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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(12): 8416-8427, 2022 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584204

RESUMO

Plastic packaging material is widely used to package high-temperature soup food in China, but this combination might lead to increased exposure to phthalates. The health effects and potential biological mechanisms have not been well studied. This study aimed to examine urinary phthalate metabolites and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in the blood before, during, and after a "plastic-packaged high-temperature soup food" dietary intervention in healthy adults. The results showed that compared with those in the preintervention period, urinary creatinine-adjusted levels of monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MIBP), and total phthalate metabolites in the intervention period were significantly higher, with increases of 71.6, 41.8, 38.8, and 29.8% for MMP, MBP, MIBP, and the total phthalate metabolites, respectively. After intervention, the mean levels of IL-1ß, IL-4, and TNF-α mRNA increased by 19.0, 21.5, and 25.0%, respectively, while IL-6 and IFN-γ mRNA decreased by 24.2 and 32.9%, respectively, when compared with the preintervention period. We also observed that several phthalates were associated with the mRNA or protein expression of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10. Therefore, consumption of plastic-packaged high-temperature soup food was linked to increased phthalate exposure and might result in significant changes in mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Humanos , Plásticos , RNA Mensageiro , Temperatura , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
2.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 51, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental health agencies are critical sources of information for communities affected by chemical contamination. Impacted residents and their healthcare providers often turn to federal and state agency webpages, fact sheets, and other documents to weigh exposure risks and interventions. MAIN BODY: This commentary briefly reviews scientific evidence concerning per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) for health outcomes that concern members of affected communities and that have compelling or substantial yet differing degree of scientific evidence. It then features official documents in their own language to illustrate communication gaps, as well as divergence from scientific evidence and from best health communication practice. We found official health communications mostly do not distinguish between the needs of heavily contaminated communities characterized by high body burdens and the larger population with ubiquitous but substantially smaller exposures. Most health communications do not distinguish levels of evidence for health outcomes and overemphasize uncertainty, dismissing legitimate reasons for concern in affected communities. Critically, few emphasize helpful approaches to interventions. We also provide examples that can be templates for improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate action should be undertaken to review and improve official health communications intended to inform the public and health providers about the risks of PFAS exposure and guide community and medical decisions.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Comunicação em Saúde , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Saúde Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Environ Pollut ; 305: 119272, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413407

RESUMO

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) have aroused public concern around the world. However, biomonitoring evidence regarding the influence of MSWIs on the human body burden of PCDD/Fs is scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the human body burden levels of PCDD/Fs in MSWI workers and to further explore the potential influencing factors, including duration of occupation and dietary habits, on the PCDD/F levels. A total of 98 paired serum samples from MSWI workers and non-MSWI workers were collected. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDD/Fs in the serums were analyzed using an isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). The results showed that the mean levels of toxic equivalent (TEQ)-PCDD/Fs for the MSWI workers and the control group were 18.28 pg TEQ g-1 lipid and 5.81 pg TEQ g-1 lipid, respectively. Significantly higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs existed in the incinerator workers compared with the control subjects after adjustment of the confounding factors. OCDD was the most abundant congener in both the MSWI workers and the control subjects, accounting for 82.2% and 89.4% of the ∑17PCDD/Fs, respectively. The serum levels of PCDFs in the MSWI workers increased with the duration of occupation (ß = 0.498, P = 0.031), and a higher total concentration of PCDD/Fs were present in senior workers classified as production supervisors than routine operation staff (ß = 8.809, P = 0.008). No significant relationship was found between the PCDD/F concentrations and dietary habits. This study was the first to explore the associations between the body burden of PCDD/Fs and occupational exposure as well as dietary intake of MSWI workers in China. The findings provide scientific information for health risk assessments of human exposure to PCDD/Fs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Dibenzofuranos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Incineração , Lipídeos , Masculino , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(9): 5632-5640, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417148

RESUMO

The restriction on legacy perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has led to increasing application and contamination of their precursors and novel alternatives. However, the indirect contribution from precursors has not been well characterized. In this study, 24 PFASs were measured in the paired human blood and urine from general volunteers (n = 20), as well as their corresponding exposure matrices (7 day duplicate diet, drinking water and dust). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was predominant, followed by 6:2 chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA), contributing 21.6-47.0 and 6.6-20.0% of the total concentrations, respectively. Total oxidable precursor (TOP) assay and isomeric analysis coupled with a toxicokinetic model suggested that around 19% of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in human was contributed by its precursors. The strong correlation between the estimated daily intake (EDI) and human blood concentration for 6:2 Cl-PFESA suggested that it was mainly contributed by direct exposure. The bioavailability of 6:2 Cl-PFESA in the food matrices was estimated as 18.6% by comparing the estimated and measured blood concentrations, implying that human exposure might be overestimated if the bioavailability of PFASs in food was not considered. Assuming that they had a similar bioavailability, it was estimated that ca. 20% of PFOS body burden was from indirect exposure to its precursors, which was supported by TOP assay.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Alcanossulfonatos/análise , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dieta , Poeira/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270791

