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1.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 37(3): 315-326, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353601

RESUMO

In 2015, sweetpotato producers in the United States experienced one of the worst outbreaks of black rot recorded in history, with up to 60% losses reported in the field and packing houses and at shipping ports. Host resistance remains the ideal management tool to decrease crop losses. Lack of knowledge of Ceratocystis fimbriata biology represents a critical barrier for the deployment of resistance to black rot in sweetpotato. In this study, we scanned the recent near chromosomal-level assembly for putative secreted effectors in the sweetpotato C. fimbriata isolate AS236 using a custom fungal effector annotation pipeline. We identified a set of 188 putative effectors on the basis of secretion signal and in silico prediction in EffectorP. We conducted a deep RNA time-course sequencing experiment to determine whether C. fimbriata modulates effectors in planta and to define a candidate list of effectors expressed during infection. We examined the expression profile of two C. fimbriata isolates, a pre-epidemic (1990s) isolate and a post-epidemic (2015) isolate. Our in planta expression profiling revealed clusters of co-expressed secreted effector candidates. Based on fold-change differences of putative effectors in both isolates and over the course of infection, we suggested prioritization of 31 effectors for functional characterization. Among this set, we identified several effectors that provide evidence for a marked biotrophic phase in C. fimbriata during infection of sweetpotato storage roots. Our study revealed a catalog of effector proteins that provide insight into C. fimbriata infection mechanisms and represent a core catalog to implement effector-assisted breeding in sweetpotato. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ascomicetos/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ceratocystis/genética , Sequência de Bases
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(3): 1487-1499, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215405

RESUMO

Osmotin-like proteins (OLPs) play an important role in host-plant defense. In this study, a novel multiresistant OLP (IbOLP1) was screened from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) with a molecular weight of 26.3 kDa. The expression level of IbOLP1 was significantly higher in resistant cultivars than susceptible ones after inoculation with Ceratocystis fimbriata, which causes black rot disease in sweetpotato. The expression of IbOLP1 in Pichia pastoris led to the lysis of yeast cells themselves. The recombinant IbOLP1 displayed antifungal, antibacterial, and antinematode activity and stability. IbOLP1 could restrain the mycelial growth and lyse spores of C. fimbriata, distinctly reducing the incidence of black rot in sweetpotato. The IbOLP1 can trigger the apoptosis of black rot spores by elevating the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, these findings suggest that IbOLP1 can be used to develop natural antimicrobial resources instead of chemical agents and generate new, disease-resistant germplasm.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ipomoea batatas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Esporos Fúngicos , Ceratocystis , Ipomoea batatas/microbiologia
3.
Microbiol Res ; 281: 127624, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295680

RESUMO

Cell wall integrity (CWI) is crucial for the growth, development, and host invasion of pathogenic fungi. The APSES transcription factor Swi6 in fungi plays a role in mediating cell wall integrity through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Ceratocystis fimbriata is a notorious pathogenic fungus responsible for causing black rot in sweet potatoes. In this study, an orthologous APSES transcription factor Swi6 (CfSwi6) downstream of the CWI regulatory pathway in C. fimbriata was characterized. Deletion of CfSWI6 leads to impaired hyphal development, conidiation, and compromised cell wall integrity, resulting in a significant reduction in virulence. Transcriptome analysis revealed the involvement of CfSWI6 in various pathways, including the MAPK pathway, DNA synthesis and stress response. ChIP-seq data provided predictions of potential target genes regulated by CfSwi6. Through yeast one-hybrid, we confirmed the direct binding of CfSwi6 to the promoter of the chitin synthetase gene. In summary, these findings indicated that CfSwi6 plays an important role in the growth, development, and pathogenicity of C. fimbriata. This study provides new insights into the pathogenic mechanism of C. fimbriata in sweet potato and inspires potential strategies to control sweet potato black rot.


