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1.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 36(23): e9399, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114650

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) methods were developed to effectively separate unknown impurities and polymerized impurities in cefamandole nafate. The liquid chromatography-tandem ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS) was applied to characterize the structures of the impurities. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum characteristics and mass spectrum characteristics of △3 -isomer and 7-epimer in cefamandole nafate were studied to distinguish the isomers. METHODS: RPLC-IT-TOF-MS was used to characterize the structures of unknown impurities and polymerized impurities eluted from the C18 column. On this basis, the two-dimensional (2D) HPSEC-IT-TOF-MS was used to confirm the structures of polymerized impurities eluted from the TSK-gel G2000SWxl column. Complete fragmentation patterns of impurities were studied and used to obtain information about the structures of the impurities. RESULTS: The structures of 19 unknown impurities in cefamandole nafate were elucidated based on the high-resolution MSn data with both positive and negative modes, assisted by the UV spectra and stress testing, of which 2 impurities were polymerized impurities. Cefamandole nafate produced a series of degradation impurities, and another principal component cefamandole acid also produced a series of similar degradation impurities. The disciplines between mass fragmentation pattern/UV spectrum and structure for △3 -isomer and 7-epimer were presented to distinguish their structures. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provided a scientific basis for the improvement of official monographs in pharmacopoeias to effectively control the impurities and ensure drug safety for the public. This study also revealed the formation mechanisms of degradation impurities in cefamandole nafate, which may guide industry to improve the manufacturing process and storage conditions to reduce the content of impurities in products.


Assuntos
Cefamandol , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas , Cromatografia em Gel , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos
2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(9): 12733-12747, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973530

RESUMO

While acknowledging carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) as a risk factor for ischemic stroke, reports on its pathogenesis are scarce. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanism of CAS through RNA-seq data analysis. Carotid intima tissue samples from CAS patients and healthy subjects were subjected to RNA-seq analysis, which yielded, 1,427 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to CAS. Further, enrichment analysis (Gene Ontology, KEGG pathway, and MOCDE analysis) was performed on the DEGs. Hub genes identified via the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) were then analyzed using TRRUST, DisGeNET, PaGenBase, and CMAP databases. Results implicated inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of CAS. Also, lung disease was associated with CAS. Hub genes were expressed in multiple diseases, mainly regulated by RELA and NFKB1. Moreover, three small-molecule compounds were found via the CMAP database for management of CAS; hub genes served as potential targets. Collectively, inflammation and immunity are the potential pathological mechanisms of CAS. This study implicates CeForanide, Chenodeoxycholic acid, and 0317956-0000 as potential drug candidates for CAS treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/imunologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cefamandol/análogos & derivados , Cefamandol/farmacologia , Cefamandol/uso terapêutico , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico , Biologia Computacional , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA-Seq , Túnica Íntima/patologia
3.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(1): 36-38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533750

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the most commonly used broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicide in the world. The toxicity is supposed to be due to uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and the surfactant polyoxyethylene amine (POEA)- mediated cardiotoxicity. Clinical features of this herbicide poisoning are varied, ranging from asymptomatic to even death. There is no antidote and aggressive supportive therapy is the mainstay of treatment for glyphosate poisoning. We present a 69-year-old female patient with suicidal consumption of around 500 ml of Glycel®. Initially, gastric lavage was done and intravenous fluids were given. Within two hours of presentation, the patient developed respiratory distress needing intubation, hypotension needing vasopressor support, and severe lactic acidosis. She also developed acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypokalemia, hypernatremia, and aspiration pneumonia. Our patient was critically ill with multiple poor prognostic factors, but with timely aggressive supportive management, the patient gradually recovered.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/intoxicação , Hipernatremia/etiologia , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Pneumonia Aspirativa/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Idoso , Cefamandol/administração & dosagem , Cefamandol/análogos & derivados , Cefamandol/uso terapêutico , Cefoperazona/administração & dosagem , Cefoperazona/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Glicina/intoxicação , Humanos , Hipernatremia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipopotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Aspirativa/tratamento farmacológico , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Potássio/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/tratamento farmacológico , Tentativa de Suicídio , Sulbactam/administração & dosagem , Sulbactam/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Glifosato
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 175: 322-329, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549660

