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1.
Curr Biol ; 34(11): R526-R527, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834022

RESUMO

Fish and other metazoans play a major role in long-term sequestration of carbon in the oceans through the biological carbon pump1. Recent studies estimate that fish can release about 1,200 to 1,500 million metric tons of carbon per year (MtC year-1) in the oceans through feces production, respiration, and deadfalls, with mesopelagic fish playing a major role1,2. This carbon remains sequestered (stored) in the ocean for a period that largely depends on the depth at which it is released. Cephalopods (squid, octopus, and cuttlefish) have the potential to sequester carbon more effectively than fish because they grow on average five times faster than fish3,4 and they die after reproducing at an early age4,5 (usually 1-2 years), after which their carcasses sink rapidly to the sea floor6. Deadfall of carcasses is particularly important for long-term sequestration because it rapidly transports carbon to depths where residence times are longest1,6. We estimate that cephalopod carcasses transfer 11-22 MtC to the seafloor globally. While cephalopods represent less than 5% of global fisheries catch7, fishing extirpates about 0.36 MtC year-1 of cephalopod carbon that could otherwise have sunk to the seafloor, about half as much as that of fishing large fish8.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Cefalópodes , Pesqueiros , Animais , Cefalópodes/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo
2.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 86: 102876, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652980

RESUMO

The coleoid cephalopods (cuttlefish, octopus, and squid) are a group of soft-bodied mollusks that exhibit a wealth of complex behaviors, including dynamic camouflage, object mimicry, skin-based visual communication, and dynamic body patterns during sleep. Many of these behaviors are visually driven and engage the animals' color changing skin, a pixelated display that is directly controlled by neurons projecting from the brain. Thus, cephalopod skin provides a direct readout of neural activity in the brain. During camouflage, cephalopods recreate on their skin an approximation of what they see, providing a window into perceptual processes in the brain. Additionally, cephalopods communicate their internal state during social encounters using innate skin patterns, and create waves of pigmentation on their skin during periods of arousal. Thus, by leveraging the visual displays of cephalopods, we can gain insight into how the external world is represented in the brain and how this representation is transformed into a recapitulation of the world on the skin. Here, we describe the rich skin behaviors of the coleoid cephalopods, what is known about cephalopod neuroanatomy, and how advancements in gene editing, machine learning, optical imaging, and electrophysiological tools may provide an opportunity to explore the neural bases of these fascinating behaviors.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Cefalópodes/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Pele , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301434, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573953

RESUMO

Falling nets are a type of fishing gear that appeared and developed rapidly in the northern of South China Sea in the early 1990s. We have developed Light-emitting diode (LED) fishing lamps to replace metal halide (MH) lamps that reduce fuel consumption without reducing the catches. We conducted marine light-fishing experiments in the northern South China Sea during September 20 to 26, 2019 and August 29 to 31, 2021. The results in the first fishing experiment show that there is no significant change in catch of the falling-net fishing vessel when the white LED lamps (with a total power of 36 kW) were used instead of MH lamps (with a total power of 120 kW). Coleoidea catches of the falling-net fishing vessel increased significantly when white LED lamps (with a total power of 36 kW) and cyan LED lamps (with a total power of 6.0 kW) were used. The results in the second fishing experiment show that the total weight of catches of the cyan LED fishing lamps is more than that of the white LED fishing lamps, and the cyan LED light can attract Penaeus merguiensis, Thryssa dussumieri and Sardinella zunasi more effectively than the white LED light.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Caça , Animais , Pesqueiros , China
4.
Mar Environ Res ; 197: 106478, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594093

