Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26.131
Filtrar
2.
Kardiol Pol ; 82(6): 687, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973419

RESUMO

According to the latest guidelines of European and American medical societies, genetic testing (GT) is essential in cardiovascular diseases for establishing diagnosis, predicting prognosis, enabling initiation of disease-modifying therapy, and preventing sudden cardiac death. The GT result may be relevant for cascade GT in the patient's relatives, for planning his/her profession and physical activity, and for procreative counseling. This position statement has been prepared due to the scarcity of GT in cardiovascular diseases in Poland and the need to expand its availability. We give a concise description of the genetic background of cardiomyopathies, channelopathies, aortopathies, familial hypercholesterolemia, pheochromocytomas, and paragangliomas. The article discusses various aspects of GT in specific populations, such as children or athletes, and also presents prenatal genetic diagnostics. We propose recommendations for GT and counselling, which take into account Polish needs and capabilities. We give an outline of legal regulations, good clinical practice in GT with respect for patient rights, the role of cardiologists and clinical geneticists in GT planning and post-test counseling, and the requirements for laboratories performing genetic tests. The Polish Cardiac Society and Polish Society of Human Genetics experts speak with one voice with cardiovascular patient communities to underline the need for a law on GT and increasing the availability of GT for cardiovascular patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Testes Genéticos , Sociedades Médicas , Humanos , Polônia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Cardiologia/normas , Aconselhamento Genético , Feminino
9.
JMIR Med Educ ; 10: e51282, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38989848

RESUMO

Background: Accurate medical advice is paramount in ensuring optimal patient care, and misinformation can lead to misguided decisions with potentially detrimental health outcomes. The emergence of large language models (LLMs) such as OpenAI's GPT-4 has spurred interest in their potential health care applications, particularly in automated medical consultation. Yet, rigorous investigations comparing their performance to human experts remain sparse. Objective: This study aims to compare the medical accuracy of GPT-4 with human experts in providing medical advice using real-world user-generated queries, with a specific focus on cardiology. It also sought to analyze the performance of GPT-4 and human experts in specific question categories, including drug or medication information and preliminary diagnoses. Methods: We collected 251 pairs of cardiology-specific questions from general users and answers from human experts via an internet portal. GPT-4 was tasked with generating responses to the same questions. Three independent cardiologists (SL, JHK, and JJC) evaluated the answers provided by both human experts and GPT-4. Using a computer interface, each evaluator compared the pairs and determined which answer was superior, and they quantitatively measured the clarity and complexity of the questions as well as the accuracy and appropriateness of the responses, applying a 3-tiered grading scale (low, medium, and high). Furthermore, a linguistic analysis was conducted to compare the length and vocabulary diversity of the responses using word count and type-token ratio. Results: GPT-4 and human experts displayed comparable efficacy in medical accuracy ("GPT-4 is better" at 132/251, 52.6% vs "Human expert is better" at 119/251, 47.4%). In accuracy level categorization, humans had more high-accuracy responses than GPT-4 (50/237, 21.1% vs 30/238, 12.6%) but also a greater proportion of low-accuracy responses (11/237, 4.6% vs 1/238, 0.4%; P=.001). GPT-4 responses were generally longer and used a less diverse vocabulary than those of human experts, potentially enhancing their comprehensibility for general users (sentence count: mean 10.9, SD 4.2 vs mean 5.9, SD 3.7; P<.001; type-token ratio: mean 0.69, SD 0.07 vs mean 0.79, SD 0.09; P<.001). Nevertheless, human experts outperformed GPT-4 in specific question categories, notably those related to drug or medication information and preliminary diagnoses. These findings highlight the limitations of GPT-4 in providing advice based on clinical experience. Conclusions: GPT-4 has shown promising potential in automated medical consultation, with comparable medical accuracy to human experts. However, challenges remain particularly in the realm of nuanced clinical judgment. Future improvements in LLMs may require the integration of specific clinical reasoning pathways and regulatory oversight for safe use. Further research is needed to understand the full potential of LLMs across various medical specialties and conditions.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Cardiologia , Humanos , Cardiologia/normas
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 84(1): 78-96, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38925728