RESUMO

Penicillin G acylase (PGA) was an important biocatalyst for enzymatic production of second-generation cephalosporin. PGA from Achromobacter xylosoxidans PX02 (AxPGA) showed relatively lower identity to EcPGA (54.9% in α subunit and 51.7% in ß subunit), which could synthesize cefamandole in the kinetically controlled N-acylation (kcNa). Semi-rational design of AxPGA and "small and smart" mutant libraries were developed with minimal screening to improve cefamandole production. A triple mutant αR141A/αF142I/ßF24G by combining the mutational sites (ßF24, αR141, and αF142) from different subunits of AxPGA showed better performance in cefamandole production, with 4.2-fold of improvement in the (kcat/Km)AD value for activated acyl donor (R)-Methyl mandelate. Meanwhile, the (kcat/Km)Ps value for cefamandole by mutant αR141A/αF142I/ßF24G was sharply dropped by 25.5 times, indicating its highly synthetic activity and extremely low hydrolysis of cefamandole. Strikingly, the triple mutant αR141A/αF142I/ßF24G could form cefamandole with a yield of 85% at an economical substrate ratio (acyl donor/nucleophile) of 1.3:1 (82% at 1.1:1), which advanced the greener and more sustainable process of cefamandole production than the wild type. Furtherly, the improved synthetic ability and lower hydrolysis of cefamandole by mutant were rationalized using molecular docking.


Assuntos
Cefamandol/síntese química , Penicilina Amidase/química , Penicilina Amidase/genética , Achromobacter denitrificans/genética , Achromobacter denitrificans/metabolismo , Catálise , Cefamandol/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida/métodos , Penicilina Amidase/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , beta-Lactamas/química
5.
Int J Toxicol ; 39(3): 248-255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292075

RESUMO

Several pharmaceutical agents are known to produce ethanol intolerance, which is often depicted as disulfiram-like reaction. As in the case with disulfiram, the underlying mechanism is believed to be the accumulation of acetaldehyde in the blood, due to inhibition of the hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenases, albeit this has not been confirmed in all cases by blood acetaldehyde measurements. Herein, cefamandole, cotrimoxazole, griseofulvin, procarbazine, and propranolol, which are reported to produce a disulfiram-like reaction, as well as disulfiram, were administered to Wistar rats and the hepatic activities of ethanol metabolizing enzymes along with the levels of brain monoamines were determined. Blood acetaldehyde was also evaluated after ethanol administration in rats pretreated with the abovementioned pharmaceutical products. Disulfiram, cefamandole, and procarbazine significantly increased blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration, while on the contrary, cotrimoxazole, griseofulvin, and propranolol had no effect on blood acetaldehyde. Interestingly, all substances used, except disulfiram, increased the levels of brain serotonin. According to our findings, cotrimoxazole, griseofulvin, and propranolol do not produce a typical disulfiram-like reaction, because they do not increase blood acetaldehyde when given together with ethanol. On the other hand, all tested agents share the common property to enhance brain serotonin, whereas a respective effect of ethanol is well established. Hence, the ethanol intolerance produced by these agents, whether blood acetaldehyde concentration is elevated or not, could be the result of a "toxic serotonin syndrome," as in the case of the concomitant use of serotonin-active medications that provoke clinical manifestations similar to those of a disulfiram reaction.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/sangue , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefamandol/farmacologia , Griseofulvina/farmacologia , Procarbazina/farmacologia , Propranolol/farmacologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Inibidores de Acetaldeído Desidrogenases/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dissulfiram/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
6.
J Mol Graph Model ; 75: 42-48, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505565

RESUMO

The C60 fullerene displays a considerable electronegativity. It has a unique photophysical and electrochemical behavior that can be used as a suitable drug carrier. In the present study, the interaction of C60 fullerene as an electron recipient with the Cefamandole antibiotic was investigated in both ground and excited states using DFT and TD-DFT methods. The study of the interaction of C60 and Cefamandole via electron localization function (ELF) and reduced density gradient (RDG) revealed that the complex formation is of van der Waals type. The data from natural bonding orbitals (NBO) analysis also confirmed the interaction type. The study of absorption and emission spectrum via CAM-B3LYP in the TD-SCF state showed that the emission peak of C60 fullerene in the 591.73nm after the complex formation results in the extinction of this emission spectrum due to charge transfer (CT) from chelator to fluorophore. The photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process was investigated using the electron hole theory.


