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1.
Popul Health Metr ; 22(1): 6, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted marketing of menthol cigarettes in the US influences disparities in the prevalence of menthol smoking. There has been no analysis of sub-national data documenting differences in use across demographic subgroups. This study estimated trends in the prevalence of menthol use among adults who smoke in the nine US census divisions by sex, age, and race/ethnicity from 2002 to 2020. METHODS: Data from 12 waves of the US ITC Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of menthol cigarette use across census divisions and demographic subgroups using multilevel regression and post-stratification (n = 12,020). Multilevel logistic regression was used to predict the prevalence of menthol cigarette use in 72 cross-classified groups of adults who smoke defined by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status; division-level effects were fit with a random intercept. Predicted prevalence was weighted by the total number of adults who smoke in each cross-classified group and aggregated to divisions within demographic subgroup. Estimates were validated against the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). RESULTS: Overall modeled prevalence of menthol cigarette use was similar to TUS-CPS estimates. Prevalence among adults who smoke increased in each division from 2002 to 2020. By 2020, prevalence was highest in the Middle (46.3%) and South Atlantic (42.7%) and lowest in the Pacific (25.9%) and Mountain (24.2%) divisions. Prevalence was higher among adults aged 18-29 (vs. 50+) and females (vs. males). Prevalence among non-Hispanic Black people exceeded 80% in the Middle Atlantic, East North Central, West North Central, and South Atlantic in all years and varied most among Hispanic people in 2020 (Pacific: 26.5%, New England: 55.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Significant geographic variation in the prevalence of menthol cigarette use among adults who smoke suggests the proposed US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) menthol cigarette ban will exert differential public health benefits and challenges across geographic and demographic subgroups.


Assuntos
Mentol , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Censos , Controle do Tabagismo , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 67, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancements in linking publicly available census records with vital and administrative records have enabled novel investigations in epidemiology and social history. However, in the absence of unique identifiers, the linkage of the records may be uncertain or only be successful for a subset of the census cohort, resulting in missing data. For survival analysis, differential ascertainment of event times can impact inference on risk associations and median survival. METHODS: We modify some existing approaches that are commonly used to handle missing survival times to accommodate this imperfect linkage situation including complete case analysis, censoring, weighting, and several multiple imputation methods. We then conduct simulation studies to compare the performance of the proposed approaches in estimating the associations of a risk factor or exposure in terms of hazard ratio (HR) and median survival times in the presence of missing survival times. The effects of different missing data mechanisms and exposure-survival associations on their performance are also explored. The approaches are applied to a historic cohort of residents in Ambler, PA, established using the 1930 US census, from which only 2,440 out of 4,514 individuals (54%) had death records retrievable from publicly available data sources and death certificates. Using this cohort, we examine the effects of occupational and paraoccupational asbestos exposure on survival and disparities in mortality by race and gender. RESULTS: We show that imputation based on conditional survival results in less bias and greater efficiency relative to a complete case analysis when estimating log-hazard ratios and median survival times. When the approaches are applied to the Ambler cohort, we find a significant association between occupational exposure and mortality, particularly among black individuals and males, but not between paraoccupational exposure and mortality. DISCUSSION: This investigation illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different imputation methods for missing survival times due to imperfect linkage of the administrative or registry data. The performance of the methods may depend on the missingness process as well as the parameter being estimated and models of interest, and such factors should be considered when choosing the methods to address the missing event times.


Assuntos
Censos , Análise de Sobrevida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Causalidade , Simulação por Computador , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(2)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of a national mortality inequality monitoring framework, the overall picture in Japan remains unclear. Here, we investigated educational inequalities in mortality and their cause-specific contribution in Japan. METHOD: Data were obtained by linking the 2010 Japanese population census and death records between 1 October 2010 and 30 September 2015. We included 7 984 451 Japanese people aged 30-79 years who had a unique 'matching key' generated by sex, birth year/month, address (municipality), marital status and age of spouse (9.9% of the total census population). We computed population-weighted all-cause and cause-specific age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) by education level. In addition, we calculated the slope index of inequality (SII), relative index inequality (RII) by education level, and population attributable fraction (PAF) referenced with the highest education (e.g. university graduation). RESULTS: Individuals with less education had higher all-cause and cause-specific ASMRs than highly educated individuals. All-cause SII (per 100 000 person-years) values were 433 (95% CI: 410-457) for men and 235 (95% CI: 217-252) for women. RII values were 1.48 (95% CI: 1.45-1.51) for men and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.43-1.51) for women. Estimated PAFs, excess premature deaths caused by educational inequalities, were 11.6% for men and 16.3% for women, respectively. Cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic heart diseases and lung cancer were the major contributors to mortality inequalities for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: This first census-based comprehensive report on cause-specific educational mortality inequalities suggested that differences in unfavourable health risk factors by educational background might be associated with these inequalities in Japan.


