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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8618-8631, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569082

RESUMO

Daidzein (DAN) is an isoflavone, and it is often found in its natural form in soybean and food supplements. DAN has poor bioavailability owing to its extremely low water solubility and first-pass metabolism. Herein, we hypothesized that a bioactivatable natural amino acid-bearing carbamate prodrug strategy could increase the water solubility and metabolic stability of DAN. To test our hypothesis, nine amino acid prodrugs of DAN were designed and synthesized. Compared with DAN, the optimal prodrug (daidzein-4'-O-CO-N-isoleucine, D-4'-I) demonstrated enhanced water solubility and improved phase II metabolic stability and activation to DAN in plasma. In addition, unlike the passive transport of DAN, D-4'-I maintained high permeability via organic anion-transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1)-mediated transport. Importantly, D-4'-I increased the oral bioavailability by 15.5-fold, reduced the gender difference, and extended the linear absorption capacity in the pharmacokinetics of DAN in rats. Furthermore, D-4'-I exhibited dose-dependent protection against liver injury. Thus, the natural amino acid-bearing carbamate prodrug strategy shows potential in increasing water solubility and improving phase II metabolic stability to enhance the oral bioavailability of DAN.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Pró-Fármacos , Ratos , Animais , Aminoácidos/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Solubilidade , Pró-Fármacos/química , Carbamatos/química , Água , Administração Oral
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522711

RESUMO

Carbendazim is a widely used fungicide to protect agricultural and horticultural crops against a wide array of fungal species. Published reports have shown that the wide usage of carbendazim resulted in reprotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, and developmental toxicity in mammalian models. However, studies related to the developmental toxicity of carbendazim in aquatic organisms are not clear. To address this gap, an attempt was made by exposing zebrafish embryos to carbendazim (800 µg/L) and assessing the phenotypic and transcriptomic profile at different developmental stages [24 hour post fertilization (hpf), 48 hpf, 72 hpf and 96 hpf). At 48 hpf, phenotypic abnormalities such as delay in hatching rate, deformed spinal axial curvature, and pericardial edema were observed in zebrafish larvae over its respective controls. At 72 hpf, exposure of zebrafish embryos exposed to carbendazim resulted in scoliosis; however, unexposed larvae did not exhibit signs of scoliosis. Interestingly, the transcriptomic analysis revealed a total of 1253 DEGs were observed at selected time points, while unique genes at 24 hpf, 48 hpf, 72 hpf and 96 hpf was found to be 76.54 %, 61.14 %, 92.98 %, and 68.28 %, respectively. Functional profiling of downregulated genes revealed altered transcriptomic markers associated with phototransduction (24 hpf and 72 hpf), immune system (48 hpf), and SNARE interactions in the vesicular pathway (96 hpf). Whereas functional profiling of upregulated genes revealed altered transcriptomic markers associated with riboflavin metabolism (24 hpf), basal transcription factors (48 hpf), insulin signaling pathway (72 hpf), and primary bile acid biosynthesis (96 hpf). Taken together, carbendazim-induced developmental toxicity could be ascribed to pleiotropic responses at the molecular level, which in turn might reflect phenotypic abnormalities.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis , Carbamatos , Escoliose , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva , Escoliose/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
3.
Brief Bioinform ; 25(2)2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426326

RESUMO

Herbs applicability in disease treatment has been verified through experiences over thousands of years. The understanding of herb-disease associations (HDAs) is yet far from complete due to the complicated mechanism inherent in multi-target and multi-component (MTMC) botanical therapeutics. Most of the existing prediction models fail to incorporate the MTMC mechanism. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel dual-channel hypergraph convolutional network, namely HGHDA, for HDA prediction. Technically, HGHDA first adopts an autoencoder to project components and target protein onto a low-dimensional latent space so as to obtain their embeddings by preserving similarity characteristics in their original feature spaces. To model the high-order relations between herbs and their components, we design a channel in HGHDA to encode a hypergraph that describes the high-order patterns of herb-component relations via hypergraph convolution. The other channel in HGHDA is also established in the same way to model the high-order relations between diseases and target proteins. The embeddings of drugs and diseases are then aggregated through our dual-channel network to obtain the prediction results with a scoring function. To evaluate the performance of HGHDA, a series of extensive experiments have been conducted on two benchmark datasets, and the results demonstrate the superiority of HGHDA over the state-of-the-art algorithms proposed for HDA prediction. Besides, our case study on Chuan Xiong and Astragalus membranaceus is a strong indicator to verify the effectiveness of HGHDA, as seven and eight out of the top 10 diseases predicted by HGHDA for Chuan-Xiong and Astragalus-membranaceus, respectively, have been reported in literature.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Astragalus propinquus , Benchmarking , Carbamatos
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474222