RESUMO

Increasing impacts of both fisheries and climate change have resulted in shifts in the structure and functioning of marine communities. One recurrent observation is the rise of cephalopods as fish recede. This is generally attributed to the removal of main predators and competitors by fishing, while mechanistic evidence is still lacking. In addition, climate change may influence cephalopods due to their high environmental sensitivity. We aim to unveil the effects of different anthropogenic and environmental drivers at different scales focusing on the cephalopod community of the Western Mediterranean Sea. We investigate several ecological indicators offering a wide range of information about their ecology, and statistically relating them with environmental, biotic and fisheries drivers. Our results highlight non-linear changes of indicators along with spatial differences in their responses. Overall, the environment drivers have greater effects than biotic and local human impacts with contrasting effects of temperature across the geographic gradient. We conclude that cephalopods may be impacted by climate change in the future while not necessary through positive warming influence, which should make us cautious when referring to them as generalized winners of current changes.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Cefalópodes/fisiologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Mudança Climática , Pesqueiros
5.
J Morphol ; 285(4): e21691, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555512

RESUMO

The feeding organ of cephalopod species, the beak, can be used to reveal important ecological information. In this study, geometric morphometric approaches were employed to investigate the phylogenetic relevance and classification effect of beak lateral profile shape. The two-dimensional beak morphologies of 1164 pairs of 24 species from 13 genera and five families were constructed, and their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status were confirmed using geometric morphometrics and molecular biology approaches. We also assessed the phylogenetic signals of beak shape. The analysis results show shape variation in the beak mainly in the rostrum, hood, and lateral wall. The overall shape parameters (all PCs) of the upper and lower beak are more useful for species identification. The shapes of the upper and lower beak show a strong phylogenetic signal, and the phenogram based on the beak shape basically reflected the families' taxonomic positions. We also hypothesized that the shape variation in the beaks of cephalopods may be ascribed to genetic and environmental differences. In summary, beaks are a reliable material for the classification of cephalopod species. Geometric morphometric approaches are a powerful tool to reveal the identification, phylogenetic relevance and phenotypic diversity of beak shape in cephalopods.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Humanos , Animais , Filogenia , Bico/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e16894, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38426149

RESUMO

The fossil record of gladius-bearing coleoids is scarce and based only on a few localities with geological horizons particularly favourable to their preservation (the so-called Konservat-Lagerstätten), which naturally leads to strongly limited data on geographical distributions. This emphasizes the importance of every new locality providing gladius-bearing coleoids. Here, we assess for the first time the gladius-bearing coleoid taxonomic diversity within the lower Toarcian "Schistes Cartons" of the Causses Basin (southeastern France). The material includes two fragmentary gladii, identified as Paraplesioteuthis sagittata and ?Loligosepia sp. indet. Just with these two specimens, two (Prototeuthina and Loligosepiina) of the three (Prototeuthina, Loligosepiina and Teudopseina) suborders of Mesozoic gladius-bearing coleoids are represented. Thus, our results hint at a rich early Toarcian gladius-bearing coleoid diversity in the Causses Basin and point out the need for further field investigations in the lower Toarcian "Schistes Cartons" in this area. This new record of Paraplesioteuthis sagittata is only the second one in Europe and the third in the world (western Canada, Germany and now France). Based on these occurrences, we tentatively suggest that P. sagittata originated in the Mediterranean domain and moved to the Arctic realm through the Viking Corridor to eventually move even farther to North America.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Filogenia , França , Europa (Continente) , Fósseis , Aves
7.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 19(3)2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528733

RESUMO

Aquatic organisms utilizing attachment often contend with unpredictable environments that can dislodge them from substrates. To counter these forces, many organisms (e.g. fish, cephalopods) have evolved suction-based organs for adhesion. Morphology is diverse, with some disc shapes deviating from a circle to more ovate designs. Inspired by the diversity of multiple aquatic species, we investigated how bioinspired cups with different disc shapes performed in shear loading conditions. These experiments highlighted pertinent physical characteristics found in biological discs (regions of stiffness, flattened margins, a sealing rim), as well as ecologically relevant shearing conditions. Disc shapes of fabricated cups included a standard circle, ellipses, and other bioinspired designs. To consider the effects of sealing, these stiff silicone cups were produced with and without a soft rim. Cups were tested using a force-sensing robotic arm, which directionally sheared them across surfaces of varying roughness and compliance in wet conditions while measuring force. In multiple surface and shearing conditions, elliptical and teardrop shapes outperformed the circle, which suggests that disc shape and distribution of stiffness may play an important role in resisting shear. Additionally, incorporating a soft rim increased cup performance on rougher substrates, highlighting interactions between the cup materials and surfaces asperities. To better understand how these cup designs may resist shear, we also utilized a visualization technique (frustrated total internal reflection; FTIR) to quantify how contact area evolves as the cup is sheared.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Peixes , Animais , Sucção , Fenômenos Físicos
8.
PeerJ ; 12: e17003, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436030