Assuntos
Censos , População do Leste Asiático , Mortalidade , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Japão/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Escolaridade
5.
Demography ; 61(2): 251-266, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506313

RESUMO

Fertility is a life course process that is strongly shaped by geographic and sociodemographic subgroup contexts. In the United States, scholars face a choice: they can situate fertility in a life course perspective using panel data, which is typically representative only at the national level; or they can attend to subnational contexts using rate schedules, which do not include information on life course statuses. The method and data source we introduce here, Census-Held Linked Administrative Records for Fertility Estimation (CLAR-FE), permits both. It derives fertility histories and rate schedules from U.S. Census Bureau-held data for the nation and by state, racial and ethnic subgroups, and the important life course status of parity. We generate three types of rates for 2000-2020 at the national and state levels by race and ethnicity: age-specific rates and both unconditional and conditional parity- and age-specific rates. Where possible, we compare these rates with those produced by the National Center for Health Statistics. Our new rate schedules illuminate state and racial and ethnic differences in transitions to parenthood, providing evidence of the important subgroup heterogeneity that characterizes the United States. CLAR-FE covers nearly the entire U.S. population and is available to researchers on approved projects through the Census Bureau's Federal Statistical Research Data Centers.


Assuntos
Censos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Gravidez , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Fertilidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Etnicidade
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 198, 2024 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Japan, difference in birth rates depending on educational attainment has not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal birth rates in Japan depending on the highest level of educational attainment and their trends over the years using nationwide government statistics data. METHODS: Individual-level data from Vital Statistics and the Census from 2000, 2010, and 2020 were used for birth and population data, respectively. Data linkage was conducted for males and females in the Census and fathers and mothers in the Vital Statistics using information about gender, household, nationality, marital status, birth year, birth month, prefecture, and municipality for individuals. The birth rate was calculated by gender, a five-year age group, the highest level of educational attainment achieved, and year. In addition, the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were calculated to evaluate the degree of inequality in birth rates, depending on the educational attainment. RESULTS: Birth rates were higher in persons with lower educational attainment compared to those with a higher educational attainment among males and females in their twenties, while they tended to be higher in persons with higher educational attainment among those in their thirties and forties. Additionally, an increase in the birth rate from 2000 to 2020 was the largest in university graduates among males aged 25-49 years and women aged 30-49 years, and a decrease in the birth rate was the smallest in university graduates among males and females aged 20-24 years. As a result, SII and RII increased from 2000 to 2020 among males and females in their thirties and forties. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, persons with higher educational attainment tended to have a relatively favorable trend in the birth rate compared with persons with lower educational attainment in recent decades. It suggested that enhanced administrative support for individuals with lower educational attainment or lower socioeconomic status may be required to ameliorate the declining birth rate in Japan.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Censos , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Japão/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escolaridade
7.
G Ital Nefrol ; 41(1)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426673

RESUMO

Objectives. The results are presented of the 8th National Census (Cs-22) of the Peritoneal Dialysis Project Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology relating to the characteristics of the Centers in Italy which used PD in 2022. Materials and methods. The 227 non-pediatric centers which used Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) in 2022 took part. The data requested were sent in aggregate form. For the first time, the resources available and training were investigated as well as home visits. The Centers have been divided into Quartiles according to the number of prevalent PD patients at 31/12/2022. Results. Centers with a smaller PD program (<9 pts) are characterized by 1. smaller overall size - 2. fewer personnel (doctors/nurses) dedicated to PD - 3. greater recourse to external personnel for training - 4. Less incremental prescription and evaluation of peritoneal permeability - 5. higher drop-out to HD in particular for choice/impossibility to continue and for adequacy/catheter-related issues. A lower peritonitis rate was recorded in Centers with a more extensive PD program (≥25 pts). Home visits are carried out regularly by a small minority of Centers. Conclusions. The analysis shows an association between size of Center PD program and available resources, PD modality and outcome.