Assuntos
Ceratocystis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fatores de Transcrição , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Virulência/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo
4.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 170: 103846, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048937

RESUMO

The Erp3 protein, which is an important member of the p24 family, is primarily responsible for the transport of cargo from the ER to the Golgi apparatus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the function of Erp3 in plant pathogenic fungi has not been reported. In this study, we characterized the ERP3 gene in Ceratocystis fimbriata, which causes the devastating disease sweetpotato black rot. The ΔCferp3 mutants exhibited slow growth, reduced conidia production, attenuated virulence, and reduced ability to induce host to produce toxins. Further analysis revealed that CfErp3 was localized in the ER and vesicles and regulated endocytosis, cell wall integrity, and osmotic stress responses, modulated ROS levels, and the production of ipomeamarone during pathogen-host interactions. These results indicate that CfErp3 regulates C. fimbriata growth and pathogenicity as well as the production of ipomeamarone in sweetpotato by controlling endocytosis, oxidative homeostasis, and responses to cell wall and osmotic stresses.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Sesquiterpenos , Virulência/genética , Ceratocystis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
5.
Mycologia ; 116(1): 184-212, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127644

RESUMO

The genus Ceratocystis contains a number of emerging plant pathogens, mostly members of the Latin American Clade (LAC), in which there are several unresolved taxonomic controversies. Among the most important are Brazilian pathogens in the C. fimbriata complex, C. manginecans and C. eucalypticola. Representatives of C. manginecans and C. eucalypticola from India and China, respectively, were shown to be fully interfertile in laboratory matings, and hybrids between the putative species were identified on Punica in India. An Indian tester strain was sexually compatible with representatives of what has been considered C. fimbriata on numerous hosts across Brazil. In this revision of the LAC, the name C. fimbriata is restricted to the widely dispersed Ipomoea strain, and C. manginecans is recognized as a Brazilian species that is important on Mangifera, Eucalyptus, and many other crops. C. mangivora and C. mangicola are also considered synonyms of C. manginecans. Based on phylogenetics and mating studies, two other Brazilian species are recognized: C. atlantica, sp. nov., and C. alfenasii, sp. nov., each with wide host ranges. Three new Caribbean species are recognized based on phylogenetics and earlier inoculation studies: C. costaricensis, sp. nov., on Coffea, C. cubensis, sp. nov., on Spathodea, and C. xanthosomatis, sp. nov., on the vegetatively propagated aroids Xanthosoma and Syngonium. Some of the other Ceratocystis species were based primarily on unique internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences, but the unreliability of rDNA sequences was demonstrated when intraspecific crossing of isolates with differing ITS sequences generated single-ascospore progeny with intragenomic variation in ITS sequences and others with new ITS sequences. Species recognition in Ceratocystis should use phenotype, including intersterility tests, to help identify which lineages are species. Although some species remain under-studied, we recognize 16 species in the LAC, all believed to be native to Latin America, the Caribbean region, or eastern USA.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ceratocystis , Ceratocystis/genética , América Latina , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Doenças das Plantas , DNA Ribossômico/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(22)2023 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38003642

RESUMO

Black rot disease, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis & Halsted, severely affects both plant growth and post-harvest storage of sweet potatoes. Invertase (INV) enzymes play essential roles in hydrolyzing sucrose into glucose and fructose and participate in the regulation of plant defense responses. However, little is known about the functions of INV in the growth and responses to black rot disease in sweet potato. In this study, we identified and characterized an INV-like gene, named IbINV, from sweet potato. IbINV contained a pectin methylesterase-conserved domain. IbINV transcripts were most abundant in the stem and were significantly induced in response to C. fimbriata, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid treatments. Overexpressing IbINV in sweet potato (OEV plants) led to vigorous growth and high resistance to black rot disease, while the down-regulation of IbINV by RNA interference (RiV plants) resulted in reduced plant growth and high sensitivity to black rot disease. Furthermore, OEV plants contained a decreased sucrose content and increased hexoses content, which might be responsible for the increased INV activities; not surprisingly, RiV plants showed the opposite effects. Taken together, these results indicate that IbINV positively regulates plant growth and black rot disease resistance in sweet potato, mainly by modulating sugar metabolism.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ipomoea batatas , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Ceratocystis , Sacarose/farmacologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14873, 2023 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37684350