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cadmium exposure and the likelihood of developing or exacerbating symptoms of inflammatory arthritis (IA). The study included 51 IA patients and 46 control subjects. Demographic and lifestyle data were collected. Haematological and biochemical parameters and blood cadmium levels (Cd-B) were determined. Cd-B correlated positively with age, smoking, living in a high-traffic area, and serum levels of inflammatory markers and negatively with mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The binary logistic regression model implied that high Cd-B (≥0.65 µg/L) is linked with an increased risk of IA in the studied population (odds ratio: 4.4). High levels of DNA oxidative damage marker (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine) (≥7.66 ng/mL) and cyclooxygenase-2 (≥22.9 ng/mL) and frequent consumption of offal was also associated with increased risk of IA. High Cd-B was related to increased risk of disease symptoms onset in the group of IA patients, decreased the level of interleukin 10, and positively correlated with the disease activity. Increased Cd-B is associated with intensified inflammatory processes and decreased haemoglobin levels; in IA patients with decreased anti-inflammatory interleukin 10. These changes partly explain why cadmium exposure and a high cadmium body burden may raise the risk of IA and of disease symptoms exacerbation.


Assuntos
Artrite , Cádmio , Artrite/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Humanos , Interleucina-10 , Projetos Piloto , Polônia/epidemiologia
6.
Toxicology ; 467: 153098, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026344

RESUMO

Molybdenum, lithium, and tungsten are constituents of many products, and exposure to these elements potentially occurs at work. Therefore it is important to determine at what levels they are toxic, and thus we set out to review their pulmonary toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. After pulmonary exposure, molybdenum and tungsten are increased in multiple tissues; data on the distribution of lithium are limited. Excretion of all three elements is both via faeces and urine. Molybdenum trioxide exerted pulmonary toxicity in a 2-year inhalation study in rats and mice with a lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration (LOAEC) of 6.6 mg Mo/m3. Lithium chloride had a LOAEC of 1.9 mg Li/m3 after subacute inhalation in rabbits. Tungsten oxide nanoparticles resulted in a no-observed-adverse-effect concentration (NOAEC) of 5 mg/m3 after inhalation in hamsters. In another study, tungsten blue oxide had a LOAEC of 63 mg W/m3 in rats. Concerning genotoxicity, for molybdenum, the in vivo genotoxicity after inhalation remains unknown; however, there was some evidence of carcinogenicity of molybdenum trioxide. The data on the genotoxicity of lithium are equivocal, and one carcinogenicity study was negative. Tungsten seems to have a genotoxic potential, but the data on carcinogenicity are equivocal. In conclusion, for all three elements, dose descriptors for inhalation toxicity were identified, and the potential for genotoxicity and carcinogenicity was assessed.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/induzido quimicamente , Cloreto de Lítio/toxicidade , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Óxidos/toxicidade , Tungstênio/toxicidade , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Cloreto de Lítio/farmacocinética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Molibdênio/farmacocinética , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Óxidos/farmacocinética , Medição de Risco , Tungstênio/farmacocinética
7.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 77(3): 219-226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357119

RESUMO

The objective was to examine key determinants in the body burden of lead in adolescents as lead poisoning remains a major public health challenge. Data from 2,925 teenagers aged 12-18 older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2012 were analyzed. Lead in both blood and urine was significantly correlated among individuals. Despite higher blood lead in males, urinary lead measures corrected for dilution were similar between male and female adolescents. Thus, the urine-to-blood ratio was approximately 30% lower in male than female adolescents, suggesting that differences in renal disposal contributed to the greater body burden for young males. Differences in urinary lead disposal appear to be a key determinant in lead accumulation and thus, the degree of lead poisoning. Direct renal studies should be conducted to determine mechanisms and potential solutions.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Chumbo , Chumbo , Adolescente , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Intoxicação por Chumbo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 426: 127792, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802823