RESUMO

Whereas medical practice stems from Hippocrates, cardiovascular science originates with Aristotle. The Hippocratic philosophy was championed by Galen (129-216 CE), whose advocacy of a tripartite soul found favor in the early Christian Church. In contrast, Aristotle's works were banned as heresy by ecclesiastical authority, only to survive and prosper in the Islamic Golden Age (775-1258 CE). Galen theorized that the circulation consisted of separate venous and arterial systems. Blood was produced in the liver and traveled centrifugally through veins. When arriving in the right ventricle, venous blood passed through tiny pores in the ventricular septum into the left ventricle, where it became aerated by air passing from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to the left side of the heart. Following arrival at distal sites, arterial blood disappeared, being consumed by the tissues, requiring that the liver needed to continually synthesize new blood. The heart was viewed as a sucking organ, and the peripheral pulse was deemed to result from changes in arterial tone, rather than cardiac systole. Galen's framework remained undisputed and dominated medical thought for 1,300 years, but the reintroduction of Aristotelian principles from the Islamic world into Europe (through the efforts of the Toledo School of Translators) were nurtured by the academic freedom and iconoclastic environment uniquely cultivated at the University of Padua, made possible by Venetian rebellion against papal authority. At Padua, the work of Andreas Vesalius, Realdo Colombo, Hieronymus Fabricius ab Acquapendente, and William Harvey (1543-1628) methodically destroyed Galen's model, leading to the modern concept of a closed-ended circulation. Yet, due to political forces, Harvey was ridiculed, as was James Lind, who performed the first prospective controlled trial, involving citrus fruits for scurvy (1747); it took nearly 50 years for his work to be accepted. Even the work of William Withering (1785), the father of cardiovascular pharmacology, was tarnished by professional jealously and the marketing campaign of a pharmaceutical company. Today's cardiovascular investigators should understand that major advances are routinely derided by the medical establishment for political or personal reasons; and it may take decades or centuries for important work to be accepted.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Humanos , Cardiologia/história , História Antiga , História Medieval , Médicos/história , História do Século XVII , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , História do Século XVI
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 84(1): 97-114, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38925729

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to transform every facet of cardiovascular practice and research. The exponential rise in technology powered by AI is defining new frontiers in cardiovascular care, with innovations that span novel diagnostic modalities, new digital native biomarkers of disease, and high-performing tools evaluating care quality and prognosticating clinical outcomes. These digital innovations promise expanded access to cardiovascular screening and monitoring, especially among those without access to high-quality, specialized care historically. Moreover, AI is propelling biological and clinical discoveries that will make future cardiovascular care more personalized, precise, and effective. The review brings together these diverse AI innovations, highlighting developments in multimodal cardiovascular AI across clinical practice and biomedical discovery, and envisioning this new future backed by contemporary science and emerging discoveries. Finally, we define the critical path and the safeguards essential to realizing this AI-enabled future that helps achieve optimal cardiovascular health and outcomes for all.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Cardiologia/métodos , Cardiologia/tendências
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 410: 132230, 2024 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852859

RESUMO

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is routinely required during pre-participation screening in the presence of symptoms, family history of sudden cardiac death or cardiomyopathies <40-year-old, murmurs, abnormal ECG findings or in the follow-up of athletes with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). TTE is a cost-effective first-line imaging modality to evaluate the cardiac remodeling due to long-term, intense training, previously known as the athlete's heart, and to rule out the presence of conditions at risk of sudden cardiac death, including cardiomyopathies, coronary artery anomalies, congenital, aortic and heart valve diseases. Moreover, TTE is useful for distinguishing physiological cardiac adaptations during intense exercise from pathological behavior due to an underlying CVD. In this expert opinion statement endorsed by the Italian Society of Sports Cardiology, we discussed common clinical scenarios where a TTE is required and conditions falling in the grey zone between the athlete's heart and underlying cardiomyopathies or other CVD. In addition, we propose a minimum dataset that should be included in the report for the most common indications of TTE in sports cardiology clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Ecocardiografia , Sociedades Médicas , Medicina Esportiva , Humanos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/normas , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Medicina Esportiva/normas , Itália , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Cardiologia/normas , Cardiologia/métodos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Atletas , Prova Pericial/métodos , Prova Pericial/normas , Esportes/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA