipos , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Caramujos/genética , Caramujos/classificação , Genes Mitocondriais
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(2): 159-164, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trends in Oncomelania hupensis distribution in Wuhan City, Hubei Province from 2003 to 2022, so as to provide insights into precision schistosomiasis control. METHODS: Data pertaining to O. hupensis snail survey in Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 were collected. The trends in the proportion of areas with snail habitats, actual area with snail habitats, mean density of living snails and prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum infection in snails were evaluated in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 with the slope of trend curve (ß), annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC) using a Joinpoint regression model. RESULTS: During the period from 2003 through 2022, there were two turning points for the proportion of areas with snail habitats in Wuhan City in 2005 and 2015, with a rise during the period from 2003 to 2005 (ß1 = 5.93, t = 1.280, P > 0.05), a decline from 2005 to 2015 (ß2 = -0.88, t = -2.074, P > 0.05) and a rise from 2015 to 2022 (ß3 = 1.46, t = -2.356, P < 0.05). During the period from 2003 through 2022, there were two turning points for the proportion of areas with snail habitats in islet endemic areas of Wuhan City in 2006 and 2015, with no significant differences in the trends from 2003 to 2006 (ß1 = 4.64, t = 1.888, P > 0.05) or from 2006 to 2015 (ß2 = -1.45, t = -2.143, P > 0.05), and with a tendency towards a rise from 2015 to 2022 (ß3 = 2.04, t = -3.100, P < 0.05). During the period from 2003 through 2022, there were two turning points for the proportion of areas with snail habitats in inner embankment endemic areas of Wuhan City in 2012 and 2020, with a tendency towards a decline from 2003 to 2012 (ß1 = -0.39, t = -4.608, P < 0.05) and with no significant differences in the trends from 2012 to 2020 (ß2 = 0.03, t = 0.245, P > 0.05) and from 2020 to 2022 (ß3 = 1.38, t = 1.479, P > 0.05). During the period from 2003 to 2022, the actual area with snail habitats all appeared a tendency towards a decline in Wuhan City, and in islet and inner embankment endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (AAPC = -2.39%, -5.75% and -2.35%, all P values < 0.05). The mean density of living snails reduced from 0.087 snails/0.1 m2 in 2003 to 0.027 snails/0.1 m2 in 2022 in Wuhan City, with a significant difference in the tendency towards the decline (APC = AAPC = -11.47%, P < 0.05). The annual mean decline rate of the mean density of living snails was 17.36% in outside embankment endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (APC = AAPC = -17.36%, P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in the trends in the mean density of living snails in islet endemic areas of Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (APC = AAPC = -0.97%, P > 0.05). In addition, the prevalence of S. japonicum infection in snails appeared a tendency towards a decline in Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022 (APC = AAPC = -12.45%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of areas with snail habitats, actual area with snail habitats, mean density of living snails and prevalence of S. japonicum infection in snails all appeared a tendency towards a decline in Wuhan City from 2003 to 2022. Intensified snail control, modification of snail habitats, shrinking of areas with snails and implementation of grazing prohibition in snail-infested settings are required, in order to facilitate the progress towards schistosomiasis elimination in Wuhan City.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose , Caramujos , China/epidemiologia , Animais , Caramujos/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Humanos , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia
13.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(2): 148-153, 2024 May 27.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigating the microbial communities and physicochemical properties of soil and distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshlands along the Yangtze River basin at different types of land use, and to examine the effects of soil microorganisms and physicochemical properties on snail distribution, so as to provide insights into snail control and schistosomiasis prevention in marshland along the Yangtze River basin. METHODS: Marshlands with four types of land use were selected along the Yangtze River basin on April 2021, including poplar forest-crops integrated planting, reed areas, agricultural cultivation lands and ditches. The distribution of snails and physicochemical properties of soil were investigated in marshlands with different types of land use, and the V3 to V4 regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene, fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1) gene and algal ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene in soils were subjected to high-throughput sequencing. The occurrence of frames with living snails and density of living snails were compared in marshland with different types of land use. The associations of soil microorganisms and physicochemical properties with the density of living snails were examined using Pearson correlation analysis, and the contributions of soil microorganisms and physicochemical properties to the density of living snails were evaluated using variance partitioning analysis. RESULTS: In marshlands with four types of land use, the greatest occurrence of frames with living snails [(4.94 ± 2.14)%] and density of living snails [(0.070 ± 0.026) snails/0.1 m2] were seen in ditches, and the lowest were found in [(1.23 ± 1.23)%] agricultural cultivation lands [(0.016 ± 0.019) snails/0.1 m2]. A total of 2 phyla, 5 classes, 8 orders, 9 families and 11 genera of algae were detected in soils at four types of land use, with Chlorophyta as the dominant phylum and Pseudoneochloris as the dominant genus. A total of 44 phyla, 134 classes, 281 orders, 338 families and 516 genera of bacteria were detected in soils at four types of land use, with Proteobacteria and Acidobacteriota as the dominant phyla and uncultured Acidobacterium, MND1, Mitrospira, Haliangium and Sphingomonas as dominant genera. A total of 11 phyla, 41 classes, 108 orders, 223 families and 408 genera of fungi were detected in soils at four types of land use, with phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota presenting high relative abundances and genera Cladorrhinum, Mortierella and Humicola presenting high relative abundances. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the density of living snails correlated negatively with the relative abundance of Proteobacteria (r = -0.965, P < 0.05) and soil electronic conductivity (r = -0.962, P < 0.05) and positively with soil moisture (r = 0.951, P < 0.05). Variance partitioning analysis demonstrated that the physicochemical properties and microorganisms of soil contributed 69% and 10% to the density of living snails, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The diversity of microbial communities varies in soils at different types of land use in marshland along the Yangtze River basin, and the physicochemical properties and microorganisms of soils may affect the distribution of O. hupensis snails.