RESUMO

Uncontrolled electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling processes have induced serious environmental pollution and human health impacts. This paper reviewed studies on the wide range of toxic chemicals through the use of primitive recycling techniques, their transfer to various ecological compartments, and subsequent health impacts. Results indicated that local food items were heavily polluted by the pollutants emitted, notably heavy metals in vegetables, rice, fish and seafood, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in livestock. Dietary exposure is the most important exposure pathway. The associations between exposure to e-waste and high body burdens of these pollutants were evident. It seems apparent that toxic chemicals emitted from e-waste activities are causing a number of major illnesses related to cardiovascular, digestive and respiratory systems, according to the information provided by a local hospital (Taizhou, an e-waste recycling hot spot in China). More epidemiological data should be made available to the general public. It is envisaged that there are potential dangers of toxic chemicals passing on to the next generation via placental transfer and lactation. There is a need to monitor the development and health impacts of infants and children, born and brought up in the e-waste sites.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Criança , China , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Metais Pesados/análise , Placenta , Gravidez , Reciclagem
9.
Toxicology ; 465: 153011, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715266

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) might increase the risk of childhood diseases by disrupting hormone-mediated processes that are critical for growth and development during childhood, however, the association among the exposure level of EDCs such as Nonylphenol (NP), Bisphenol A (BPA), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in children and environmental risk factors, as well as hepatic function has not been elaborated. This study aimed to discuss this interesting relationship among NP, BPA, DMP concentrations in serum, environmental risk factors, hepatic function of 5- to 14-year-old children in industrial zone, residential zone and suburb in northern district of Guizhou Province, China. In Zunyi city, 1006 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments from July to August 2018, and their parents completed identical questionnaires on the environmental risk factors of EDCs exposure to mothers and children. Serum NP, BPA and DMP concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), AST/ALT, total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL) and indirect bilirubin (IBIL) were detected with automatic biochemical analyzer. The median concentrations of serum NP, BPA, and DMP in the participants were 45.85 ng/mL, 26.31 ng/mL and 31.62 ng/mL, respectively, which were higher than the environmental concentration limits of the U.S. National Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Hair gels used during pregnancy, types of domestic drinking water, nail polish and cosmetics used by children were significantly positive correlated with serum NP concentration (P < 0.05). Gender, feeding pattern, plastic water cup used during pregnancy, hair spray and perfume use for children, duration of children birth, materials for baby bottle or cup and ways to plastic products were significantly positively correlated with serum BPA concentration (P < 0.05). Gender, perms used during pregnancy, hair spray and perfume use for children, using plastic lunch box during pregnancy, duration of children birth, exposure to pesticides, parents' occupations were significantly positively correlated with serum DMP concentrations (P < 0.05). Serum NP (ß = 0.296, P = 0.036) and DMP (ß = 0.316, P = 0.026) concentrations and TBIL level were significantly positively correlated. Serum NP concentration and the levels of IBIL (ß = 0.382, P = 0.006) are significantly positively correlated. Cosmetics used during pregnancy significantly increased AST level (ß = 2.641, P = 0.021). There was a positive correlation between the frequency of hair spray and perfume use for children and the AST (ß = 4.241, P = 0.022). NP, BPA and DMP, which were commonly detected in the serum of children aged 5-14 years old in Zunyi City, Northern Guizhou Province, China, were closely related to the environmental risk factors of exposure environment during pregnancy, infancy and school age. Exposure to NP, BPA and DMP would have negative effects on hepatic function, and these effects showed differences in gender and geographical location. Notably,The relationships were more evident in girls than in boys.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Compostos Benzidrílicos/sangue , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/sangue , Fenóis/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/sangue , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 159: 112767, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906653

RESUMO

This study provides information on the health risk of As, Cd, Hg, Pb and V exposure from Nigerian foods consumption (fish, cow, goat and chicken meat) in different age-groups (children, adolescent, adult, senior) and six areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria (Choba, Khana, Eleme, TransAmadi, Uyo, and Yenogoa). The health risk assessment was performed by estimating the weekly or monthly intake of metals from foods and Margin of Exposure (MOE) approach by using established benchmark dose levels (BMDLs). Regarding As, cow and chicken meat products contributed to As exposure intake especially in children resulting in values higher than BMDL0.1 for cancer risk in TransAmadi and Uyo areas. Cadmium exposure was due to cow, chicken and goat meat ingestion mostly in adolescent above the tolerable monthly intake limit in TransAmadi and Uyo areas. Concerning Hg and V, the exposure from Nigerian food did not constitute a potential health hazard. Lead exposure in children were above or close to BMDL0.1 for developmental neurotoxicity by ingestion of cow and goat meat in all the Nigerian areas. In adult and senior the Pb dietary exposure were above the BMDL10 providing a low to negligible risk for kidney effects. The potential concern for health effects in Niger Delta population needs further efforts to decrease As, Cd and Pb dietary exposure especially for children and adolescent, who are more vulnerable to adverse life events.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Exposição Dietética , Carne , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Bovinos , Galinhas , Exposição Dietética/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados , Humanos , Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
11.
Health Phys ; 122(1): 54-83, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898516