RESUMO

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a protein with important functions, has been recognized as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of sepsis. One possible mechanism for this is that inhibiting HMGB1 secretion can exert antiseptic effects, which can restore the integrity of the vascular barrier. (7S)-(+)-cyclopentyl carbamic acid 8,8-dimethyl-2-oxo-6,7-dihydro-2H,8H-pyrano[3,2-g]chromen-7-yl-ester (CGK012) is a newly synthesized pyranocoumarin compound that could function as a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. However, no studies have yet determined the effects of CGK012 on sepsis. We investigated the potential of CGK012 to attenuate the excessive permeability induced by HMGB1 and enhance survival rates in a mouse model of sepsis with reduced HMGB1 levels following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. In both LPS-stimulated human endothelial cells and a mouse model exhibiting septic symptoms due to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), we assessed proinflammatory protein levels and tissue damage biomarkers as indicators of reduced vascular permeability. CGK012 was applied after induction in human endothelial cells exposed to LPS and the CLP-induced mouse model of sepsis. CGK012 effectively mitigated excessive permeability and suppressed HMGB1 release, resulting in improved vascular stability, decreased mortality, and enhanced histological conditions in the mouse model of CLP-induced sepsis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CGK012 treatment in mice with CLP-induced sepsis diminished HMGB1 release and increased the survival rate, suggesting its potential as a pharmaceutical intervention for sepsis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Carbamatos , Cumarínicos , Proteína HMGB1 , Sepse , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sepse/metabolismo
5.
BMC Neurosci ; 25(1): 18, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491350

RESUMO

Sensory processing in the auditory brainstem can be studied with auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) across species. There is, however, a limited understanding of ABRs as tools to assess the effect of pharmacological interventions. Therefore, we set out to understand how pharmacological agents that target key transmitter systems of the auditory brainstem circuitry affect ABRs in rats. Given previous studies, demonstrating that Nrxn1α KO Sprague Dawley rats show substantial auditory processing deficits and altered sensitivity to GABAergic modulators, we used both Nrxn1α KO and wild-type littermates in our study. First, we probed how different commonly used anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, medetomidine) affect ABRs. In the next step, we assessed the effects of different pharmacological compounds (diazepam, gaboxadol, retigabine, nicotine, baclofen, and bitopertin) either under isoflurane or medetomidine anesthesia. We found that under our experimental conditions, ABRs are largely unaffected by diverse pharmacological modulation. Significant modulation was observed with (i) nicotine, affecting the late ABRs components at 90 dB stimulus intensity under isoflurane anesthesia in both genotypes and (ii) retigabine, showing a slight decrease in late ABRs deflections at 80 dB stimulus intensity, mainly in isoflurane anesthetized Nrxn1α KO rats. Our study suggests that ABRs in anesthetized rats are resistant to a wide range of pharmacological modulators, which has important implications for the applicability of ABRs to study auditory brainstem physiology.