Assuntos
Rios , Caramujos , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Rios/microbiologia , Rios/química , China , Solo/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(2): 165-168, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in distribution of Oncomelania hupensis snails in forestlands in Songjiang District, Shanghai Municipality from 2009 to 2023, so as to provide insights into formulation of O. hupensis snail surveillance programs. METHODS: The reports on O. hupensis snail surveillance in Songjiang District, Shanghai Municipality from 2009 to 2023 were collected, and the snail surveillance data in forestlands were extracted. The trends in the proportion of areas with snails in forestlands in total areas with snails, occurrence of frames with living snails and density of living snails were evaluated using a Joinpoint regression model in Songjiang District from 2009 to 2023, and the annual percent change (APC) and average annual percent change (AAPC). RESULTS: A total of 40 sites with snails were found in forestlands in 14 administrative villages of 4 townships, Songjiang District, Shanghai Municipality from 2009 to 2023. A total of 39 065 frames were surveyed for snails in settings covering an area of 609 600 m2, and there were 6 084 frames with snails, covering 151 250 m2 snail habitats. A total of 22 210 snails were captured, with the highest density of 260.00 snails/0.1 m2, and 6 262 snails were dissected, with no Schistosoma japonicum infection identified in snails. The proportion of areas with snails in forestlands in total areas with snails appeared a tendency towards a rise in forestlands in Songjiang District, Shanghai Municipality from 2009 to 2023 (APC = AAPC = 24.9%, P > 0.05); however, there were no turning points in the trend curve, with the highest proportion seen in 2009 (53.81%), the lowest in 2011 and 2023 (both 0) and a mean proportion of 24.81%. The occurrence of frames with living snails appeared a tendency towards a rise from 2009 to 2023 (APC = AAPC = 41.5%, P > 0.05); however, there were no turning points in the trend curve, with the highest occurrence in 2009 (53.81%), the lowest in 2011 and 2013 (both 0), and the mean occurrence of 15.57%. In addition, the density of living snails appeared a tendency towards a rise from 2009 to 2023 (APC = AAPC = 55.0%, P > 0.05); however, there were no turning points in the trend curve, with the highest density in 2023 (0.96 snails/0.1 m2), the lowest in 2011 and 2013 (both 0), and a mean density of 0.57 snails/0.1 m2. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty in O. hupensis snail control and risk of imported snails appeared a tendency towards a rise in forestlands in Songjiang District, Shanghai Municipality over years from 2009 to 2023. Supervision and assessment prior to seedling transplantation and intensified surveillance post-transplantation are recommended to reduce the risk of O. hupensis snail importation and spread.