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: A methodology of assessment of the doses from external irradiation resulting from the ground deposition of radioactive debris (fallout) from a nuclear detonation is proposed in this paper. The input data used to apply this methodology for a particular location are the outdoor exposure rate at any time after deposition of fallout and the time-of-arrival of fallout, as indicated and discussed in a companion paper titled "A Method for Estimating the Deposition Density of Fallout on the Ground and on Vegetation from a Low-yield Low-altitude Nuclear Detonation." Example doses are estimated for several age categories and for all radiosensitive organs and tissues identified in the most recent ICRP publications. Doses are calculated for the first year after the detonation, when more than 90% of the external dose is delivered for populations close to the detonation site over a time period of 70 y, which is intended to represent the lifetime dose. Modeled doses in their simplest form assume no environmental remediation, though modifications can be introduced. Two types of dose assessment are considered: (1) initial, for a rapid but only approximate dose estimation soon after the nuclear detonation; and (2) improved, for a later, more accurate, dose assessment following the analysis of post-detonation measurements of radiation exposure and fallout deposition and the access of information on the lifestyle of the exposed population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação , Cinza Radioativa , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Doses de Radiação , Cinza Radioativa/análise , Medição de Risco/métodos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886154

RESUMO

Guiyu accommodates millions of tons of e-waste from overseas and domestic sources each year and is notorious for its e-waste dismantling industry. As a consequence, Guiyu has been described as "the world's most toxic place" and "junk town". Informal e-waste recycling activities have caused severe pollution to the local environment and are associated with extensive health problems to the residents. This review provides updated insights on the body burden of heavy metals derived from e-waste and health outcomes resulted from lead (Pb) exposure. The review identified that Guiyu has been highly contaminated by heavy metals, especially Pb. Excessive exposure to Pb has been associated with multi-system and long-term effects in neonates and children, covering nervous, cardiovascular, adaptive immune, and hematologic systems as well as chromosome and DNA damage. Our review indicates strong associations that emphasize the need to develop strong regulations for prevention of exposure and health consequences in Guiyu and similar sites around the world.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Metais Pesados , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Criança , China , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Chumbo/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Reciclagem
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22865, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819591

RESUMO

Acute toxicity of inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and methylmercury (MeHg) to Daphnia magna was characterized using a 48-h static, non-renewal acute toxicity test, in which we compared the toxicity of Hg(II) and MeHg in the absence (water-only) and presence of diet [green alga (Raphidocelis subcapitata), yeast, Cerophyll, and trout chow (YCT), or both]. Overall, Hg(II) is more toxic to D. magna than MeHg, with 48-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) being 4.3 µg/L (95% confidence interval: 4.1-4.5 µg/L) for Hg(II) and 14.3 µg/L (13.2-15.3 µg/L) for MeHg. For Hg(II), the addition of any diet would significantly increase its 48-h LC50, but the 48-h LC50 for MeHg decreased significantly to 7.1 µg/L (6.4-7.8 µg/L) with the algal addition. We also show that the addition of diets significantly influenced the levels and speciation (dissolved vs. particulate) of both Hg forms in the test solution. The bioaccumulation of Hg(II) and MeHg was impacted by the dietary addition, and it appears that the body residue level triggering mortality varied widely among treatments. The results suggest that standard short-term toxicity tests (water-only) should be supplemented with extra tests with dietary addition to provide a more environmentally relevant estimation of short-term toxicity of chemical compounds.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Compostos de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ração Animal , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Clorófitas , Daphnia/metabolismo , Compostos de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Leveduras
14.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 88: 107021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428495