Assuntos
Cefamandol/química , Elétrons , Fulerenos/química , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Nanopartículas/química , Teoria Quântica , Conformação Molecular
7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 136 Pt B: 321-6, 2015 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25448935

RESUMO

The interaction of cefamandole with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence quenching in combination with UV-Vis spectroscopic method under near physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching rate constants and binding constants for BSA-cefamandole system were determined at different temperatures. The fluorescence quenching of BSA by cefamandole is due to static quenching and energy transfer. The results of thermodynamic parameters, ΔH (-268.0 kJ mol(-1)), ΔS (-810.0 J mol(-1) K(-1)) and ΔG (-26.62 to -8.52 kJ mol(-1)), indicated that van der Waals interaction and hydrogen bonding played a major role for cefamandole-BSA association. The competitive experiments demonstrated that the primary binding site of cefamandole on BSA was located at site III in sub-domain IIIA of BSA. The distance between cefamandole and a tryptophane unit was estimated to be 1.18 nm based on the Förster resonance energy transfer theory. The binding constant (KA) of BSA-cefamandole at 298 K was 2.239×10(4) L mol(-1). Circular dichroism spectra, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence studies showed that the presence of cefamandole could change the conformation of BSA during the binding process.


Assuntos
Cefamandol/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Dicroísmo Circular , Transferência de Energia , Cinética , Ligação Proteica , Análise de Regressão , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Temperatura
9.
Crit Care Med ; 42(5): 1150-6, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24351376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were, first, to identify risk factors for microbiology-proven postoperative pneumonia after cardiac surgery and, second, to develop and validate a preoperative scoring system for the risk of postoperative pneumonia. DESIGN AND SETTING: A single-center cohort study. PATIENTS: All consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery between January 2006 and July 2011. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Multivariate analysis of risk factors for postoperative pneumonia was performed on data from patients operated between January 2006 and December 2008 (training set). External temporal validation was performed on data from patients operated between January 2009 and July 2011 (validation set). Preoperative variables identified in multivariate analysis of the training set were then used to develop a preoperative scoring system that was validated on the validation set. Postoperative pneumonia occurred in 174 of the 5,582 patients (3.1%; 95% CI, 2.7-3.6). Multivariate analysis identified four risk factors for postoperative pneumonia: age (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.8-4.71), preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and the interaction between RBC transfusion during surgery and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.96-4.54). A 6-point score including the three preoperative variables then defined two risk groups corresponding to postoperative pneumonia rates of 1.8% (score < 3) and 6.5% (score ≥ 3). CONCLUSION: Assessing preoperative risk factors for postoperative pneumonia with the proposed scoring system could help to implement a preventive policy in high-risk patients with a risk of postoperative pneumonia greater than 4% (i.e., patients with a score ≥ 3).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cefamandol/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
10.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 29(9): 1013-5, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24201985

RESUMO

Intrahepatic foreign bodies are extremely rare before 6 months of age. We reported a case of a 5-month-old boy with a needle-like foreign body in the liver. The foreign body was incidentally found in the right hepatic lobe on the x-ray image. He was asymptomatic, with neither a history of swallowing a needle nor an abdominal cutaneous scar. Three-dimensional reconstruction of spiral computed tomographic scan showed an intrahepatic needle, close to the base of the heart, with its proximal end close to the gallbladder fossae. Because of the localization of the needle and subsequent risks of complications, surgical removal was recommended. At laparotomy, a tiny scar was recognized in the upper surface of the right lobe of the liver, confirming the migration route. Postoperative course was uneventful, and the child was discharged on postoperative day 10 and is thriving perfectly 2 months after surgery. We reviewed the clinical issues of intrahepatic foreign bodies and briefly discussed its approach and implications.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Cefamandol/análogos & derivados , Cefamandol/uso terapêutico , Emergências , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Migração de Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Achados Incidentais , Lactente , Laparotomia , Fígado/cirurgia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Agulhas , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/etiologia
11.
Biochemistry ; 52(46): 8342-51, 2013 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24205856