Assuntos
Florestas , Caramujos , Animais , China , Caramujos/parasitologia
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(2): 198-200, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of ground cage use on Oncomelania hupensis spread, so as to provide insights into precision snail control. METHODS: Twenty ground cages that were frequently used to capture rice field eels were purchased, including 11 packaging tape-made cages, 7 plastic cages and 2 nylon rope-made cages. The eel-capturing activity was mimicked, and 20 ground cages were assigned in settings with relatively high (1.00 snail/0.1 m2 and higher) and low snail densities (< 1.00 snail/0.1 m2) in Xindai Township, Pinghu City, Zhejiang Province during the period from 15 : 00 to 8 : 00 of the following day on April 13, 26 and 28. The numbers of snails carried by different types of ground cages were compared in settings with different types of snail densities using the rank-sum test. RESULTS: A total of 11 cage-times were assigned in settings with a high snail density, and a total of 77 snails were captured, with a mean number of 7 snails in each cage-time and 2.15 snails in 0.1 m2 ground cage. The mean numbers of snails carried by packaging tape-made and plastic cages were 2.47 snails/0.1 m2 cage and 0.37 snails/0.1 m2 cage, respectively. A total of 24 cage-times were assigned in settings with a low snail density, and a total of 8 snails were captured, with a mean number of 0.33 snails in each cage-time and 0.09 snails in 0.1 m2 ground cage. The mean numbers of snails carried by packaging tape-made cages were 0.12 snails/0.1 m2 cage; however, no snails were carried by plastic or nylon rope-made cages. The number of snails carried by ground cages was higher in settings with a high snail density than in settings with a low snail density (Z = -4.019, P < 0.01), and the number of snails carried by packaging tape-made cages was higher in settings with a high snail density than in settings with a low snail density (Z = -4.086, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in the numbers of snails carried by different types of ground cages. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ground cage in snail habitats is a contributor to snail spread.


Assuntos
Caramujos , Animais , Caramujos/fisiologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/instrumentação , China
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 329: 110209, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823188

RESUMO

The transmission of Fasciola hepatica occurs only where there are -or recently were- aquatic or amphibious snails of the Lymnaeidae family, the intermediate host of this parasite. Direct detection of these snails is time-consuming and imprecise, hindering accurate and detailed mapping of transmission risk. To identify which microenvironmental factors could be used as proxies for the occurrence of the lymnaeid snail Galba viator, a major intermediate host in South America, a total of 183 1-m2 quadrants across diverse water bodies in an endemic area in Andean Patagonia were manually timed-searched for snails and microenvironmental variables were registered. Data was analyzed using a Bayesian hierarchical occupancy model that assessed the effects of the microenvironmental variables on the presence of snails while considering imperfect snail detection. The model estimated that G. viator predominantly inhabits shallow aquatic environments, in the presence of grasses, where snails of the genus Biomphalaria are also detected, and with scarce tree canopy cover. Physical factors affecting occupancy presumably act as proxies for the average water temperature, while the temperature at the time of sampling was found to affect snail detectability. The identified variables are easy, fast, and inexpensive to measure, and can complement management decisions and risk maps based on coarser remote-sensing data, particularly relevant in a context of growing resistance to anthelminthic drugs.


Assuntos
Fasciola hepatica , Caramujos , Temperatura , Água , Animais , Fasciola hepatica/fisiologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia , Água/química , Argentina/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Teorema de Bayes
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 204: 116516, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833951

RESUMO

This study investigates the presence of microplastics (MPs) in seawater, sediments, and organisms along the coastal areas of Da Nang, Vietnam. The results obtained revealed MP concentrations ranging from 111 to 304 MPs/L in seawater and 2267 to 4600 MPs/kg in sediment. In organisms such as oysters, mussels, crabs, snails, and fish, MP levels ranged from 1.8 to 17.3 MPs/g (wet weight). Fiber MPs were found to be predominant across seawater, sediment, and organisms. The study identified eight, ten, and eleven types of MPs in seawater, sediment, and organisms, respectively, with Nylon, Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) being the most prevalent. Notably, MP concentrations were significantly higher in benthic organisms such as oysters, mussels, and crabs compared to fish (t-test, p < 0.05), suggesting habitat dependency. Similar concentrations, shapes, and types of MPs in seawater, sediments, and organisms demonstrate a tendency for MP accumulation in aquatic organisms within the marine environment.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Vietnã , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água do Mar/química , Microplásticos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Braquiúros , Peixes , Bivalves , Ostreidae , Caramujos
18.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 596, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872121