Assuntos
Carbamatos , Isoflurano , Fenilenodiaminas , Ratos , Animais , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Nicotina/farmacologia
6.
Lancet Neurol ; 23(4): 393-403, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the most common childhood muscular dystrophy, is caused by dystrophin deficiency. Preclinical and phase 2 study data have suggested that givinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, might help to counteract the effects of this deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of givinostat in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 41 tertiary care sites in 11 countries. Eligible participants were ambulant, male, and aged at least 6 years, had a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, completed two four-stair climb assessments with a mean of 8 s or less (≤1 s variance), had a time-to-rise of at least 3 s but less than 10 s, and had received systemic corticosteroids for at least 6 months. Participating boys were randomly assigned (2:1, allocated according to a list generated by the interactive response technology provider) to receive either oral givinostat or matching placebo twice a day for 72 weeks, stratified by concomitant steroid use. Boys, investigators, and site and sponsor staff were masked to treatment assignment. The dose was flexible, based on weight, and was reduced if not tolerated. Boys were divided into two groups on the basis of their baseline vastus lateralis fat fraction (VLFF; measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy): group A comprised boys with a VLFF of more than 5% but no more than 30%, whereas group B comprised boys with a VLFF of 5% or less, or more than 30%. The primary endpoint compared the effects of givinostat and placebo on the change in results of the four-stair climb assessment between baseline and 72 weeks, in the intention-to-treat, group A population. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned boys who received at least one dose of study drug. When the first 50 boys in group A completed 12 months of treatment, an interim futility assessment was conducted, after which the sample size was adapted using masked data from the four-stair climb assessments. Furthermore, the starting dose of givinostat was reduced following a protocol amendment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02851797, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between June 6, 2017, and Feb 22, 2022, 359 boys were assessed for eligibility. Of these, 179 were enrolled into the study (median age 9·8 years [IQR 8·1-11·0]), all of whom were randomly assigned (118 to receive givinostat and 61 to receive placebo); 170 (95%) boys completed the study. Of the 179 boys enrolled, 120 (67%) were in group A (81 givinostat and 39 placebo); of these, 114 (95%) completed the study. For participants in group A, comparing the results of the four-stair climb assessment at 72 weeks and baseline, the geometric least squares mean ratio was 1·27 (95% CI 1·17-1·37) for boys receiving givinostat and 1·48 (1·32-1·66) for those receiving placebo (ratio 0·86, 95% CI 0·745-0·989; p=0·035). The most common adverse events in the givinostat group were diarrhoea (43 [36%] of 118 boys vs 11 [18%] of 61 receiving placebo) and vomiting (34 [29%] vs 8 [13%]); no treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Among ambulant boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, results of the four-stair climb assessment worsened in both groups over the study period; however, the decline was significantly smaller with givinostat than with placebo. The dose of givinostat was reduced after an interim safety analysis, but no new safety signals were reported. An ongoing extension study is evaluating the long-term safety and efficacy of givinostat in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. FUNDING: Italfarmaco.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carbamatos/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego
7.
Chirality ; 36(4): e23660, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511944

RESUMO

A green and efficient process for the synthesis of cenobamate has been accomplished in 70% yield and >99% ee through the bio-reduction of ß-ketotetrazole using Daucus carota whole plant cells. The corresponding ß-hydroxytetrazole was isolated in 60% yield and >98% ee. This is the first report on the biocatalytic reduction of ß-ketotetrazole using plant enzymes derived from D. carota root cells with excellent enantioselectivity.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Carbamatos , Clorofenóis , Cetonas , Tetrazóis , Estereoisomerismo , Biocatálise
8.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 97: 105812, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522494

RESUMO

Carbendazim (CBZ) is a benzimidazole fungicide widely used worldwide in industrial, agricultural, and veterinary practices. Although, CBZ was found in all brain tissues causing serious neurotoxicity, its impact on brain immune cells remain scarcely understood. Our study investigated the in vitro effects of CBZ on activated microglial BV-2 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of CBZ and cytokine release was measured by ELISA, and Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) assays. Mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2·-) generation was evaluated by Dihydroethidium (DHE) and nitric oxide (NO) was assessed by Griess reagent. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the malonaldehyde (MDA) levels. The transmembrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) was detected by cytometry analysis with dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6(3)) assay. CBZ concentration-dependently increased IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 by LPS-activated BV-2 cells. CBZ significantly promoted oxidative stress by increasing NO, O2·- generation, and MDA levels. In contrast, CBZ significantly decreased ΔΨm. Pre-treatment of BV-2 cells with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed all the above mentioned immunotoxic parameters, suggesting a potential protective role of NAC against CBZ-induced immunotoxicity via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on activated BV-2 cells. Therefore, microglial proinflammatory over-activation by CBZ may be a potential mechanism by which CBZ could induce neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Carbamatos , Microglia , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Benzimidazóis/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico
9.
EMBO Mol Med ; 16(4): 870-884, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462666

