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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1641: 461993, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611119

RESUMO

The determination of the geographical origin of wood can be highly relevant for several reasons: On the one hand, it can help to prevent illegal logging and timber trade, on the other hand, it is of special interest for archaeological artefacts made of wood, as well as for a variety of biological questions. For this reason, different extraction methods were first tested for the analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A two-phase extraction with chloroform, methanol and water proved to be particularly successful. Subsequently, cedrela (Cedrela odorata) samples from South America were measured to distinguish geographic origin. Using multivariate data analysis, numerous origin-dependent differences could be extracted. The identification of the marker substances indicated that several metabolic pathways were affected by the geographical influences, some of them probably indicating pest infections.


Assuntos
Cedrela/metabolismo , Geografia , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Madeira/metabolismo , Acetatos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ciclopentanos/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metanol/análise , Oxilipinas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(2): 2342-2354, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885336

RESUMO

Two novel ecological and low-cost adsorbents were prepared from seed residues of the tree species Anadenanthera macrocarpa and Cedrela fissilis for the removal of methylene blue dye in water. The materials were comminuted and characterized by different techniques. The particles of samples have a rough surface with cavities. The optimum dosage and pH for both materials were 1 g L-1 and pH 8. The pseudo-second-order model was the most suitable for describing the adsorption kinetics for both systems. The Anadenanthera macrocarpa presented a maximum experimental capacity of 228 mg g-1, while the Cedrela fissilis, a similar capacity of 230 mg g-1 at 328 K. The Tóth model was proper for describing the equilibrium curves for both systems. The thermodynamic indicators show that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic for both materials. The application of materials for the simulated effluent treatment showed 74 and 78% of color removal using Anadenanthera macrocarpa and Cedrela fissilis samples, respectively. Overall, seed residues of Anadenanthera macrocarpa and Cedrela fissilis could be potentially applied for adsorptive removal of colored contaminants in wastewater.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Azul de Metileno/análise , Sementes/química , Soluções , Termodinâmica , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218181

RESUMO

The genus Cedrela P. Browne, which belongs to the Meliaceae family, has eighteen species. Trees of this genus are of economic interest due to wood quality, as well as being the focus of studies because of relevant biologic activities as in other Meliaceae species. These activities are mainly related to limonoids, a characteristic class of compounds in this family. Therefore, the aim of this review is to perform a survey of the citations in the literature on the Cedrela genus species. Articles were found on quantitative and qualitative phytochemical studies of the Cedrela species, revealing the chemical compounds identified, such as aliphatics acid and alcohol, flavonoids, tocopherol, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, cycloartanes, steroids, and limonoids. Although some activities were tested, the majority of studies focused on the insecticidal, antifeedant, or insect growth inhibitor activities of this genus. Nonetheless, the most promising activities were related to their antimalarial and antitripanocidal effects, although further investigations are still needed.


Assuntos
Cedrela/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1868(12): 140529, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853775

RESUMO

The light spectrum quality is an important signal for plant growth and development. We evaluated the effects of different light spectra on the in vitro shoot development of Cedrela fissilis and its proteomic and polyamine (PA) profiles. Cotyledonary and apical nodal segments were grown under different light emitting diodes (LED) and fluorescent lamps. Shoots from cotyledonary nodal segments cultured with 6-benzyladenine (BA) that were grown under WmBdR LED showed increased length and higher fresh and dry matter compared to shoots grown under fluorescent lamps. A nonredundant protein databank generated by transcriptome sequencing and the de novo assembly of C. fissilis improved, and almost doubled, the protein identification compared to a Citrus sinensis databank. A total of 616 proteins were identified, with 23 up- and 103 down-accumulated in the shoots under WmBdR LEDs compared to fluorescent lamps. Most differentially accumulated proteins in shoots grown under the WmBdR LED lamp treatment compared to the fluorescent lamp treatment are involved in responding to metabolic processes, stress, biosynthetic and cellular protein modifications, and light stimulus processes. Among the proteins, the up-accumulation of argininosuccinate synthase was associated with an increase in the free putrescine content and, consequently, with higher shoot elongation under WmBdR LED. The down-accumulation of calreticulin, heat shock proteins, plastid-lipid-associated protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and ultraviolet-B receptor UVR8 isoform X1 could be related to the longer shoot length noted under LED treatment. This study provides important data related to the effects of the light spectrum quality on in vitro morphogenesis through the modulation of specific proteins and free putrescine biosynthesis in C. fissilis, an endangered wood species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest of economic and ecological relevance. The nonredundant protein databank of C. fissilis is available via ProteomeXchange under identifier PXD018020.