RESUMO

Molluscan mitochondrial genomes are unusual because they show wide variation in size, radical genome rearrangements and frequently show high variation (> 10%) within species. As progress in understanding this variation has been limited, we used whole genome sequencing of a six-generation matriline of the terrestrial snail Cepaea nemoralis, as well as whole genome sequences from wild-collected C. nemoralis, the sister species C. hortensis, and multiple other snail species to explore the origins of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. The main finding is that a high rate of SNP heteroplasmy in somatic tissue was negatively correlated with mtDNA copy number in both Cepaea species. In individuals with under ten mtDNA copies per nuclear genome, more than 10% of all positions were heteroplasmic, with evidence for transmission of this heteroplasmy through the germline. Further analyses showed evidence for purifying selection acting on non-synonymous mutations, even at low frequency of the rare allele, especially in cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b. The mtDNA of some individuals of Cepaea nemoralis contained a length heteroplasmy, including up to 12 direct repeat copies of tRNA-Val, with 24 copies in another snail, Candidula rugosiuscula, and repeats of tRNA-Thr in C. hortensis. These repeats likely arise due to error prone replication but are not correlated with mitochondrial copy number in C. nemoralis. Overall, the findings provide key insights into mechanisms of replication, mutation and evolution in molluscan mtDNA, and so will inform wider studies on the biology and evolution of mtDNA across animal phyla.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial , Genoma Mitocondrial , Heteroplasmia , Mutação , Seleção Genética , Caramujos , Animais , Caramujos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Heteroplasmia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(25): 14152-14164, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869049

RESUMO

Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata), a major alien invasive organism in China, affects food production and poses a threat to human health. Metaldehyde is a highly effective, commonly used snail killer with low toxicity. Virulence determination, tissue section, iTRAQ and RNA interference were used to systematically study the toxicity of metaldehyde on P. canaliculata. The molluscicidal activity tests showed that metaldehyde exhibits strong toxicity against P. canaliculata. Physiological and biochemical data indicate that metaldehyde can cause damage to the gills, liver, pancreas, and kidneys of snails, also reduce the oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate of golden apple snails, and cause neurological diseases. The proteome of the gill region of the golden apple snail after exposure to metaldehyde was analyzed by using iTRAQ technology. A total of 360 differential proteins were identified, and four target proteins were screened, namely, alpha-protein kinase 1 (ALPK1), cubilin (CUBN), sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 2 (GAT2), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). RNAi was used to target the four proteins. After the ALPK1 and CUBN protein genes were interfered with by metaldehyde treatment, it was found that the mortality rate of the golden apple snail significantly increased. However, interference of GAT2 and AChE protein genes by metaldehyde led to no significant change in the mortality rates of the snails. The histopathological observation of the gill showed that the rate of cilia shedding in the gill decreased after the interference of ALPK1 and CUBN protein genes.


Assuntos
Moluscocidas , Caramujos , Animais , Caramujos/genética , Caramujos/metabolismo , Moluscocidas/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/análogos & derivados , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/toxicidade , Brânquias/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , China
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 280: 116549, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852467

RESUMO

Roundup®, a prominent glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH), holds a significant position in the global market. However, studies of its effects on aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs are limited. Pomacea canaliculata, a large freshwater snail naturally thrives in agricultural environments where GBH is extensively employed. Our investigation involved assessing the impact of two concentrations of GBH (at concentrations of 19.98 mg/L and 59.94 mg/L, corresponding to 6 mg/L and 18 mg/L glyphosate) during a 96 h exposure experiment on the intestinal bacterial composition and metabolites of P. canaliculata. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene demonstrated a notable reduction in the alpha diversity of intestinal bacteria due to GBH exposure. Higher GBH concentration caused a significant shift in the relative abundance of dominant bacteria, such as Bacteroides and Paludibacter. We employed widely-targeted metabolomics analysis to analyze alterations in the hepatopancreatic metabolic profile as a consequence of GBH exposure. The shifts in metabolites primarily affected lipid, amino acid, and glucose metabolism, resulting in compromised immune and adaptive capacities in P. canaliculata. These results suggested that exposure to varying GBH concentrations perpetuates adverse effects on intestinal and hepatopancreatic health of P. canaliculata. This study provides an understanding of the negative effects of GBH on P. canaliculata and may sheds light on its potential implications for other molluscs.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glicina , Glifosato , Hepatopâncreas , Herbicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Metabolômica
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