RESUMO

By measuring quantitatively the active efflux of cephalosporins by the RND (resistance-nodulation-division) family efflux pump AcrB in intact cells of Escherichia coli, we found that the simultaneous presence of another substrate, such as chloramphenicol, benzene, cyclohexane, or Arg ß-naphthilamide, significantly enhanced the extrusion of cephalosporins. The stimulation occurred also in a strain expressing the covalently linked trimer of AcrB, and thus cannot be ascribed to the enhanced assembly of the trimer from AcrB monomers. When Val139 of AcrB was changed into Phe, the stimulation by benzene was found to occur at much lower concentration of the solvent. A plausible explanation of these observations is that the AcrB pump is constructed to pump out very rapidly the solvent or chloramphenicol molecules, and thus the efflux of cephalosporins, which presumably bind to a different subsite within the large binding pocket of AcrB, can become facilitated. Computer simulations of ligand binding to AcrB, both by docking and by molecular dynamics simulations, produced results supporting and extending this hypothesis. Benzene and the cephalosporin nitrocefin can bind simultaneously to the distal binding pocket of AcrB, both in the wild type and in the V139F variant. Interestingly, while the binding position and strength of benzene are almost unaffected by the presence of nitrocefin, this latter substrate is significantly displaced toward the exit gate in both wild type and mutant transporter in the presence of benzene. Additionally, the cephalosporin efflux may be enhanced by the binding of solvents (sometimes to the cephalosporin-free protomer), which could accelerate AcrB conformational changes necessary for substrate extrusion.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/farmacologia , Benzeno/farmacologia , Cefamandol/metabolismo , Cloranfenicol/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Cinética , Ligantes , Minociclina/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Termodinâmica
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 19(9): 822-8, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23957786

RESUMO

The epidemiology of acute paediatric osteoarticular infections (OAI) has recently evolved, mainly due to the improvement of microbiological diagnosis. We conducted a prospective study to analyse the recent epidemiology and the clinical evolution of paediatric OAI in order to validate the adequacy of our probabilistic first-line antibiotic treatment (intraveinous cefamandole + gentamicin). All children suspected of community acquired OAI were included and followed-up for 3 years. The etiologic diagnosis was based on blood cultures, joint aspirations and bone punctures. All osteoarticular (OA) samples were systematically inoculated into blood culture bottles. Real-time universal 16S rRNA and PCR targeted on Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were performed twice a week. From 17 March 2007 to 26 February 2009, 98 septic arthritis, 70 osteomyelitis, 23 osteoarthritis and six spondylodiscitis were analysed. A portal of entry was suspected in 44% of cases, including 55% of otorhinolaryngological infections. C reactive protein was the most sensitive inflammatory marker. PCR increased by 54% the performance of bacteriological diagnosis. Among the patients completely investigated (blood culture and OAI samples), there were 63% documented OAI. The main pathogens found were K. kingae (52%), S. aureus (28%), S. pyogenes (7%), S. pneumoniae (3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (2%). All isolated bacteria were sensitive to the probabilist treatment and outcome was favorable. PCR has significantly improved the performance and the delay of IOA diagnosis in children, for which K. kingae turned out to be the first causative agent. The probabilistic treatment was active against the main bacteria responsible for paediatric OAI.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Discite/microbiologia , Kingella kingae/isolamento & purificação , Osteoartrite/microbiologia , Osteomielite/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Artrite Infecciosa/tratamento farmacológico , Cefamandol/farmacologia , Cefamandol/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Discite/diagnóstico , Discite/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gentamicinas/farmacologia , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Kingella kingae/efeitos dos fármacos , Kingella kingae/genética , Masculino , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/diagnóstico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Streptococcus/genética , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/isolamento & purificação
13.
Avian Pathol ; 42(3): 290-4, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23656571

RESUMO

Three hundred and thirty-seven isolates of Salmonella Pullorum from eastern China between 1962 and 2010 were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility (disk diffusion method), the presence of integrons (polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing) and the ability to form biofilms (semi-quantitative adherence assay). Two hundred and fifty-eight isolates (76.6%) exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR; resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobials), and the level of drug resistance is increasing with time. There were three isolates (9.4%) exhibiting MDR from 1962 to 1968. MDR rates began to increase for isolates between 1970 to 1979 and 1980 to 1987 (64.6 to 78.7%). The MDR rates reached 96.6% for isolates between 1990 and 2010. Polymerase chain reaction screening for integrons showed that 75 isolates (22.3%) were positive for class 1 integrons while none were positive for class 2 integrons. All of the class 1 integron-positive isolates exhibited MDR and were more frequently resistant than the negative isolates. Two hundred and twenty isolates (65.3%) had the ability to form biofilms, and bacterial resistance levels to cefamandole, trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were significantly higher for biofilm-positive groups than the biofilm-negative groups. Our data show that multidrug resistance is common among S. Pullorum isolated from eastern China, being more frequent after 1990 than before 1990, and the presence of class 1 integrons is associated with multidrug resistance.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Integrons/genética , Salmonella enterica/genética , Cefamandol , China , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Salmonella enterica/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Sulfametoxazol , Trimetoprima
14.
Int J Pharm ; 407(1-2): 197-206, 2011 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21256942