Assuntos
Cedrela/fisiologia , Cedrela/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Proteoma/efeitos da radiação , Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Espectrometria de Massas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos da radiação , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteômica/métodos
5.
J Environ Manage ; 268: 110733, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510453

RESUMO

Mineral exploration of copper (Cu) in the Amazon has significantly impacted the environment, leading to contamination of large areas that require remediation. Tropical tree species that can immobilize metals and restore plant cover should be selected for phytoremediation programs. The phytoremediation behavior of Khaya ivorensis and Cedrela fissilis was studied in Cu contaminated soil (60, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg-1). K. ivorensis absorbed extremely high amounts of Cu in the roots (329 mg kg-1) and excessive amounts in the shoot (52 mg kg-1), while maintaining similar growth to control plants. C. fissilis seedlings presented a higher Dickson quality index. Bioaccumulation (BCF) and translocation (TF) factors were low in both species, indicating that even with the high amounts of copper absorbed, these contents were lower than the soil concentration (BCF < 1) and that most of Cu was compartmentalized in the roots (TF < 1). The tolerance index of K. ivorensis (>1) and C. fissilis (~1) indicate their ability to grow in Cu contaminated soil. These results suggest that these species could potentially be used as phytoremediators.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobre , Solo
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112206, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494199

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedrela serrata Royle (C. serrata) is a medicinal plant not only used for constructions but also an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as; diabetes, jaundice, liver diseases, diarrhea, fever, chronic infantile dysentery, intestinal worms, hypertension, skin and blood diseases. AIMS: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about C. serrata including its reported pharmacological activities, cultural uses, active compounds, and botanical description. MATERIALS AND METHOD: s: All provided information about C. serrata was collected using the electronic databases (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer Link), books (e.g. Trees of Pakistan and Herbalism, Phytochemistry, and Ethnopharmacology) and thesis. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies on C. serrata revealed the presence of important chemical constituents such as; flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemicals showed various in vitro activities like antioxidant, anti-infective, antiglycation, cytotoxic activities. Major areas of research conducted on C. serrata are its antioxidant and anti-infective activities. Few historical uses of C. serrata are supported by modern in vitro pharmacological studies such as; antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and leishmanicidal activity. CONCLUSION: There were convincing evidence in in vitro studies supporting C. serrata antioxidant, anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-glycating, and cytotoxic activities. Nevertheless, all reported pharmacological activities were carried out in vitro and a gap in research i.e. preclinical and clinical investigation still exists. The authors emphasize the need for future in-depth research and clinical trials to investigate C. serrata pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety. The potential chemical compounds with suggestive classes may need to be isolated and pharmacological activities must be established for these compounds. The plant has very limited information about pharmacological activities and the data available for supportive cultural uses needs proper validation.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
7.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 35(2): 167-171, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009205

RESUMO

Our previous ex-vivo and in vivo investigations have established immunopotentiating property of Khaya senegalensis and Cedrela odorata gums; however the safety of the use of this gum combination in chicken has not been described. Hence this study evaluates the haematological profile of chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine delivered through the oral and ocular routes using gums from Cedrela odorata and Khaya senegalensis as delivery agents. 252 one-day old chickens were grouped gum-vaccine oral (GVOR), vaccine oral (VOR), gum-vaccine ocular (GVOC), vaccine ocular (VOC), gum oral (GOR), gum ocular (GOC), no-gum-no-vaccine but challenged (NGNV/C), no-gum-no-vaccine unchallenged (NGNV/U). They were vaccinated on days 21 and 42 and challenged day 84. Blood samples were collected before first vaccination and at selected intervals afterwards. Analysis was done using one way ANOVA with P<0.05 considered significant. Packed cell volume, total white cell count, heterocyte-lymphocyte ratios and platelet count varied insignificantly (P>0.05) throughout the period of observation across groups with no observable derangements. Hence, the absence of derangement in haematological indices from this study suggests that the dilution rate recommended from the ex-vivo study is safe for administration of Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens irrespective of the routes of delivery.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Meliaceae , Doença de Newcastle , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Galinhas , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
8.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(6): 630-641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544580