RESUMO

Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a rare inherited skin disease characterized by defects in type VII collagen leading to a range of fibrotic pathologies resulting from skin fragility, aberrant wound healing, and altered dermal fibroblast physiology. Using a novel in vitro model of fibrosis based on endogenously produced extracellular matrix, we screened an FDA-approved compound library and identified antivirals as a class of drug not previously associated with anti-fibrotic action. Preclinical validation of our lead hit, daclatasvir, in a mouse model of RDEB demonstrated significant improvement in fibrosis as well as overall quality of life with increased survival, weight gain and activity, and a decrease in pruritus-induced hair loss. Immunohistochemical assessment of daclatasvir-treated RDEB mouse skin showed a reduction in fibrotic markers, which was supported by in vitro data demonstrating TGFß pathway targeting and a reduction of total collagen retained in the extracellular matrix. Our data support the clinical development of antivirals for the treatment of patients with RDEB and potentially other fibrotic diseases.


Assuntos
Carbamatos , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica , Imidazóis , Pirrolidinas , Valina/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Colágeno Tipo VII/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo VII/uso terapêutico , Fibrose , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
10.
Talanta ; 273: 125911, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508129

RESUMO

Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are widely used to determine carbendazim (CBZ) residues in food products due to their advantages of low cost, ease and rapid use, on-site detection capability. However, conventional LFIAs have low detection sensitivity. Although improvements have been made to increase the sensitivity, it is not sufficient. Here, a hamper pad, polyvinyl alcohol coated on a nitrocellulose membrane, was integrated to enhance the sensitivity of LFIA for CBZ detection. The hamper pad was inserted between the conjugated and nitrocellulose pads to delay the flow rate, thereby increasing the possibility of the antibody and target analyte binding. This platform exhibited a fourfold sensitivity increase in CBZ detection compared with the conventional LFIA, and its limit of detection was 1.6 ng/mL. In addition, a single-step operation was successfully applied to detect CBZ in rice (white rice, brown rice, sticky rice, and paddy) and soybean samples, with acceptable recoveries of 93.6%-120.0%. This novel device was compared to the standard high-performance liquid chromatography method, which shows high accuracy with a Kappa coefficient of 0.91. Therefore, improved sensitivity with a rapid, simple, and inexpensive device could facilitate the detection of CBZ residues in agricultural products for on-field screening and improved user-friendliness.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Colódio , Imunoensaio/métodos , Carbamatos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
11.
Neuropharmacology ; 250: 109892, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428481

RESUMO

KCNQ5 encodes the voltage-gated potassium channel KV7.5, a member of the KV7 channel family, which conducts the M-current. This current is a potent regulator of neuronal excitability by regulating membrane potential in the subthreshold range of action potentials and mediating the medium and slow afterhyperpolarization. Recently, we have identified five loss-of-function variants in KCNQ5 in patients with genetic generalized epilepsy. Using the most severe dominant-negative variant (R359C), we set out to investigate pharmacological therapeutic intervention by KV7 channel openers on channel function and neuronal firing. Retigabine and gabapentin increased R359C-derived M-current amplitudes in HEK cells expressing homomeric or heteromeric mutant KV7.5 channels. Retigabine was most effective in restoring K+ currents. Ten µM retigabine was sufficient to reach the level of WT currents without retigabine, whereas 100 µM of gabapentin showed less than half of this effect and application of 50 µM ZnCl2 only significantly increased M-current amplitude in heteromeric channels. Overexpression of KV7.5-WT potently inhibited neuronal firing by increasing the M-current, whereas R359C overexpression had the opposite effect and additionally decreased the medium afterhyperpolarization current. Both aforementioned drugs and Zn2+ reversed the effect of R359C expression by reducing firing to nearly normal levels at high current injections. Our study shows that a dominant-negative variant with a complete loss-of-function in KV7.5 leads to largely increased neuronal firing which may explain a neuronal hyperexcitability in patients. KV7 channel openers, such as retigabine or gabapentin, could be treatment options for patients currently displaying pharmacoresistant epilepsy and carrying loss-of-function variants in KCNQ5.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2 , Fenilenodiaminas , Humanos , Gabapentina/farmacologia , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/metabolismo , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 133852, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430593