RESUMO

The Plectronoceratida includes the earliest known cephalopod fossils and is thus fundamental to a better understanding of the origin and early evolution of this group of molluscs. The bulk of described material comes from the late Cambrian Fengshan Formation in North China with isolated occurrences in South China, Laurentia, Kazakhstan and Siberia. Knowledge of their morphology and taxonomy is limited in that most specimens were only studied as longitudinal sections, which are prone to misinterpretations due to variations in the plane of section. We describe more than 200 new specimens, which exceeds the entire hitherto published record of plectronoceratids. The material was collected by Mary Wade and colleagues during the 1970s and 1980s, from the lower Ninmaroo Formation at Black Mountain (Mount Unbunmaroo), Queensland, Australia. Despite the collecting effort, diverse notes and early incomplete drafts, Mary Wade never published this material before her death in 2005. The specimens provide novel insights into the three-dimensional morphology of the siphuncle based on abundant material, prompting a general revision of the order Plectronoceratida. We describe Sinoeremoceras marywadeae sp. nov. from numerous, well-preserved specimens, allowing investigation of ontogenetic trajectories and intraspecific variability, which in turn enables improved interpretations of the three-dimensional siphuncle morphology. The siphuncle of S. marywadeae sp. nov. and other plectronoceratids is characterised by highly oblique segments, an elongated middorsal portion of the septal neck (= septal flap) and laterally expanded segments that extend dorsally relative to the septal flap (= siphuncular bulbs). We show that this complex siphuncular structure has caused problems of interpretation because it was studied mainly from longitudinal sections, leading to the impression that there were large differences between specimens and supposed species. We revise the order Protactinoceratida and the families Protactinoceratidae and Balkoceratidae as junior synonyms of the Plectronoceratida and Plectronoceratidae, respectively. We reduce the number of valid genera from eighteen (including one genus formerly classified as an ellesmeroceratid) to three: Palaeoceras Flower, 1954, Plectronoceras Kobayashi, 1935 and Sinoeremoceras Kobayashi, 1933. We accept 10 valid species to which the 68 previously established species may be assigned. Sinoeremoceras contains 8 of the 10 plus the new species. Two species, previously referred to ellesmeroceratid genera, are transferred to Sinoeremoceras. This revised scheme groups plectronoceratids into distinct geographically and stratigraphically separated species, which better reflects biological realities and removes bias caused by preparation techniques. North China remains important containing the highest known diversity and was likely a centre of cephalopod diversification.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Queensland , Austrália , China , Comportamento Compulsivo
9.
J Food Sci ; 89(5): 2909-2920, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551034

RESUMO

The accurate detection of biogenic amines (BAs) is an important means of ensuring the quality and safety of cephalopod seafood products. In this study, the pre-column derivatization of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was optimized using dansyl chloride (Dns-Cl) to detect BAs in octopus, cuttlefish, and squid. The reasons for the formation of BAs were investigated by assessing their decarboxylase activity and the rates of decomposition. The findings demonstrated that using Dns-Cl to optimize pre-column derivatization enabled the separation of nine different BAs. The detection limits ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 mg/L, and the results exhibited a high level of linearity (R2 ≥ 0.997). The decarboxylase activity and biodegradation rate positively correlated with the formation of BAs at temperatures below 0°C. Notably, the decarboxylase activity of octopus, cuttlefish, and squid exhibited a significant increase with prolonged storage time, and formyltransferase and carbamate kinase may be the key decarboxylase in cephalopod products. These findings serve as a valuable reference for further investigations into the mechanisms behind BAs production and the development of control technologies for BAs in cephalopod products. This study has successfully demonstrated the effectiveness of the Dns-Cl pre-column derivatization-HPLC method in accurately and efficiently detecting BAs in octopus, cuttlefish, and squid. Moreover, it highlights the influence of decarboxylase content and biodegradation rate on the formation of BAs. Importantly, this method can serve as a reference for detecting BAs in various seafood products.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Cefalópodes , Compostos de Dansil , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Compostos de Dansil/química , Cefalópodes/química , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Decapodiformes/química , Limite de Detecção , Carboxiliases/metabolismo
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(3): e0099023, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315021