Assuntos
Nefrologia , Diálise Peritoneal , Peritonite , Humanos , Censos , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Itália
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 170974, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360313

RESUMO

In wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), wastewater loads are commonly reported as a per capita value. Census population counts are often used to obtain a population size to normalise wastewater loads. However, the methods used to calculate the population size of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from census data are rarely reported in the WBE literature. This is problematic because the geographical extents of wastewater catchments and census area units rarely align perfectly with each other and exist at different spatial scales. This complicates efforts to estimate the number of people serviced by WWTPs in these census area units. This study compared four geospatial methods to combine wastewater catchment areas and census area units to calculate the census population size of wastewater treatment plants. These methods were applied nationally to WWTPs across New Zealand. Population estimates varied by up to 73 % between the methods, which could skew comparisons of per capita wastewater loads between sites. Variability in population estimates (relative standard deviation, RSD) was significantly higher in smaller catchments (rs = -0.727, P < .001), highlighting the importance of method selection in smaller sites. Census population estimates were broadly similar to those provided by wastewater operators, but significant variation was observed for some sites (ranging from 42 % lower to 78 % higher, RSD = 262 %). We present a widely applicable method to calculate population size from census, which involves disaggregating census area units by individual properties. The results reinforce the need for transparent reporting to maintain confidence in the comparison of WBE across sites and studies.


Assuntos
Vigilância Epidemiológica Baseada em Águas Residuárias , Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Censos , Nova Zelândia
9.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e073582, 2024 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To address the lack of individual-level socioeconomic information in electronic healthcare records, we linked the 2011 census of England and Wales to patient records from a large mental healthcare provider. This paper describes the linkage process and methods for mitigating bias due to non-matching. SETTING: South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM), a mental healthcare provider in Southeast London. DESIGN: Clinical records from SLaM were supplied to the Office of National Statistics for linkage to the census through a deterministic matching algorithm. We examined clinical (International Classification of Disease-10 diagnosis, history of hospitalisation, frequency of service contact) and socio-demographic (age, gender, ethnicity, deprivation) information recorded in Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) as predictors of linkage success with the 2011 census. To assess and adjust for potential biases caused by non-matching, we evaluated inverse probability weighting for mortality associations. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals of all ages in contact with SLaM up until December 2019 (N=459 374). OUTCOME MEASURES: Likelihood of mental health records' linkage to census. RESULTS: 220 864 (50.4%) records from CRIS linked to the 2011 census. Young adults (prevalence ratio (PR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.81), individuals living in more deprived areas (PR 0.78, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.79) and minority ethnic groups (eg, Black African, PR 0.67, 0.66 to 0.68) were less likely to match to census. After implementing inverse probability weighting, we observed little change in the strength of association between clinical/demographic characteristics and mortality (eg, presence of any psychiatric disorder: unweighted PR 2.66, 95% CI 2.52 to 2.80; weighted PR 2.70, 95% CI 2.56 to 2.84). CONCLUSIONS: Lower response rates to the 2011 census among people with psychiatric disorders may have contributed to lower match rates, a potential concern as the census informs service planning and allocation of resources. Due to its size and unique characteristics, the linked data set will enable novel investigations into the relationship between socioeconomic factors and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Censos , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Inglaterra , Londres/epidemiologia , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
10.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 26(1): 98-108, jan. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-229149

RESUMO

Purpose Growing complexity and demand for cancer care entail increased challenges for Medical Oncology (MO). The Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) has promoted studies to provide updated data to estimate the need for medical oncologists in 2040 and to analyse current professional standing of young medical oncologists. Methods Two national, online surveys were conducted. The first (2021) targeted 146 Heads of MO Departments, and the second (2022), 775 young medical oncologists who had completed their MO residency between 2014 and 2021. Participants were contacted individually, and data were processed anonymously. Results Participation rates reached 78.8% and 48.8%, respectively. The updated data suggest that 87–110 new medical oncologist full-time equivalents (FTEs) should be recruited each year to achieve an optimal ratio of 110–130 new cases per medical oncologist FTE by 2040. The professional standing analysis reveals that 9.1% of medical oncologists trained in Spain do not work in clinical care in the country, with tremendous employment instability (only 15.2% have a permanent contract). A high percentage of young medical oncologists have contemplated career paths other than clinical care (64.5%) or working in other countries (51.7%). Conclusions Optimal ratios of medical oncologists must be achieved to tackle the evolution of MO workloads and challenges in comprehensive cancer care. However, the incorporation and permanence of medical oncologists in the national healthcare system in Spain could be compromised by their current sub-optimal professional standing (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego , Carga de Trabalho , Censos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espanha
11.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 222024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262010