RESUMO

The present investigation was planned to bridge the knowledge gap on spatiotemporal variations of pesticide pollution in small streams adjacent to paddy fields, and to visualize the associated risks in the aquatic ecosystems. We screened 106 pesticides using GCMSMS and LCMSMS from 10 small streams (n = 212, surface water samples) adjacent to paddy fields over seven months. Fifty-five pesticides were detected across different streams and months. The highest mean concentration was detected for fenobucarb (272 ng L-1), followed by thiamethoxam (199 ng L-1). The highest maximum concentration was detected for thiamethoxam ( 13,264 ng L-1), followed by triflumezopyrim ( 11,505 ng L-1). The highest detection frequency was recorded for fenobucarb (80.00%), followed by pretilachlor (79.00%). Out of the ten streams, Attabira stream had the highest mean number of pesticides detected in each sample. Maximum number of pesticides were detected in October followed by September. Pesticides namely, hexaconazole, pretilachlor, tricyclazole, fenobucarb and thiamethoxam were consistently detected across all streams. The risk assessment against the fishes, micro-invertebrates and algae were measured by risk quotient index (RQ). Twenty-five pesticides out of the detected pesticides (n = 55) had risk quotient values greater than 1. The highest RQmax values were observed in case of fenpropathrin followed by cyfluthrin-3. The highest RQmean value was observed in case of cyfluthrin, indicating its higher toxicity to fishes. The present study reveals that small streams are polluted with pesticides and there is a need to develop strategies and policy interventions in regularizing the pesticide uses for reducing the pesticide pollution in aquatic systems.


Assuntos
Acetanilidas , Carbamatos , Nitrilas , Praguicidas , Piretrinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Praguicidas/análise , Ecossistema , Tiametoxam , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Peixes , Medição de Risco , Agricultura
14.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 75(1): 81-84, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548379

RESUMO

Organophosphorus poisoning is a critical condition that can cause central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, and death early on. As its clinical manifestations closely resemble those of carbamate pesticide poisoning, the aim of this case study is to present a case of misdiagnosis, initially identifying carbofuran poisoning as organophosphate in a patient suspect of a heatstroke. We also present a case of intentional self-poisoning with organophosphate dichlorvos to underline the likelihood of pesticide poisoning in patients exhibiting acute cholinergic symptoms when the ingested substance is not known. In such cases, empirical treatment with atropine and oxime can be started pending timely differential diagnosis to adjust treatment as necessary.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos , Praguicidas , Intoxicação , Humanos , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/tratamento farmacológico , Diclorvós/uso terapêutico , Intoxicação/terapia
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 115, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) was first implemented in the Atacora department, Benin from 2011 to 2012 using bendiocarb (carbamate) followed by annual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate) from 2013 to 2018. Before and after IRS implementation in Atacora, standard pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets were the main method of vector control in the area. This study investigated the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene (L1014F) and the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) gene (G119S), before and during IRS implementation, and 4-years after IRS withdrawal from Atacora. This was done to assess how changes in insecticide pressure from indoor residual spraying may have altered the genotypic resistance profile of Anopheles gambiae s.l. METHOD: Identification of sibling species of An. gambiae s.l. and detection of the L1014F mutation in the kdr gene and G119S mutation in ace-1 genes was done using molecular analysis. Allelic and genotypic frequencies were calculated and compared with each other before and during IRS implementation and 4 years after IRS withdrawal. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and genetic differentiation within and between populations were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of the L1014F mutation in all geographic An. gambiae s.l. (An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles. coluzzii, Anopheles. arabiensis, and hybrids of "An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii") populations increased from 69% before IRS to 87% and 90% during and after IRS. The G119S allele frequency during IRS (20%) was significantly higher than before IRS implementation (2%). Four years after IRS withdrawal, allele frequencies returned to similar levels as before IRS (3%). Four years after IRS withdrawal, the populations showed excess heterozygosity at the ace-1 gene and deficit heterozygosity at the kdr gene, whereas both genes had excess heterozygosity before and during IRS (FIS < 0). No genetic differentiation was observed within the populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the withdrawal of IRS with bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl may have slowed down the selection of individual mosquitoes with ace-1 resistance alleles in contrast to populations of An. gambiae s.l. with the L1014F resistance allele of the kdr gene. This may suggest that withdrawing the use of carbamates or organophosphates from IRS or rotating alternative insecticides with different modes of action may slow the development of ace-1 insecticide-resistance mutations. The increase in the prevalence of the L1014F mutation of the kdr gene in the population, despite the cessation of IRS, could be explained by the growing use of pyrethroids and DDT in agriculture and for other domestic use. More observational studies in countries where carbamates or organophosphates are still being used as public health insecticides may provide additional insights into these associations.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Fenilcarbamatos , Piretrinas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Anopheles/genética , Benin , Alelos , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Organofosfatos/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
16.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141744, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522669