RESUMO

Ceratocystis canker caused by Ceratocystis destructans is a severe disease of almond, reducing the longevity and productivity of infected trees. Once the disease has established in an individual tree, there is no cure, and management efforts are often limited to removing the infected area of cankers. In this study, we present the genome assemblies of five C. destructans isolates isolated from symptomatic almond trees. The genomes were assembled into a genome size of 27.2 ± 0.9 Mbp with an average of 6924 ± 135 protein-coding genes and an average GC content of 48.8 ± 0.02%. We concentrated our efforts on identifying putative virulence factors of canker pathogens. Analysis of the secreted carbohydrate-active enzymes showed that the genomes harbored 83.4 ± 1.8 secreted CAZymes. The secreted CAZymes covered all the known categories of CAZymes. AntiSMASH revealed that the genomes had at least 7 biosynthetic gene clusters, with one of the non-ribosomal peptide synthases encoding dimethylcoprogen, a conserved virulence determinant of plant pathogenic ascomycetes. From the predicted proteome, we also annotated cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and transporters, these are well-established virulence determinants of canker pathogens. Moreover, we managed to identify 57.4 ± 2.1 putative effector proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation was applied to compare gene content with two closely related species C. fimbriata, and C. albifundus. This study provides the first genome assemblies for C. destructans, expanding genomic resources for an important almond canker pathogen. The acquired knowledge provides a foundation for further advanced studies, such as molecular interactions with the host, which is critical for breeding for resistance.


Assuntos
Geraniaceae , Prunus dulcis , Ceratocystis , Prunus dulcis/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , California , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16368, 2023 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37773261

RESUMO

The genus Ceratocystis includes many phytopathogenic fungi that affect different plant species. One of these is Ceratocystis cacaofunesta, which is pathogenic to the cocoa tree and causes Ceratocystis wilt, a lethal disease for the crop. However, little is known about how this pathogen interacts with its host. The knowledge and identification of possible genes encoding effector proteins are essential to understanding this pathosystem. The present work aimed to predict genes that code effector proteins of C. cacaofunesta from a comparative analysis of the genomes of five Ceratocystis species available in databases. We performed a new genome annotation through an in-silico analysis. We analyzed the secretome and effectorome of C. cacaofunesta using the characteristics of the peptides, such as the presence of signal peptide for secretion, absence of transmembrane domain, and richness of cysteine residues. We identified 160 candidate effector proteins in the C. cacaofunesta proteome that could be classified as cytoplasmic (102) or apoplastic (58). Of the total number of candidate effector proteins, 146 were expressed, presenting an average of 206.56 transcripts per million. Our database was created using a robust bioinformatics strategy, followed by manual curation, generating information on pathogenicity-related genes involved in plant interactions, including CAZymes, hydrolases, lyases, and oxidoreductases. Comparing proteins already characterized as effectors in Sordariomycetes species revealed five groups of protein sequences homologous to C. cacaofunesta. These data provide a valuable resource for studying the infection mechanisms of these pathogens in their hosts.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ceratocystis , Ascomicetos/genética , Biologia Computacional , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0287144, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37352315

RESUMO

Plant pathogens are increasingly compromising forest health, with impacts to the ecological, economic, and cultural goods and services these global forests provide. One response to these threats is the identification of disease resistance in host trees, which with conventional methods can take years or even decades to achieve. Remote sensing methods have accelerated host resistance identification in agricultural crops and for a select few forest tree species, but applications are rare. Ceratocystis wilt of 'ohi'a, caused by the fungal pathogen Ceratocystis lukuohia has been killing large numbers of the native Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha or 'Ohi'a, Hawaii's most common native tree and a biocultural keystone species. Here, we assessed whether resistance to C. lukuohia is detectable in leaf-level reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) and used chemometric conversion equations to understand changes in leaf chemical traits of the plants as indicators of wilt symptom progression. We collected leaf reflectance data prior to artificially inoculating 2-3-year-old M. polymorpha clones with C. lukuohia. Plants were rated 3x a week for foliar wilt symptom development and leaf spectra data collected at 2 to 4-day intervals for 120 days following inoculation. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to the pre-inoculation spectra, with plants grouped according to site of origin and subtaxon, and two-way analysis of variance to assess whether each principal component separated individuals based on their disease severity ratings. We identified seven leaf traits that changed in susceptible plants following inoculation (tannins, chlorophyll a+b, NSC, total C, leaf water, phenols, and cellulose) and leaf chemistries that differed between resistant and early-stage susceptible plants, most notably chlorophyll a+b and cellulose. Further, disease resistance was found to be detectable in the reflectance data, indicating that remote sensing work could expedite Ceratocystis wilt of 'ohi'a resistance screenings.


Assuntos
Ceratocystis , Resistência à Doença , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Clorofila A , Árvores , Análise Espectral , Folhas de Planta
10.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 162: 103728, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932991

RESUMO

Ceratocystis fimbriata is an important pathogen that causes wilt in several plant species. Despite the importance of this pathogen, knowledge about its karyotypic polymorphism and genomic architecture is limited. The main objective of this study was to investigate the karyotype of isolates of the C. fimbriata species complex from different host plants and geographical origins in Brazil. First, the identity of the isolates was confirmed conducting multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) phylogeny using ß-tubulin (TUBB), translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α) and mating-type (MAT1 and MAT2) gene sequences. To investigate the chromosomal polymorphism, two conditions of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used and the karyotypes of the isolates obtained. The retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) molecular marker was utilized to assess the genetic variability among isolates. In the MLSA utilizing the concatenated gene sequences, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta and C. fimbriata formed separate clades, but considerable variation among C. fimbriata isolates was observed. Polymorphism in chromosome number and size was found, indicating the existence of genomic differences among isolates and occurrence of chromosomal rearrangements in the species complex. The number of chromosomes varied from seven to nine and the estimated minimum chromosome sizes were estimated to be between 2.7 and 6.0 Mbp. Small polymorphic chromosomes ranging from 1.2 to 1.8 Mbp were observed in all isolates, raising the hypothesis that they could be supernumerary chromosomes. REMAP analysis revealed a high genetic variability and that isolates from the same host tend to group together in a same cluster. Our results bring new insights into the chromosomal diversity and genome organization of the C. fimbriata complex.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Brasil , Ceratocystis , Cromossomos , DNA Fúngico/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
11.
Plant Dis ; 106(8): 2182-2190, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077222

RESUMO

Fungi causing wood canker diseases are major factors limiting productivity and longevity of almond and walnut orchards. The goal of this study was to compare pathogen profiles from spore traps with those of plant samples collected from symptomatic almond and walnut trees and assess if profiles could be influenced by orchard type and age, rainfall amount and frequency, and/or neighboring trees. Three almond orchards and one walnut orchard with different characteristics were selected for this study. Fungal inoculum was captured weekly from nine trees per orchard using a passive spore-trapping device, during a 30-week period in the rainy season (October to April) and for two consecutive years. Fungal taxa identified from spore traps were compared with a collection of fungal isolates obtained from 61 symptomatic wood samples collected from the orchards. Using a culture-dependent approach coupled with molecular identification, we identified 18 known pathogenic species from 10 fungal genera (Ceratocystis destructans, Collophorina hispanica, Cytospora eucalypti, Diaporthe ampelina, Diaporthe chamaeropis/rhusicola, Diaporthe eres, Diaporthe novem, Diplodia corticola, Diplodia mutila, Diplodia seriata, Dothiorella iberica, Dothiorella sarmentorum, Dothiorella viticola, Eutypa lata, Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, Neofusicoccum parvum, Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, and Pleurostoma richardsiae), plus two unidentified Cytospora and Diaporthe species. However, only four species were identified with both methods (Diplodia mutila, Diplodia seriata, Dothiorella Iberica, and E. lata), albeit not consistently across orchards. Our results demonstrate a clear disparity between the two diagnostic methods and caution against using passive spore traps to predict disease risks. In particular, the spore trap approach failed to capture: insect-vectored pathogens such as Ceratocystis destructans that were often recovered from almond trunk and scaffold; Diaporthe chamaeropis/rhusicola commonly isolated from wood samples likely because Diaporthe species have a spatially restricted dispersal mechanism, as spores are exuded in a cirrus; and pathogenic species with low incidence in wood samples such as P. richardsiae and Collophorina hispanica. We propose that orchard inoculum is composed of both endemic taxa that are characterized by frequent and repeated trapping events from the same trees and isolated from plant samples, as well as immigrant taxa characterized by rare trapping events. We hypothesize that host type, orchard age, precipitation, and alternative hosts at the periphery of orchards are factors that could affect pathogen profile. We discuss the limitations and benefits of our methodology and experimental design to develop guidelines and prediction tools for fungal wood canker diseases in California orchards.