RESUMO

Many female squids and cuttlefishes have a symbiotic reproductive organ called the accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that hosts a bacterial consortium involved with egg defense against pathogens and fouling organisms. While the ANG is found in multiple cephalopod families, little is known about the global microbial diversity of these ANG bacterial symbionts. We used 16S rRNA gene community analysis to characterize the ANG microbiome from different cephalopod species and assess the relationship between host and symbiont phylogenies. The ANG microbiome of 11 species of cephalopods from four families (superorder: Decapodiformes) that span seven geographic locations was characterized. Bacteria of class Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteriia were found in all species, yet analysis of amplicon sequence variants by multiple distance metrics revealed a significant difference between ANG microbiomes of cephalopod families (weighted/unweighted UniFrac, Bray-Curtis, P = 0.001). Despite being collected from widely disparate geographic locations, members of the family Sepiolidae (bobtail squid) shared many bacterial taxa including (~50%) Opitutae (Verrucomicrobia) and Ruegeria (Alphaproteobacteria) species. Furthermore, we tested for phylosymbiosis and found a positive correlation between host phylogenetic distance and bacterial community dissimilarity (Mantel test r = 0.7). These data suggest that closely related sepiolids select for distinct symbionts from similar bacterial taxa. Overall, the ANGs of different cephalopod species harbor distinct microbiomes and thus offer a diverse symbiont community to explore antimicrobial activity and other functional roles in host fitness.IMPORTANCEMany aquatic organisms recruit microbial symbionts from the environment that provide a variety of functions, including defense from pathogens. Some female cephalopods (squids, bobtail squids, and cuttlefish) have a reproductive organ called the accessory nidamental gland (ANG) that contains a bacterial consortium that protects eggs from pathogens. Despite the wide distribution of these cephalopods, whether they share similar microbiomes is unknown. Here, we studied the microbial diversity of the ANG in 11 species of cephalopods distributed over a broad geographic range and representing 15-120 million years of host divergence. The ANG microbiomes shared some bacterial taxa, but each cephalopod species had unique symbiotic members. Additionally, analysis of host-symbiont phylogenies suggests that the evolutionary histories of the partners have been important in shaping the ANG microbiome. This study advances our knowledge of cephalopod-bacteria relationships and provides a foundation to explore defensive symbionts in other systems.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Microbiota , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Cefalópodes/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Decapodiformes/microbiologia , Genitália/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Simbiose
11.
J Mol Evol ; 91(6): 912-921, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007709

RESUMO

Tryptophan indole-lyase (TIL), a pyridoxal-5-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) to indole and ammonium pyruvate. TIL is widely distributed among bacteria and bacterial TILs consist of a D2-symmetric homotetramer. On the other hand, TIL genes are also present in several metazoans. Cephalopods have two TILs, TILα and TILß, which are believed to be derived from a gene duplication that occurred before octopus and squid diverged. However, both TILα and TILß individually contain disruptive amino acid substitutions for TIL activity, and neither was active when expressed alone. When TILα and TILß were coexpressed, however, they formed a heterotetramer that exhibited low TIL activity. The loss of TIL activity of the heterotetramer following site-directed mutagenesis strongly suggests that the active heterotetramer contains the TILα/TILß heterodimer. Metazoan TILs generally have lower kcat values for L-Trp than those of bacterial TILs, but such low TIL activity may be rather suitable for metazoan physiology, where L-Trp is in high demand. Therefore, reduced activity may have been a less likely target for purifying selection in the evolution of cephalopod TILs. Meanwhile, the unusual evolution of cephalopod TILs may indicate the difficulty of post-gene duplication evolution of enzymes with catalytic sites contributed by multiple subunits, such as TIL.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Triptofanase , Animais , Triptofanase/genética , Triptofanase/metabolismo , Cefalópodes/genética , Cefalópodes/metabolismo , Triptofano/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Bactérias/genética , Cinética
12.
Integr Comp Biol ; 63(6): 1285-1297, 2023 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37994658