RESUMO

Pesticides pollute natural water reservoirs through persistent accumulation. Therefore, their toxicity and degradability are serious issues. Carbendazim (CBZ) is a pesticide used against fungal infections in agricultural crops, and its overexploitation detrimentally affects aquatic ecosystems and organisms. It is necessary to design a logical, efficient, and field-deployable method for monitoring the amount of CBZ in environmental samples. Herein, a nano-engineered bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3)/functionalized carbon nanofiber (f-CNF) nanocomposite was utilized as an electrocatalyst to fabricate an electrochemical sensing platform for CBZ. Bi2Se3/f-CNF exhibited a substantial electroactive surface area, high electrocatalytic activity, and high conductivity owing to the synergistic interaction of Bi2Se3 with f-CNF. The structural chemical compositions and morphology of the Bi2Se3/f-CNF nanocomposite were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Electrochemical analysis was carried out using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The voltammetry and impedance experiments exposed that the Bi2Se3/f-CNF-modified GCE has attained adequate electrocatalytic function with amended features of electron transportation (Rct = 35.93 Ω) and improved reaction sites (0.082 cm2) accessible by CBZ moiety along with exemplary electrochemical stability (98.92%). The Bi2Se3/f-CNF nanocomposite exhibited higher sensitivity of 0.2974 µA µM-1cm-2 and a remarkably low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.04 nM at a broad linera range 0.001-100 µM. The practicability of the nanocomposite was tested in environmental (tap and pond water) samples, which supports excellent signal amplification with satisfactory recoveries. Hence, the Bi2Se3/f-CNF nanocomposite is a promising electrode modifier for detecting CBZ.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis , Bismuto , Carbamatos , Carbono , Nanofibras , Compostos de Selênio , Carbono/química , Nanofibras/química , Ecossistema , Água , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos
17.
Org Biomol Chem ; 22(15): 2992-3000, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526322

RESUMO

The employment of antibodies as a targeted drug delivery vehicle has proven successful which is exemplified by the emergence of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). However, ADCs are not without their shortcomings. Improvements may be made to the ADC platform by decoupling the cytotoxic drug from the delivery vehicle and conjugating an organometallic catalyst in its place. The resulting protein-metal catalyst conjugate was designed to uncage the masked cytotoxin administered as a separate entity. Macropinocytosis of albumin by cancerous cells suggests the potential of albumin acting as the tumor-targeting delivery vehicle. Herein reported are the first preparation and demonstration of ruthenium catalysts with cyclopentadienyl and quinoline-based ligands conjugated to albumin. The effective uncaging abilities were demonstrated on allyloxy carbamate (alloc)-protected rhodamine 110 and doxorubicin, providing a promising catalytic scaffold for the advancement of selective drug delivery methods in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Imunoconjugados , Rutênio , Carbamatos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Albuminas
18.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(4): 194, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472537

RESUMO

The increasing incidence of environmental concerns related to excessive use of pesticides, such as imidacloprid and carbendazim, poses risks to pollinators, water bodies, and human health, prompting regulatory scrutiny and bans in developed countries. In this study, we propose a portable smartphone-based biosensor for rapid and label-free colorimetric detection by using the gold-decorated polystyrene microparticles (Ps-AuNP) functionalized with specific aptamers to imidacloprid and carbendazim on a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (µ-PAD). Four aptamers were selected for the detection of these pesticides and their sensitivity and selectivity performance was evaluated. The sensitivity results show a detection limit for imidacloprid of 3.12 ppm and 1.56 ppm for carbendazim. The aptamers also exhibited high selectivity performance against other pesticides, such as thiamethoxam, fenamiphos, isoproturon, and atrazine. However, the platform presented cross-selectivity when detecting imidacloprid, carbendazim, and linuron, which is discussed herein. Overall, we present a promising platform for simple, on-site, and rapid colorimetric screening of specific pesticides, while highlighting the challenges of aptasensors in achieving selectivity amidst diverse molecular structures.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis , Carbamatos , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Praguicidas , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Ouro/química , Smartphone
19.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301056, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536830