Assuntos
Juglans , Prunus dulcis , Ascomicetos , Ceratocystis , Juglans/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Madeira
12.
Plant Dis ; 106(4): 1114-1121, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752125

RESUMO

A new and devastating disease, rapid ohia death (ROD), in Hawaii led to a state quarantine that regulates interisland transport of ohia wood and plant material to prevent spread of the causal pathogens. Heat treatments of ohia logs in commercial trade were considered for phytosanitary treatment. Vacuum steam (VS) was evaluated for its ability to eradicate the pathogens, Ceratocystis lukuohia and C. huliohia, in main stem logs from ROD-affected forest trees. Replicate loads of three debarked logs (24 to 43 cm in diameter, 1.7 to 2.0 m long) were VS treated at 56°C for 30 min (five loads) or 60°C for 60 min (four loads) at a sapwood depth equal to 70% of log radius. Percentage isolation of Ceratocystis from VS and ambient temperature logs before treatment and summarized by source tree ranged from 12 to 66% and 6 to 31% based on carrot baiting assays of tissue taken from outer and inner sapwood, respectively. No viable Ceratocystis was detected in sapwood locations for the 60°C/60 min schedule or inner locations for the 56°C/30 min schedule after treatment. Only one subsample (0.48%, n = 208) of the latter schedule treatment yielded Ceratocystis. Time needed for treatment ranged from 7.4 to 15 h for the 56°C/30 min schedule and from 8.6 to 19.2 h for the 60°C/60 min schedule. These results demonstrate that VS is an effective and efficient method for treating large-diameter ohia logs that mill owners and regulatory plant pathologists may consider for use in Hawaii.


Assuntos
Myrtaceae , Vapor , Ceratocystis , Vácuo
13.
Plant Dis ; 106(2): 661-668, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597147

RESUMO

The genus Ceratocystis contains several significant plant pathogens, causing wilt and canker disease on a wide range of plant species. There are >40 known species of Ceratocystis, some of which are becoming increasingly important in agricultural or natural ecosystems. The diagnostic procedures for most Ceratocystis species rely on time-consuming and labor-intensive culturing approaches. To provide more time-efficient and sensitive molecular diagnostic tools for Ceratocystis, a generic TaqMan real-time PCR assay was developed using the ITS gene. This novel two-probe TaqMan assay amplified DNA from all tested Ceratocystis species. Some nonspecific amplification of a few species from closely related genera was observed under certain conditions; however, these false-positive detections could be ruled out using the additional PCR primers developed for further sequence-based identification of the detected species. The assay was found to be highly sensitive, as it detected 0.2 pg/µl of Ceratocystis DNA in water as well as in host DNA matrix. Further validation with artificially inoculated fig stem tissue demonstrated that the assay was also able to effectively detect the pathogen in infected asymptomatic stem tissue. This newly developed real-time PCR assay has practical applications in biosecurity, conservation, and agriculture; it will enable the detection of Ceratocystis species directly from plant material to facilitate more sensitive screening of imported plant germplasm, and allow rapid tracking of pathogens in the case of disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Ceratocystis , Ecossistema , Primers do DNA/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
14.
Planta ; 254(5): 94, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642817