RESUMO

High-quality nursing home (NH) care has long been a challenge within the United States. For decades, policymakers at the state and federal levels have adopted and implemented regulations to target critical components of NH care outcomes. Simultaneously, our delivery system continues to change the role of NHs in patient care. For example, more acute patients are cared for in NHs, and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has implemented value payment programs targeting NH settings. As a part of these growing pressures from the broader healthcare delivery system, the culture-change movement has emerged among NHs over the past two decades, prompting NHs to embody more person-centered care as well as promote settings which resemble someone's home, as opposed to institutionalized healthcare settings. Researchers have linked culture change to high-quality outcomes and the ability to adapt and respond to the ever-changing pressures brought on by changes in our regulatory and delivery system. Making enduring culture change within organizations has long been a challenge and focus in NHs. Despite research suggesting that culture-change initiatives that promote greater resident-centered care are associated with several desirable patient outcomes, their adoption and implementation by NHs are resource intensive, and research has shown that NHs with high percentages of low-income residents are especially challenged to adopt these initiatives. This chapter takes a novel approach to examine factors that impact the adoption of culture-change initiatives by assessing knowledge management and the role of knowledge management activities in promoting the adoption of innovative care delivery models among under-resourced NHs throughout the United States. Using primary data from a survey of NH administrators, we conducted logistic regression models to assess the relationship between knowledge management and the adoption of a culture-change initiative as well as whether these relationships were moderated by leadership and staffing stability. Our study found that NHs were more likely to adopt a culture-change initiative when they had more robust knowledge management activities. Moreover, knowledge management activities were particularly effective at promoting adoption in NHs that struggle with leadership and nursing staff instability. Our findings support the notion that knowledge management activities can help NHs acquire and mobilize informational resources to support the adoption of care delivery innovations, thus highlighting opportunities to more effectively target efforts to stimulate the adoption and spread of these initiatives.


Assuntos
Censos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Idoso , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Gestão do Conhecimento , Medicaid , Medicare , Casas de Saúde
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(1): e072511, 2024 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176873