RESUMO

The emergence of antigenic variants and very virulent strains of infectious bursa disease virus (IBDV) in vaccinated flocks considerably stimulated research in IBDV vaccine administration. The mucoadhesive and immunopotentials of Cedrela odorata and Khaya senegalensis were explored in vaccine delivery against clinical IBDV in broiler chickens. A total of 400 chicks were successfully brooded and raised from day old for commencement of this experiment. The birds were randomly distributed into eight groups with an average of 50 birds per group comprising: Gums-Gumboro Vaccine Ocular (infected) (GGVOC), Gumboro Vaccine alone Ocular (infected) (GVOC), Gums alone Ocular (infected) (GOC), Gums-Gumboro Vaccine Oral (infected) (GGVOR), Gumboro Vaccine alone Oral (infected) (GVOR), Gums alone Oral (infected) (GOR), No-Vaccine-No-Gums (infected) (NVNG/i), and No-Vaccine-No-Gums (not infected) (NVNG). On a weekly basis, 1.5mls of blood were collected from 5 birds and 3 birds euthanized per group for serological analysis and mucosal washings (trachea and intestine) respectively. Data obtained were analyzed and sample to positive ratio calculated. The post 1st vaccination trachea IgG antibody response was moderately higher in the ocular groups than the oral groups. It was also high in the VOC, GVOC, GOC, VOR groups than the GVOR groups. The antibody response (IgG) pre and post 1st vaccination, post 2nd vaccination and post infection from serum, trachea and intestinal washes showed that by week 1 Post 1st vaccination, there was insignificant increase in titer serum response of the gum-vaccine ocular group compared to the vaccine ocular alone while both groups were insignificantly higher than the oral group. Overall, serum titer showed a rapid response with spiked significant response by 48h pi in the gum vaccine groups (especially GVOR), which peaks by day 3 and remains insignificantly higher throughout the day 7 pi compared to vaccine alone groups. In conclusion, use of the mucilage from C. odorata and K. senegalenses in equal proportion has given better enhancement of the response to IBDV vaccination and premise for further investigations for improvement against IBD.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Cedrela/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Meliaceae/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Gomas Vegetais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
9.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0219100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242263

RESUMO

Dugout canoes are boats made from a single tree trunk. Even with the modernization of fishing, they are still made and used for artisanal fishing on the coast of southern and southeastern Brazil and in other regions of the world. Various tree species are used to construct these canoes and choosing a species is related to characteristics of the location, available raw materials and purpose of the boat. Our objective was to better understand the variation in dugout canoes in relation to tree species, tree size and fishing use, over time, along a coastal strip of southern and southeastern Brazil within the Atlantic Forest domain. We interviewed 53 artisans and analyzed 358 canoes that ranged from 1 to around 200 years old. Schizolobium parahyba is currently used the most. In the past, species of the family Lauraceae (Nectandra sp. / Ocotea sp.) were frequently used, as well as Cedrela fissilis and Ficus sp. The size of the canoes varied based on time, coastal region, environment where the boat is used (exposed or sheltered) and type of fishing. The average size of recent canoes was smaller than older canoes for more common species (S. parahyba and C. fissilis), reflecting changes in the vegetation of the biome over time, both in the species and size of individuals available. Latitudinal variation can also influence the availability of tree species along the studied regions. An increase in environmental monitoring has contributed to a decline in constructing dugout canoes, resulting in the use of fiberglass canoes and other motorized boats. Although canoe size varied based on region, location and use, today some of the older canoes represent large trees of the past and pieces of Atlantic Forest history.