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, however, children with moderate to high Mn exposure can exhibit neurobehavioral impairments. One way Mn appears to affect brain function is through altering dopaminergic systems involved with motor and cognitive control including frontal - striatal brain systems. Based on the risk for motor and attention problems, we evaluated neurobehavioral function in 255 children at risk for Mn exposure due to living in proximity to coal ash storage sites. Proton Induced X-ray Emissions (PIXE) analysis was conducted on finger and toenails samples. Multiple neuropsychological tests were completed with the children. Fifty-five children had Mn concentrations above the limit of detection (LOD) (median concentration = 3.95 ppm). Children with detectable Mn concentrations had reduced visual motor skills (ß = -5.62, CI: -9.11, -2.12, p = 0.008) and more problems with sustained attention, based on incorrect responses on a computerized attention test, (ß = 0.40, CI: 0.21, 0.59, p < 0.001) compared with children who had Mn concentrations below the LOD. Findings suggest that Mn exposure impacts attention and motor control possibly due to neurotoxicity involving basal ganglia and forebrain regions. Visual-motor and attention tests may provide a sensitive measure of Mn neurotoxicity, useful for evaluating the effects of exposure in children and leading to better treatment options.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Manganês/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intoxicação por Manganês/complicações , Destreza Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
15.
Environ Int ; 157: 106803, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365320

RESUMO

Human exposure to OPEs is pervasive and should be of great concern due to associations with adverse health effects, especially in susceptible populations. In this study, body burdens and exposure pathways of OPEs were investigated for 76 healthy elderly people in Jinan, China based on the measured OPE and metabolite concentrations in human bio-samples (whole blood and urine) and paired environmental matrices (air and dust), as well as food frequency questionnaire. Eight of 16 OPEs and 5 of 11 metabolites were detected in > 50% of whole blood and urine samples, respectively. Tri(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), and 2-ethylhexyl di-phenyl phosphate (EHDPP) were frequently detected and abundant in whole blood, while their corresponding metabolites were detected at low frequencies or levels in urine. The reduced metabolic and/or excretory capacity of elderly people may be an important reason, implying a higher health risk to them. Fourteen OPEs had over 50% detection frequencies in indoor air and dust, while 6 di-esters in indoor dust. Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) in indoor dust and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP) in indoor air were positively correlated with paired levels in blood but not with their metabolites (BEHP and DnBP) in urine. Combined with the direct intakes of BEHP and DBP from dust, blood is indicated as more suitable biomarker for TEHP and TnBP exposure. High consumption frequencies of several foods were associated with higher blood concentrations of three OPEs and urinary levels of four di-OPEs, indicating the importance of dietary exposure pathway. Estimated daily total intakes of OPEs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption ranged from 2.78 to 42.0 ng/kg bw/day, which were far less than the reference dosage values. Further studies were warranted to explore the potential health effects of OPE exposure in the elderly populations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Idoso , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , China , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análise
16.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(6): 792-796, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139822

RESUMO

Concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs) in 26 serum samples of the residents from Hubei Province were analyzed via high-resolution gas chromatograph tandem high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS) method. Total concentrations of twelve dl-PCBs (Σdl-PCBs) were in range of 366.30-4 945.77 pg/g fat, with the mean value (2 093.76 pg/g fat), and PCB 118 was the predominant congener. For six ndl-PCBs, total concentrations (Σndl-PCBs) were in range of 2 671.32-20 626.26 pg/g fat (mean 12 505.45 pg/g fat), and PCB 153 was the predominant congener. Mean concentration of Σdl-PCBs were significantly and positively associated with age (rs=0.574, P=0.002). The mean World Health Organization toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) of dl-PCBs (ΣTEQdl-PCBs) were range from 0.07 to 8.69 pg/g fat.


Assuntos
Dioxinas , Poluentes Ambientais , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Dioxinas/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
17.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113773, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034039

RESUMO

Lead exposure is still a major concern for occupations that regularly train or work with firearms, such as law enforcement and military personnel. Due to the increasing number of women of fertile age in such professions, there is a strong incentive to monitor lead exposures during firearms training. Personal air sampling was performed during two sessions of a nine-day urban combat training (UCT) course for cadets in the Swedish Armed Forces, one session employing leaded ammunition (leaded scenario) and one session employing unleaded ammunition (unleaded scenario). Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured before and after the course for 42 cadets and five instructors. During the leaded scenario, the instructors' airborne exposure (geometric mean, GM, 72.0 µg/m3) was higher than that of cadets (GM 42.9 µg/m3). During the unleaded scenario, airborne concentrations were similar for instructors and cadets and considerably lower than during the leaded scenario (GM 2.9 µg/m3). Despite comparably low external lead exposures during the course, we saw a statistically significant increase in systemic exposure for cadets (BLL GM increased from 1.09 to 1.71 µg/dL, p < 0.001). For the five instructors, notable differences were seen depending on task. The largest increase was seen for the two instructors performing close supervision during the leaded scenario (BLL GM increased from 2.41 µg/dL to 4.83 µg/dL). For the remaining three instructors the BLLs were unchanged (BLL GMs were 1.25 µg/dL before the course and 1.26 µg/dL after). None of the participants exceeded the applicable biological exposure limits, but extrapolating our findings shows that instructors in the leaded scenario may reach levels around 10 µg/dL after a year of repeated exposures. We conclude that comparably low airborne concentrations can contribute to the body burden of lead and that additional measures to reduce exposure are warranted, particularly for instructors.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Motivação , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113757, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962122