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rising in low-income and middle-income countries, including Malawi. To inform policy-makers and planners on the preparedness of the Malawian healthcare system to respond to NCDs, we estimated NCD service readiness in publicly financed healthcare facilities in Malawi. METHODS: We analysed data from 564 facilities surveyed in the 2019 Harmonised Health Facility Assessment, including 512 primary healthcare (PHC) and 52 secondary and tertiary care (STC) facilities. To characterise service readiness, applying the law of minimum, we estimated the percentage of facilities with functional equipment and unexpired medicines required to provide NCD services. Further, we estimated permanently unavailable items to identify service readiness bottlenecks. RESULTS: Fewer than 40% of PHC facilities were ready to deliver services for each of the 14 NCDs analysed. Insulin and beclomethasone inhalers had the lowest stock levels at PHC facilities (6% and 8%, respectively). Only 17% of rural and community hospitals (RCHs) have liver and kidney diagnostics. STC facilities had varying service readiness, ranging from 27% for managing acute diabetes complications to 94% for chronic type 2 diabetes management. Only 38% of STC facilities were ready to manage chronic heart failure. Oral pain medicines were widely available at all levels of health facilities; however, only 22% of RCHs and 29% of STCs had injectable morphine or pethidine. Beclomethasone was never available at 74% of PHC and 29% of STC facilities. CONCLUSION: Publicly financed facilities in Malawi are generally unprepared to provide NCD services, especially at the PHC level. Targeted investments in PHC can substantially improve service readiness for chronic NCD conditions in local communities and enable STC to respond to acute NCD complications and more complex NCD cases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Malaui , Beclometasona , Censos , Instalações de Saúde , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 52, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are studies on disabilities in older persons, most of these studies have been carried out in developed countries. Hence, there are limited studies on disability in older adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana. The few studies that have examined the prevalence and correlates of disability in older adults used survey data for their analyses. To contribute to addressing this knowledge gap that has arisen, this study used a national census, the 2021 Ghana Population and Housing Census, to examine the prevalence and correlates of disability in older adults in Ghana. METHODS: The 2021 Ghana Population and Housing Census data was used for this study. A sample size of 197,057 Ghanaians aged 60 years and above was used for this study. The Washington Group questions on disability were used to measure disability by asking older adults about their difficulties in performing the six domains of disability (physical, sight, intellectual, hearing, self-care, and speech). A multinomial logistic regression housed in STATA was used to analyse the correlates of disability in older adults in Ghana. A p-value less than 0.05 was used for statistical significance. RESULTS: The results show that slightly more than one-third (38.4%) of the older adults were disabled. In terms of the number of disabilities in older adults, 16.9% had one disability condition, while 2.4% had six disability conditions. Also, 9.4% had two disability conditions. Older adults who were females, aged 70-79 years and 80 years and above, resided in rural areas, with primary, JHS/Middle, SHS, unaffiliated with religion, ever married and never married, unemployed, and belonged to the middle and rich households were more likely to have a disability condition. Also, older adults residing in the Middle and Northern zones, having no health insurance, and using clean cooking fuel were less likely to have a disability condition. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that socio-demographic and household factors were associated with disability in older adults in Ghana. Hence, policymakers and researchers should target these factors when designing appropriate policies, programmes, and interventions to improve the wellbeing of older adults.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Habitação , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Gana/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Censos
15.
Epidemiology ; 35(2): 252-262, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injury contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality. Canada stands out among developed countries in not conducting a national household travel survey, leading to a dearth of national transportation mode data and risk calculations that have appropriate denominators. Since traffic injuries are specific to the mode of travel used, these risk calculations should consider travel mode. METHODS: Census data on mode of commute is one of the few sources of these data for persons aged 15 and over. This study leveraged a national data linkage cohort, the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts, that connects census sociodemographic and commute mode data with records of deaths and hospitalizations, enabling assessment of road traffic injury associations by indicators of mode of travel (commuter mode). We examined longitudinal (1996-2019) bicyclist, pedestrian, and motor vehicle occupant injury and fatality risk in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohorts by commuter mode and sociodemographic characteristics using Cox proportional hazards models within the working adult population. RESULTS: We estimated positive associations between commute mode and same mode injury and fatality, particularly for bicycle commuters (hazard ratios for bicycling injury was 9.1 and for bicycling fatality was 11). Low-income populations and Indigenous people had increased injury risk across all modes. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows inequities in transportation injury risk in Canada and underscores the importance of adjusting for mode of travel when examining differences between population groups.


Assuntos
Censos , Caminhada , Adulto , Humanos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Caminhada/lesões , Meios de Transporte , Fatores de Risco , Ciclismo/lesões , Acidentes de Trânsito
16.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 26(1): 98-108, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37316754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Growing complexity and demand for cancer care entail increased challenges for Medical Oncology (MO). The Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) has promoted studies to provide updated data to estimate the need for medical oncologists in 2040 and to analyse current professional standing of young medical oncologists. METHODS: Two national, online surveys were conducted. The first (2021) targeted 146 Heads of MO Departments, and the second (2022), 775 young medical oncologists who had completed their MO residency between 2014 and 2021. Participants were contacted individually, and data were processed anonymously. RESULTS: Participation rates reached 78.8% and 48.8%, respectively. The updated data suggest that 87-110 new medical oncologist full-time equivalents (FTEs) should be recruited each year to achieve an optimal ratio of 110-130 new cases per medical oncologist FTE by 2040. The professional standing analysis reveals that 9.1% of medical oncologists trained in Spain do not work in clinical care in the country, with tremendous employment instability (only 15.2% have a permanent contract). A high percentage of young medical oncologists have contemplated career paths other than clinical care (64.5%) or working in other countries (51.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Optimal ratios of medical oncologists must be achieved to tackle the evolution of MO workloads and challenges in comprehensive cancer care. However, the incorporation and permanence of medical oncologists in the national healthcare system in Spain could be compromised by their current sub-optimal professional standing.