Assuntos
Navios/métodos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Florestas , Humanos , Lauraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical
10.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 58, 2019 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tree species in the genus Cedrela P. Browne are threatened by timber overexploitation across the Neotropics. Genetic identification of processed timber can be used to supplement wood anatomy to assist in the taxonomic and source validation of protected species and populations of Cedrela. However, few genetic resources exist that enable both species and source identification of Cedrela timber products. We developed several 'omic resources including a leaf transcriptome, organelle genome (cpDNA), and diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may assist the classification of Cedrela specimens to species and geographic origin and enable future research on this widespread Neotropical tree genus. RESULTS: We designed hybridization capture probes to enrich for thousands of genes from both freshly preserved leaf tissue and from herbarium specimens across eight Meliaceae species. We first assembled a draft de novo transcriptome for C. odorata, and then identified putatively low-copy genes. Hybridization probes for 10,001 transcript models successfully enriched 9795 (98%) of these targets, and analysis of target capture efficiency showed that probes worked effectively for five Cedrela species, with each species showing similar mean on-target sequence yield and depth. The probes showed greater enrichment efficiency for Cedrela species relative to the other three distantly related Meliaceae species. We provide a set of candidate SNPs for species identification of four of the Cedrela species included in this analysis, and present draft chloroplast genomes for multiple individuals of eight species from four genera in the Meliaceae. CONCLUSIONS: Deforestation and illegal logging threaten forest biodiversity globally, and wood screening tools offer enforcement agencies new approaches to identify illegally harvested timber. The genomic resources described here provide the foundation required to develop genetic screening methods for Cedrela species identification and source validation. Due to their transferability across the genus and family as well as demonstrated applicability for both fresh leaves and herbarium specimens, the genomic resources described here provide additional tools for studies examining the ecology and evolutionary history of Cedrela and related species in the Meliaceae.


Assuntos
Cedrela/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Árvores/genética , Região do Caribe , Cedrela/classificação , América Central , Geografia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Meliaceae/classificação , Meliaceae/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , América do Sul , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores/classificação , Clima Tropical
11.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0203768, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532149

RESUMO

The endangered Cedrela balansae C.DC. (Meliaceae) is a high-value timber species with great potential for forest plantations that inhabits the tropical forests in Northwestern Argentina.Research on this species is scarce because of the limited genetic and genomic information available. Here, we explored the transcriptome of C. balansae using 454 GS FLX Titanium next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Following de novo assembling, we identified 27,111 non-redundant unigenes longer than 200 bp, and considered these transcripts for further downstream analysis. The functional annotation was performed searching the 27,111 unigenes against the NR-Protein and the Interproscan databases. This analysis revealed 26,977 genes with homology in at least one of the Database analyzed. Furthermore, 7,774 unigenes in 142 different active biological pathways in C. balansae were identified with the KEGG database. Moreover, after in silico analyses, we detected 2,663 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. A subset of 70 SSRs related to important "stress tolerance" traits based on functional annotation evidence, were selected for wet PCR-validation in C. balansae and other Cedrela species inhabiting in northwest and northeast of Argentina (C. fissilis, C. saltensis and C. angustifolia). Successful transferability was between 77% and 93% and thanks to this study, 32 polymorphic functional SSRs for all analyzed Cedrela species are now available. The gene catalog and molecular markers obtained here represent a starting point for further research, which will assist genetic breeding programs in the Cedrela genus and will contribute to identifying key populations for its preservation.


Assuntos
Cedrela/genética , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Argentina , Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcadores Genéticos
12.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 288, 2017 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819277

RESUMO

Various studies report substantial increases in intrinsic water-use efficiency (W i ), estimated using carbon isotopes in tree rings, suggesting trees are gaining increasingly more carbon per unit water lost due to increases in atmospheric CO2. Usually, reconstructions do not, however, correct for the effect of intrinsic developmental changes in W i as trees grow larger. Here we show, by comparing W i across varying tree sizes at one CO2 level, that ignoring such developmental effects can severely affect inferences of trees' W i . W i doubled or even tripled over a trees' lifespan in three broadleaf species due to changes in tree height and light availability alone, and there are also weak trends for Pine trees. Developmental trends in broadleaf species are as large as the trends previously assigned to CO2 and climate. Credible future tree ring isotope studies require explicit accounting for species-specific developmental effects before CO2 and climate effects are inferred.Intrinsic water-use efficiency (W i ) reconstructions using tree rings often disregard developmental changes in W i as trees age. Here, the authors compare W i across varying tree sizes at a fixed CO2 level and show that ignoring developmental changes impacts conclusions on trees' W i responses to CO2 or climate.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clima , Árvores/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Isótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cedrela/metabolismo , Fagus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fagus/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pinus/metabolismo , Quercus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercus/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 38(4): 378-388, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28010157