RESUMO

Cephalopods are among many marine animals that through some combination of habit and/or habitat have proven difficult to study, especially understanding their trophic positions in marine communities. Stable isotope analyses have provided powerful tools for discovering quantitative aspects about the ecology and food sources of many cephalopod species. Here, we present new gut content and isotopic data (carbon and nitrogen isotopes) from phragmocone-bearing cephalopods (both ectocochleates, as well as those with internal, hard part buoyancy maintenance apparatuses). To this, we also include observations from baited remote underwater video systems to describe feeding habits and potential prey types to correlate with gut contents analyses. These data come from extant Allonautilus, Nautilus, and Sepia species, as well as from extinct nautiloids and ammonites. Extant nautiloids occupy a different isotopic niche than all other cephalopod groups where such data have been published to date. We conclude that these species are obligate scavengers rather than predators on any living species in their environments. Extant Nautilus and Allonautilus also demonstrate different patterns of functional allometry of nitrogen isotope values over ontogeny than do most other cephalopods (or animals in general), by showing decreasing nitrogen isotope levels during ontogeny. This pattern is shown to be different in Sepia and the yet small number of ammonite cephalopods studied to date, supporting the increasingly accepted view that ammonites were far closer to coleoids in basic biology than nautiloids. Overall, phragmocone-bearing cephalopods appear fundamentally different ecologically than cephalopods without this kind of buoyancy system. Of these groups, nautiloids appear to live a low-energy existence that allows them to subsist on energy-poor food sources, such as crustacean molts, as well as being able to scavenge in low oxygen basins where rare food falls, such as dead fish, remain unobtainable by most other animals.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Estado Nutricional , Peixes
13.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 22(6): 525-532, 2023 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981860

RESUMO

Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) have unusually complex nervous systems. The coleoid nervous system is also the only one currently known to recode the majority of expressed proteins through A-to-I RNA editing. The deamination of adenosine by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes produces inosine, which is interpreted as guanosine during translation. If this occurs in an open reading frame, which is the case for tens of thousands of editing sites in coleoids, it can recode the encoded protein. Here, we describe recent findings aimed at deciphering the mechanisms underlying high-level recoding and its adaptive potential. We describe the complement of ADAR enzymes in cephalopods, including a recently discovered novel domain in sqADAR1. We further summarize current evidence supporting an adaptive role of high-level RNA recoding in coleoids, and review recent studies showing that a large proportion of recoding sites is temperature-sensitive. Despite these new findings, the mechanisms governing the high level of RNA recoding in coleoid cephalopods remain poorly understood. Recent advances using genome editing in squid may provide useful tools to further study A-to-I RNA editing in these animals.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Cefalópodes/genética , Proteoma/genética , Edição de RNA , RNA , Encéfalo
14.
Adv Mar Biol ; 96: 1-24, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37980126