RESUMO

Water mobility plays a crucial role in determining transport properties of small molecules in polymer matrices. In particular, in drug delivery systems, water state affects the pharmacokinetics, especially drug absorption, diffusion and release. In the present study, the state of water in an antibiotic-loaded composite consisting of albumin nanoparticles (BSA(np)) dispersed into a carboxylated polyurethane (PEUA) has been investigated and compared with that of the single drug-loaded components. The antibiotic cefamandole nafate was used as a model drug. DSC analysis, used to evaluate the freezing and non-freezing water fractions in the hydrated samples, showed that in BSA(np) water can adsorb both in the inter-particles regions and inside the particles. With increasing of total adsorbed water amount, the contribution of the freezing water fraction was higher than the non-freezing one. As for PEUA, the majority of water molecules absorbed is in a mobile freezing state (about 60% of the W(tot)). As for the PEUA/BSA(np) composite, the higher polyurethane phase segregation induced by the nanoparticles as well as the higher non-freezing water fraction significantly enhanced drug uptake with respect to PEUA. Moreover, the greater non-freezing water fraction allowed the drug to penetrate within BSA nanoparticles and to give rise then to a controlled drug release. Indeed, the diffusion barrier exerted by nanoparticles and the matrix prolonged the antimicrobial activity from 4 to 9 days. Finally, the higher polyurethane phase segregation also improved composite mechanical properties, as evidenced in stress-strain experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Cefamandol/análogos & derivados , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Água/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cefamandol/administração & dosagem , Cefamandol/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Difusão , Congelamento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas , Poliuretanos/química , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Int Orthop ; 35(6): 877-81, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20535470

RESUMO

Postoperative infection is a regular complication in coccygectomy. The authors propose the use of a topical skin adhesive on the postoperative wound as a contribution to the prevention of this complication. It was used on the first 56 patients in this study. The rate of infection was 3.6% compared with the 14% rate of infection in a previous study. The 80 following patients had, in addition to the skin adhesive, two prophylactic antibiotics for 48 hours (cefamandole and ornidazole), a preoperative rectal enema, and closure of the incision in two layers. The rate of infection dropped to 0.0%. Topical skin adhesive constitutes a significant contribution in the prevention of infection after coccygectomy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Cefamandol/uso terapêutico , Cóccix/cirurgia , Ornidazol/uso terapêutico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adesivos Teciduais/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Cóccix/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/complicações , Instabilidade Articular/patologia , Instabilidade Articular/cirurgia , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Dor Lombar/patologia , Dor Lombar/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sucção , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biochemistry ; 49(45): 9685-7, 2010 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20961112

RESUMO

The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) contains a gene that encodes a highly active ß-lactamase, BlaC, that imparts TB with resistance to ß-lactam chemotherapy. The structure of covalent BlaC-ß-lactam complexes suggests that active site residues K73 and E166 are essential for acylation and deacylation, respectively. We have prepared the K73A and E166A mutant forms of BlaC and have determined the structures of the Michaelis complex of cefamandole and the covalently bound acyl intermediate of cefamandole at resolutions of 1.2 and 2.0 Å, respectively. These structures provide insight into the details of the catalytic mechanism.