RESUMO

Immune response of challenged chickens following previous vaccinations with Newcastle disease vaccine using gums from Cedrela odorata and Khaya senegalensis as delivery agent were evaluated. Two hundred and fifty-two one-day old chickens were divided into vaccine-gum oral (GVOR), vaccine-gum ocular (GVOC), vaccine oral (VOR), vaccine ocular (VOC), gum oral (GOR), gum ocular (GOC), No-gum-no-vaccine/challenged (NGNV/C), and No-gum-no-vaccine/unchallenged (NGNV/U) groups. They were vaccinated at days 21 & 42 and challenged at day 84. Trachea and intestinal washings were collected at intervals as well as weekly serum samples. These were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for mucosal and systemic IgG response (MA and SA). Statistical analysis was done using Omnibus one-way ANOVA. MA and SA were not different (P > 0.05) post first and second vaccination although gum-vaccine groups were marginally higher post second vaccination. Post Infection (PI), there was an early and sustained spike in both MA and SA for the GV groups especially GVOR (P < 0.05). MA and SA for the Gum alone (especially GOR) groups also spiked PI (P < 0.05). Therefore, phytogenic polymers used could be said to possess immunopotentiating property with a possible induction of immunologic memory mechanism.


Assuntos
Cedrela/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Meliaceae/química , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
14.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0164178, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732622

RESUMO

Climate change is recognized as an important threat to global biodiversity because it increases the risk of extinction of many species on the planet. Mexico is a megadiverse country and native tree species such as red cedar (Cedrela odorata) can be used to maintain forests while helping mitigate climate change, because it is considered a fast growing pioneer species with great economic potential in the forestry industry. In order to assess possible shifts in areas suitable for C. odorata plantations in Mexico with ecological niche models, we used the MaxLike algorithm, climate variables, the geo-referenced records of this species, three general circulation models and three scenarios of future emissions. Results show a current potential distribution of 573,079 km2 with an average probability of occurrence of 0.93 (± 0.13). The potential distribution area could increase up to 650,356 km2 by 2060 according to the general circulation model HADCM3 B2, with an average probability of occurrence of 0.86 (± 0.14). Finally, we delimited an area of 35,377 km2 that has a high potential for the establishment of C. odorata plantations, by selecting those sites with optimal conditions for its growth that are outside protected areas and are currently devoid of trees. C. odorata has a significant potential to help in the mitigation of the effects of climate change. Using MaxLike we identified extense areas in Mexico suitable to increase carbon sequestration through plantations of this highly valued native tree species.


Assuntos
Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Algoritmos , Biodiversidade , Sequestro de Carbono , Simulação por Computador , Florestas , México , Modelos Biológicos , Probabilidade , Clima Tropical
15.
Chemosphere ; 158: 56-65, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27243585

RESUMO

Considering the impacts caused to vegetation in the vicinity of cement factories, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of cement dust on the structural organization and physiological/biochemical traits of Cedrela fissilis leaflets, a woody species native to tropical America. Plants were exposed to 2.5 or 5 mg cm-2 cement dust applied to the leaf surface, to the soil or simultaneously to the leaf surface and the soil.. Leaves of shoot-treated plants exhibited chlorosis, marginal and inter veins necrosis, diminished thickness, epidermal cells less turgid, cellular collapse, obstructed stomata, senescence, rolling and some abscission. In few cases, individual death was recorded. Cement dust-treated plants also presented decreased amount of photosynthetic pigments and iron (Fe) and increase in calcium (Ca) levels. The cement crust formed in leaves surface blocked from 30 to 50% of the incoming light and reduced the stomatal conductance and the potential quantum yield of photosystem II. Control or soil-treated plants did not exhibit morphophysiological changes throughout the experiment. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase increased in leaves of plants upon treatment with 2.5 mg cm(-2) cement dust, independent of the site application. Overall, these results indicate that C. fissilis is highly sensitive to cement dust at the initial stage of development.


Assuntos
Cedrela/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais de Construção , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/química , Ascorbato Peroxidases/química , Catalase/química , Poeira , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/química , Luz , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Solo/química , Superóxido Dismutase/química
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 102: 45-55, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27215942

RESUMO

In the Yungas of Northwestern Argentina, three endangered species of Cedrela (C. angustifolia, C. saltensis, and C. balansae) follow altitudinal gradients of distribution with contact zones between them. We sampled 210 individuals from 20 populations that spanned most of Cedrela's geographical range in the Yungas, and used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers and DNA sequences of the nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) to investigate hybrid zones. Data analyses employed an array of complementary methods, including principal coordinate analyses, Bayesian clustering analyses, maximum likelihood tree-building, and network techniques. Both nuclear molecular systems - AFLP and ITS - provided insights into the evolutionary history of Cedrela in the Yungas in a congruent manner. We uncovered strong support for the occurrence of natural hybridization between C. balansae and C. saltensis. Additionally, we identified hybrid zones in areas of sympatry (at both the Calilegua National Park and the San Andrés farm) and in transition zones from 820 to 1100meters above sea level (localities of Pintascayo and Acambuco). There was no evidence for hybridization of either C. balansae or C. saltensis with C. angustifolia. The role of hybrid populations in conservation and use of genetic resources in the Yungas were discussed.