RESUMO

The diets of pygmy (Kogia breviceps) and dwarf (K. sima) sperm whales in Japanese waters are poorly known. We report new information on the diets of these two species from these waters based on identifiable hard-part remains recovered from the stomach contents of 29 whales (11 pygmy and 18 dwarf sperm whales) that stranded between 1991 and 2021; those of a further two dwarf sperm whales were empty. The cephalopod (and secondarily fish and crustacean) component of the diets of these 29 whales, based on analysis of identifiable stomach-content remains, is described. The main prey includes cephalopods, represented by 1556 identifiable lower beaks (and 1483 upper beaks), crustaceans (represented by heavily digested, unidentifiable remains), and fishes (as represented by 92 otoliths). Identified prey comprises 30 species from 16 cephalopod families and 5 families from 5 fish orders. Oceanic cephalopods are the main prey of both whale species, particularly Enoploteuthis (Paraenoploteuthis) chunii and Chiroteuthis (Chirothauma) picteti. Prey diversity index values (Shannon-Weaver's diversity index H') are 2.41 for the pygmy sperm whale and 2.66 for the dwarf sperm whale. Although the main cephalopod component in the diets of these two whale species is similar, Pianka's index (0.40), a measure of niche overlap, is not that high, and may be influenced by differences in prey dominance in different feeding areas.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Baleias , Humanos , Animais , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Japão , Cachalote
15.
Curr Biol ; 33(20): R1078-R1080, 2023 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875086

RESUMO

In this My word Daniel Osorio explains why cephalopod molluscs were protected by a European Union directive on laboratory animal legislation in 2013, and how the scientific community responded to the challenges posed by this development.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Moluscos , Animais de Laboratório , União Europeia
16.
Curr Biol ; 33(20): R1081-R1082, 2023 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875087

RESUMO

Allard et al. describe the remarkable 'taste by touch' abilities of cephalopods, in particular octopuses.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Octopodiformes , Percepção do Tato , Animais , Tato
17.
Curr Biol ; 33(20): R1087-R1091, 2023 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875089

RESUMO

Giant brains have independently evolved twice on this planet, in vertebrates and in cephalopods (Figure 1A). Thus, the brains and nervous systems of cephalopods provide an important counterpoint to vertebrates in the search for generalities of brain organization and function. Their mere existence disproves various hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of the mind and the human brain, such as cognition and large brains evolved only in long-lived animals with complex social systems and parental care, none of which is true of cephalopods. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review what is known about the evolution of cephalopod nervous systems to consider how it informs our understanding of general principles of brain evolution.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Animais , Humanos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cefalópodes/fisiologia
18.
Curr Biol ; 33(20): R1083-R1086, 2023 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37875088

RESUMO

Underlying all animal behaviors, from the simplest reflexive reactions to the more complex cognitive reasoning and social interaction, are nervous systems uniquely adapted to bodies, environments, and challenges of different animal species. Coleoid cephalopods - octopuses, squid, and cuttlefish - are widely recognized as the most behaviorally complex invertebrates and provide exciting opportunities for studying the neural control of behaviour. These unusual molluscs evolved over 400 million years ago from slow-moving armored forms to active predators of coastal and open ocean ecosystems. In this primer we will discuss how, during cephalopod evolution, the relatively simple ganglion-based molluscan nervous system has been extensively transformed to control the complex bodies and process extensive visual, tactile, and chemical sensory inputs, and summarize some recent findings about their fascinating behaviors.


Assuntos
Cefalópodes , Octopodiformes , Animais , Ecossistema , Moluscos/fisiologia , Invertebrados , Octopodiformes/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso , Decapodiformes
19.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0293087, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37870983

RESUMO

The polychaete Family Cirratulidae is one of the most abundant and diverse groups of Annelida, although it remains poorly known worldwide. Dodecaceria Ørsted, 1843 is one of the least described genera of Cirratulidae. The present report is the first taxonomic study of the genus Dodecaceria for the Brazilian coast. Cirratulidae were collected at Rocas Atoll, the first Brazilian marine protected area and the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean. We described one new species, Dodecaceria zelinhae n. sp., and a new record of D. dibranchiata Blake & Dean, 2019, previously only known from Panama. The new species is distinguished from other Dodecaceria species by having lateral tentacles, a smooth peristomium, 3-5 pairs of branchiae, hooks from chaetiger 11 in notopodia and 9 in neuropodia. Dodecaceria dibranchiata, a Caribbean species, is here recorded for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Cefalópodes , Poliquetos , Animais , Brasil , Oceano Atlântico , Região do Caribe
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