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and chronic kidney disease (T2DM-CKD) have a 5 times higher risk of developing severe SARS-CoV-2 infection than those without these 2 diseases. The goal of this study is to provide information on T2DM-CKD and COVID-19 outcomes, with an emphasis on the association with anti-diabetic medications. METHODOLOGY: Study is designed as a retrospective cohort analysis covering the years 2020 and 2021. Data from the National Diabetes Registry (CroDiab) were linked to hospital data, primary healthcare data, Causes of Death Registry data, the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination database, and the SARS-CoV-2 test results database. Study outcomes were cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, COVID-19 hospitalizations, and COVID-19 deaths. For outcome predictors, logistic regression models were developed. RESULTS: Of 231 796 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 in the database, 7 539 were T2DM-CKD (3.25%). The 2-year cumulative incidences of all three studies' outcomes were higher in T2DM-CKD than in diabetes patients without CKD (positivity 18.1% vs. 14.4%; hospitalization 9.7% vs. 4.2%; death 3.3% vs. 1.1%, all p<0.001). For COVID-19 hospitalization, protective factors were SGLT-2 inhibitors use (OR 0.430; 95%CI 0.257-0.719) and metformin use (OR 0.769; 95% CI 0.643-0.920), risk factors were insulin use (1.411; 95%CI 1.167-1.706) and sulfonylureas use (OR 1.226; 95% CI 1.027-1.464). For SARS-CoV-2 positivity protective factors were SGLT-2 inhibitors (0.607; 95% CI 0.448-0.823), repaglinide use (OR 0.765; 95% CI 0.593-0.986) and metformin use (OR 0.857; 95% CI 0.770-0.994). DPP-4 inhibitors showed a non-significant decrease in risk for COVID-19 death (OR 0.761; 95% CI 0.568-1.019). CONCLUSION: T2DM-CKD are heavily burdened by COVID-19 disease. Our results suggest no association between antidiabetic drugs and COVID-19 death outcome while SGLT-2 and metformin show to be protective against COVID-19 hospitalization and infection, repaglinide against infection, and insulin and sulfonylureas show to be risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and infection. Further research in T2DM-CKD is needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carbamatos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Piperidinas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 173: 116369, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452657

RESUMO

Anandamide (AEA) is an important modulator of nociception in the spinal dorsal horn, acting presynaptically through Cannabinoid (CB1) and Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) receptors. The role of AEA (1 µM, 10 µM, and 30 µM) application on the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission under control and inflammatory conditions was studied by recording miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) from neurons in spinal cord slices. Inhibition of the CB1 receptors by PF514273, TRPV1 by SB366791, and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) by URB597 was used. Under naïve conditions, the AEA application did not affect the mEPSCs frequency (1.43±0.12 Hz) when all the recorded neurons were considered. The mEPSC frequency increased (180.0±39.2%) only when AEA (30 µM) was applied with PF514273 and URB597. Analysis showed that one sub-population of neurons had synaptic input inhibited (39.1% of neurons), the second excited (43.5%), whereas 8.7% showed a mixed effect and 8.7% did not respond to the AEA. With inflammation, the AEA effect was highly inhibitory (72.7%), while the excitation was negligible (9.1%), and 18.2% were not modulated. After inflammation, more neurons (45.0%) responded even to low AEA by mEPSC frequency increase with PF514273/URB597 present. AEA-induced dual (excitatory/inhibitory) effects at the 1st nociceptive synapse should be considered when developing analgesics targeting the endocannabinoid system. These findings contrast the clear inhibitory effects of the AEA precursor 20:4-NAPE application described previously and suggest that modulation of endogenous AEA production may be more favorable for analgesic treatments.


Assuntos
Ácidos Araquidônicos , Benzamidas , Carbamatos , Endocanabinoides , Nociceptividade , Humanos , Endocanabinoides/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Corno Dorsal da Medula Espinal , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Amidoidrolases
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