Assuntos
Cedrela/genética , Ecossistema , Hibridização Genética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados , Argentina , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal
17.
Am J Bot ; 103(2): 307-16, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26838366

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: We investigated how genetic diversity is distributed across the range of Cedrela fissilis, a tree species associated with seasonal neotropical forests, to gain insights into competing biogeographic scenarios that explain how disjunct distributions of these forests were shaped. METHODS: A total of 250 samples were sampled from 18 sites across the species' range in Brazil and eastern Bolivia and genotyped with 10 microsatellite loci. An array of complementary methods-F statistics, analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA), and clustering analyses-assessed genetic diversity, population differentiation, and structure. KEY RESULTS: Most of the genetic diversity (82.5%) was partitioned within populations, but about 12% was due to differences among groups of populations on either side of the Cerrado or located within the Cerrado; mean expected heterozygosity and mean observed heterozygosity were 0.821 and 0.704, respectively. The 250 samples were sorted into two Bayesian groups: one group for each side of the Cerrado. The populations showed varying levels of admixture, with the greatest admixture evident in populations located toward central Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: In C. fissilis, genetic diversity is structured according to geography: the Atlantic range and the Chiquitano range each harbor a genealogical lineage. Interfertility and varying levels of admixture between lineages provide strong evidence that the lineages evolved under geographic, but not genetic, isolation. Admixture is of recent origin, owing to population expansion. Cedrela fissilis shares this dual pattern of distribution of genetic diversity with other phylogenetically unrelated taxa that are typically associated with seasonal forests.


Assuntos
Cedrela/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Florestas , Variação Genética , Bolívia , Brasil , Estações do Ano
18.
Polim Med ; 46(1): 35-43, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28397417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many excipients used in tableting exhibit some undesirable properties such as poor flow, cohesion and lubricating characteristics, thus necessitating some modification to achieve the desired product. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to enhance the material, flow and compressional properties of Cedrela odorata gum (COG) (Family: Meliaceae) by co-processing with plantain starch (PS) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The COG was co-processed with PS (or MCC) by physical co-grinding at ratio 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 4, and characterized using morphological analysis, swelling index viscosity measurements, particle size analysis and FTIR spectra. The material, flow and compressional properties of the co-processed excipients were also evaluated. Results were analyzed using mean and standard deviation of data. RESULTS: There was a decrease in the degree of agglomeration of COG and a reduction in the size of the powdered gum. The co-processed excipients were more spherical than the native excipients. The COG had the highest viscosity, while MCC and COG : PS (1 : 2) showed the highest and lowest degrees of swelling at 27.0 ± 0.05°C respectively. Water absorption capacity of the component excipients improved with co-processing COG : MCC increasing from 171.8 ± 1.54 (1 : 1) to 214.8 ± 1.07 (1 : 2), while COG : PS increased from 95.2 ± 0.08 (1 : 1) to 206.2 ± 0.13. There was a decrease in the percentage solubility of the co-processed excipients with the highest and lowest solubility observed in COG (54.1 ± 0.07%) and PS (3.7 ± 0.16%), respectively. The FTIR spectra indicate no significant interaction between the excipients. The poor flow of the component excipients did not improve with co-processing; however, there was a significant increase in compressibility. Generally, COG co-processed with MCC showed better compression properties when compared with COG co-processed with PS. CONCLUSIONS: Co-processing of COD with MC or PS enhanced the characters of the component excipients, thus making the co-processed excipients suitable for direct compression of tablets without altering the chemical nature of the component excipients.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica , Excipientes/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Amido/química , Comprimidos/química , Cedrela/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Plantago/química , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade
19.
Rev Biol Trop ; 64(3): 1143-54, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461789