Assuntos
Oncologistas , Carga de Trabalho , Humanos , Espanha , Censos , Oncologia , Recursos Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Hosp Med ; 19(2): 108-111, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37926952

RESUMO

Monitoring the average daily census (ADC) is crucial for managing patient flow and allocating resources. This study analyzed hourly fluctuations in the ADC on a hospital medicine service at an academic medical center. Data from 8342 encounters and 6178 unique patients were collected over a year. The ADC peaked at 11 a.m. (164.1 patients/day) and was lowest at 7 p.m. (155.0 patients/day), accounting for a variation of up to 9.1 patients (5.5% of peak census) depending on the time of day the measurement was taken. Understanding how ADC changes throughout the day will help hospital medicine programs to partner with administrators to optimize resource allocation and staffing. Measuring ADC at midnight, as traditionally done, may underestimate workload and therefore contribute to staffing shortages and physician burnout. Hospitals should consider measuring ADC at its peak, between 7 a.m. and 11 a.m., to ensure adequate staffing and high-quality patient care.


Assuntos
Medicina Hospitalar , Humanos , Censos , Carga de Trabalho , Hospitais , Recursos Humanos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal
19.
Gesundheitswesen ; 86(2): 118-123, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37451275

RESUMO

Medical practitioners are considered to be an occupational group with a high workload. However, findings on working hours are incomplete. Therefore, we investigated data on "normal" working hours and corresponding preferences in the course of an analysis of the Microcensus 2017. Established physicians reported an average working time of 48,8 h per week for full-time employment, 46,2 h as dependent employees. Dependent employees working part-time, reported about 4 h more than established doctors. Male doctors reported about 4 h more than female doctors when working full-time, and 5 h less when working part-time. The proportion of part-time work was significantly higher for female physicians than for male physicians (28% vs. 10%). The specific analysis for established doctors also showed an inverse discrepancy: if part-time, female physicians worked 4 h more than male physicians; if full-time, male physicians worked 4 h more than female physicians. Established doctors worked less than employees when working part-time. Here, too, the rate was higher for female physicians (19,5% vs. 10,6%). Overall, 14% worked part-time (just under 20 h per week), 86% full-time (just under 49 h). Dentists reported slightly lower working hours, while general practitioners and specialists were about the same at 45 hours. This difference was due to differences in full-time work, which is about 50 h for general practitioners and specialists and 46 h for dentists. In contrast, part-time dentists worked longer hours (24 vs. 18 h). Only a few physicians, especially those working part-time (6,5%), stated that they would like to work more. Most of them would like to work slightly more hours. The majority of women cited family obligations (68%) as the reason for part-time work, while men mostly cited "other" reasons (76%) and less often childcare or personal/family obligations (15%). A total of 13% of those working full-time would like to work fewer hours, women slightly more often. This analysis complements sources such as the Zi Practice Panel. At the overall level, the microcensus average was 5 h lower than the ZiPP (50 h/week). The limitations for survey data known from methodology are countered by the very high sample quality.


Assuntos
Censos , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Alemanha , Emprego , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
20.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 106(2): 150-159, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37489525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe the composition of the current general surgical consultant body in England and Wales and quantify levels of inequality within it as well as describe future workforce challenges. METHODS: This is an observational study of all general surgical departments in England and Wales. Consultant general surgeons were identified and data regarding their gender, country of undergraduate medical education, subspecialty and private practice were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 2,682 consultant general surgeons in England and Wales identified for this study, just 17% are women, with gender inequality most marked in university teaching hospitals and among certain subspecialties. Almost 40% of consultants did not obtain their primary undergraduate degree in the United Kingdom and there are considerably fewer surgeons who studied abroad in university teaching hospitals. Over 40% of current general surgical consultants have been qualified for more than three decades and there is no equivalent sized group of younger consultants. CONCLUSIONS: There remains considerable gender and racial inequality in the consultant general surgical workforce, with pockets of a lack of diversity within university or teaching hospital surgical departments and some subspecialties. The proportion of surgeons in their fourth decade of clinical practice represents the largest group of current practising consultants, which points towards an impending workforce crisis should senior clinicians seek to reduce activity or consider taking early retirement.


Assuntos
Censos , Consultores , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , País de Gales , Inglaterra , Recursos Humanos
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