Assuntos
Cefamandol/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Domínio Catalítico , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Ligação Proteica , beta-Lactamases/química
17.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 54(10): 4078-84, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20679509

RESUMO

Implant-related infections are serious complications of trauma and orthopedic surgery and are most difficult to treat. The bacterial biofilms of 34 clinical Staphylococcus sp. isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, n = 14; coagulase-negative staphylococci, n = 19) were incubated with daptomycin (DAP; 5, 25, or 100 mg/liter), vancomycin (VAN; 5, 25, or 100 mg/liter), tigecycline (TGC; 1, 5, or 25 mg/liter), fosfomycin (FOM; 100, 250, or 1,000 mg/liter), and cefamandole (FAM; 50, 100, or 500 mg/liter) for 24 h at three different ambient temperatures: 35°C, 40°C, and 45°C. To quantify the reduction of the biomass, the optical density ratio (ODr) of stained biofilms and the number of growing bacteria were determined. Increasing the temperature to 45°C or to 40°C during incubation with FAM, FOM, TGC, VAN, or DAP led to a significant but differential reduction of the thickness of the staphylococcal biofilms compared to that at 35°C (P < 0.05). Growth reduction was enhanced for DAP at 100 mg/liter at 35°C, 40°C, and 45°C (log count reductions, 4, 3.6, and 3.3, respectively; P < 0.05). A growth reduction by 2 log counts was detected for FAM at a concentration of 500 mg/liter at 40°C and 45°C (P = 0.01). FOM at 1,000 mg/liter reduced the bacterial growth by 1.2 log counts (not significant). The antibacterial activity of antimicrobial agents is significantly but differentially enhanced by increasing the ambient temperature and using high concentrations. Adjuvant hyperthermia may be of value in the treatment of biofilm-associated implant-related infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefamandol/farmacologia , Daptomicina/farmacologia , Fosfomicina/farmacologia , Minociclina/análogos & derivados , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vancomicina/farmacologia , Minociclina/farmacologia , Tigeciclina
19.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 53(8): 3437-41, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19487449

RESUMO

Methicillin (meticillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains producing large amounts of type A beta-lactamase (Bla) have been associated with cefazolin failures, but the frequency and impact of these strains have not been well studied. Here we examined 98 MSSA clinical isolates and found that 26% produced type A Bla, 15% type B, 46% type C, and none type D and that 13% lacked blaZ. The cefazolin MIC(90) was 2 microg/ml for a standard inoculum and 32 microg/ml for a high inoculum, with 19% of isolates displaying a pronounced inoculum effect (MICs of >or=16 microg/ml with 10(7) CFU/ml) (9 type A and 10 type C Bla producers). At the high inoculum, type A producers displayed higher cefazolin MICs than type B or C producers, while type B and C producers displayed higher cefamandole MICs. Among isolates from hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia, three from the six patients who experienced cefazolin failure showed a cefazolin inoculum effect, while none from the six patients successfully treated with cefazolin showed an inoculum effect, suggesting an association between these strains and cefazolin failure (P = 0.09 by Fisher's exact test). In summary, 19% of MSSA clinical isolates showed a pronounced inoculum effect with cefazolin, a phenomenon that could explain the cases of cefazolin failure previously reported for hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia. These results suggest that for serious MSSA infections, the presence of a significant inoculum effect with cefazolin could be associated with clinical failure in patients treated with this cephalosporin, particularly when it is used at low doses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefazolina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Cefamandol/farmacologia , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Falha de Tratamento , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 106(14): 5854-8, 2009 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19307562

RESUMO

Multidrug efflux transporters, especially those that belong to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, often show very broad substrate specificity and play a major role both in the intrinsic antibiotic resistance and, with increased levels of expression, in the elevated resistance of Gram-negative bacteria. However, it has not been possible to determine the kinetic behavior of these important pumps so far. This is partly because these pumps form a tripartite complex traversing both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes, with an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein, and it is uncertain if the behavior of an isolated component protein reflects that of the protein in this multiprotein complex. Here we use intact cells of Escherichia coli containing the intact multiprotein complex AcrB-AcrA-TolC, and measure the kinetic constants for various cephalosporins, by assessing the periplasmic concentration of the drug from their rate of hydrolysis by periplasmic beta-lactamase and the rate of efflux as the difference between the influx rate and the hydrolysis rate. Nitrocefin efflux showed a K(m) of about 5 microM with little sign of cooperativity. For other compounds (cephalothin, cefamandole, and cephaloridine) that showed lower affinity to the pump, however, kinetics showed strong positive cooperativity, which is consistent with the rotating catalysis model of this trimeric pump. For the very hydrophilic cefazolin there was little sign of efflux.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Cefamandol/metabolismo , Cefazolina/metabolismo , Cefaloridina/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , Cefalotina/metabolismo , Cinética
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