RESUMO

The determination of favorable light habitat conditions per species and life stage is transcendental, for both ex situ and in situ conservation strategies of endangered forest tree species, and for their utilization as plantation trees. This becomes especially important when planting material is scarce. We studied the multivariate responses in biomass allocation and in gas exchange to light and to CO2 in Cedrela salvadorensis seedlings, grown under similar light conditions as those this species faces in nature. During a period of 135 days, groups of ten seedlings were put under 75, 45, 15 and 3.5 % of full sun exposure obtained with neutral shade cloth, under nursery conditions. A series of biomass allocation variables and detailed gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis response curves to light and to internal carbon concentration) were measured at the end of the growth period in plants of the four treatments. According to the principal component analyses, highest values of gas exchange response were associated with the lower values of biomass allocation traits. These changes can be associated with resource-conservative and resource-acquisitive strategies, where the C. salvadorensis seedlings acclimatize their traits for the exploration and exploitation of light, to high or to dim light environment, respectively. The multivariate analyses also showed that the plants had a high performance at 45 % of light environment. These results suggest that 45 % of light environment was the optimal light habitat of this species at the tested developing stage. Our results have important implications to choose the best natural habitat for a successful establishment of C. salvadorensis. We propose practical considerations for programs of reforestation or reintroduction where this species be involved.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Cedrela/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Luz Solar , Análise de Variância , Florestas , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo , Clima Tropical
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(2): 326-332, mar./abr. 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-963908

RESUMO

A recuperação de áreas degradadas tem o objetivo de fornecer ao ambiente degradado condições favoráveis a reestruturação em um ambiente que não tem condições de se regenerar por si só, sendo o plantio de mudas arbóreas uma forma efetiva de ampliar este processo. Entretanto as espécies arbóreas nativas têm ritmo de crescimento lento, o que aumenta o tempo da produção da muda, como também diminui a competitividade destas com as plantas daninhas em áreas de implantação de florestas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de subdoses de glyphosate no desenvolvimento de mudas de Psidium cattleyanum (araçá-amarelo), Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola) e Cedrela odorata (cedrinho), através da análise de seus parâmetros morfofisiológicos. O experimento foi instalado e conduzido em casa de vegetação, e as unidades experimentais foram constituídas de uma planta, conduzida em vasos com capacidade para 2,5L, dispostos inteiramente ao acaso, arranjados em uma esquema fatorial (doses x espécies), com seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos da aplicação herbicida glyphosate nas seguintes subdoses: 0; 7,5; 15; 30 e 60 g e.a. ha-1, na formulação comercial Scout®. A aplicação nas mudas foi realizada aos 120 dias após germinação. Foram realizadas avaliações dos efeitos dos tratamentos químicos (fitointoxicação) sobre as plantas aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após aplicação, e após 90 dias foram avaliados a sobrevivência das plantas, condutância estomática, altura, diâmetro do caule e massa seca de parte aérea. As diferentes doses do herbicida não provocaram intoxicação às plantas. Já a dose de 30 e 60 g e.a. ha-1 proporcionou maiores incrementos em altura e diâmetro, bem como maiores massas secas em plantas de pau-viola e araçá-amarelo, respectivamente.


Recovery of degraded areas aims to provide the degraded environment favorable conditions for restructuring in an environment that is unable to regenerate itself and planting of tree seedlings is one of the effective ways to extend this process. However, native tree species have slow growth rate which increases the seedlings production time as well as decreases their competitiveness with weeds in areas of forests deployment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate reduced rates application on Psidium cattleyanum (yellow guava), Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola) and Cedrela odorata (cedro) seedlings development by analyzing its morphophysiological parameters. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions and the experimental units consisted of one plant were conducted in 2.5L plastic pots and arranged in a completely randomized design with six replications. Treatments consisted of glyphosate application at 0, 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 g ha-1 using Scout® commercial formulation. Treatments application on these species seedlings was realized 120 days after seeds germination. Visual evaluations of plants phytotoxicity were realized at 7, 14 and 21 days after treatments application and plants survival, stomatal conductance, height, stem diameter and dry mass of shoots were evaluated 90 days after treatments application. Different doses of glyphosate did not cause plants phytotoxicity. Already, 30 and 60 g ha-1 of glyphosate provided greater increases in height, stem diameter and dry mass of shoots for Citharexylum myrianthum and Psidium cattleyanum, respectively.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Psidium , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Herbicidas
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