RESUMO

Elevated perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) levels, one of many manmade per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were detected in public water systems/private wells in New Jersey communities. Interventions to end exposure through drinking water were carried out from 2014 to 2016. To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions, a community biomonitoring study was conducted for the communities between 2017 and 2020. A convenience sampling design was used with 120 participants in Year 1 between ages of 20-74 who consumed PFNA-contaminated water. Three blood samples, one year apart, were drawn from each participant and completed for 99 participants. Separated serum samples were measured for 12 PFAS including PFNA. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on demographics and potential sources. Drinking water and house dust collected at the first visit were analyzed for 14 PFAS including PFNA. The PFNA sera levels (Year 1) found 84 out of 120 (70%) participants were higher than the 95th percentile of a nationally representative sample of US adults (NHANES2015-16). Current drinking water and house dust were not significant contributing sources for the study participants. On average, PFNA sera levels were 12 ± 16% (Year 2) and 27 ± 16% (Year 3) lower than the level measured in Year 1 (p < 0.01). The PFNA half-life was estimated around 3.52 years, using a mixed model from 68 high-exposed participants (>95th percentile of NHANES2015-16) with controlling for physiological covariates. The decline in adult serum PFNA levels seen in the years following a community drinking water intervention suggests the intervention effectively reduced PFNA exposure via drinking water.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Água Potável , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Monitoramento Biológico , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Água Potável/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , New Jersey , Inquéritos Nutricionais
19.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 420: 115532, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845054

RESUMO

Limited information is available regarding the effects of arsenic exposure on immune function. We have recently reported that chronic exposure to As was associated asthma, as determined by spirometry and respiratory symptoms. Because T helper 2 (Th2)-driven immune responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma, we studied the associations of serum Th1 and Th2 mediators with the As exposure markers and the features of asthma among individuals exposed to As. A total of 553 blood samples were selected from the same study subjects recruited in our previous asthma study. Serum levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were analyzed by immunoassay. Subjects' arsenic exposure levels (drinking water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Arsenic exposure levels of the subjects showed significant positive associations with serum Th2-mediators- interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin without any significant changes in Th1 mediators- interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. The ratios of Th2 to Th1 mediators were significantly increased with increasing exposure to As. Notably, most of the Th2 mediators were positively associated with serum levels of total immunoglobulin E and eotaxin. The serum levels of Th2 mediators were significantly higher in the subjects with asthma than those without asthma. The results of our study suggest that the exacerbated Th2-driven immune responses are involved in the increased susceptibility to allergic asthma among individuals chronically exposed to As.


Assuntos
Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Citocinas/sangue , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807211

RESUMO

(1) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were widely produced in the United States until 2004 but remain highly persistent in the environment. The potential for PBDEs to disrupt normal neuroendocrine pathways resulting in depression and other neurological symptoms is largely understudied. This study examined whether PBDE exposure in pregnant women was associated with antenatal depressive symptomatology. (2) Data were collected from 193 African American pregnant women at 8-14 weeks gestation. Serum PBDEs and depressive symptoms were analyzed and a mixture effect was calculated. (3) Urban pregnant African American women in the Southeastern United States had a high risk of depression (27%) compared to the National average. Increased levels of PBDEs were found. BDE-47 and -99 exposures are significantly associated with depressive symptomatology in the pregnant cohort. The weighted body burden estimate of the PBDE mixture was associated with a higher risk of mild to moderate depression using an Edinburgh Depression Scale cutoff score of ≥10 (OR = 2.93; CI 1.18, 7.82). (4) Since antenatal depression may worsen in postpartum, reducing PBDE exposure may have significant clinical implications.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Gestantes , Afro-Americanos , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Feminino , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Gravidez , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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