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Decreased accumulation of polyphenol oxidase, H2O2 accumulation, effective regulation of programmed cell death, and a protein predicted as allergenic can play key roles in cacao defense against Ceratocystis cacaofunesta. Ceratocystis wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis cacaofunesta, has destroyed millions of Theobroma cacao trees in several countries of the Americas. Through proteomics, systems biology, and enzymatic analyses of infected stems, it was possible to infer mechanisms used by resistant (TSH1188) and susceptible (CCN51) cacao genotypes during infection. Protein extraction from xylem-enriched tissue of stems inoculated with the fungus and their controls 1 day after inoculation was carried out, followed by separation through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Enzyme activity was determined at 1, 3, 7 and 15 days after inoculation. A total of 50 differentially accumulated distinct proteins were identified in the treatments of both genotypes and were classified into 10 different categories. An interaction network between homologous proteins from Arabidospsis thaliana was generated for each genotype, using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Primary metabolism processes were apparently repressed in both genotypes. The resistance factors suggested for genotype TSH1188 were: H2O2 accumulation, effective regulation of programmed cell death, production of phytoalexins derived from tryptophan and furanocoumarins, and participation of a predicted allergenic protein with probable ribonuclease function inhibiting the germination and propagation of the fungus. In the susceptible genotype, it is possible that its recognition and signaling mechanism through proteins from the SEC14 family is easily overcome by the pathogen. Our results will help to better understand the interaction between cacao and one of its most aggressive pathogens, to create disease control strategies.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ceratocystis , Genótipo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Doenças das Plantas , Proteoma , Xilema
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(44): 13045-13054, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705454

RESUMO

Black spot disease caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata is destructive to the production, transportation, and storage of sweet potato. The antifungal effects of Bacillus tequilensis XK29 against C. fimbriata through volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were evaluated in this study. The activated carbon assay proved that XK29 could exert antibiotic effects through volatiles. By optimizing the wheat seed weight, inoculation method, concentration, volume, and time, the antifungal activity of XK29 was significantly improved. XK29 fumigation inhibited spore formation and germination and changed the cell morphology of C. fimbriata. During the storage of sweet potato tuber roots, XK29 effectively controlled black spot disease and reduced the weight loss and malondialdehyde content. Metabolomic analysis revealed that 21 volatile compounds were released from XK29. Isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid effectively inhibited the growth of C. fimbriata. These results indicate that B. tequilensis XK29 has a good potential to be developed as a microbial fumigation agent.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ipomoea batatas , Antibacterianos , Bacillus , Ceratocystis , Doenças das Plantas
16.
Electrophoresis ; 42(23): 2519-2527, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498763

RESUMO

Ceratocystis wilt is a lethal disease of cacao, and the search for resistant genotypes may provide the best way to deal with the disease. Resistance or susceptibility behavior of some cacao genotypes when infected by Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is not yet understood. Herein, we report an LC-MS metabolomic screening analysis based on high-resolution MS to obtain comprehensive metabolic profile associated with multivariate data analysis of PLS-DA, which was effective to classify CCN-51 and TSH-1188 as resistant genotypes to C. cacaofunesta fungus, while CEPEC2002 was classified as a susceptible one. Using reversed-phase LC method, electrospray interface, and high-resolution tandem MS by the quadrupole-TOF analyzer, the typical profiles of metabolites, such as phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, lipids, alkaloids, and amino acids, were obtained. Untargeted metabolite profiles were used to construct discriminant analysis by partial least squares (PLS-DA)-derived loading plots, which placed the cacao genotypes into two major clusters related to susceptible or resistant groups. Linolenic, linoleic, oleic, stearic, arachidonic, and asiatic acids were annotated metabolites of infected, susceptible, and resistant genotypes, while methyl jasmonate, jasmonic acid, hydroxylated jasmonic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were annotated as constituents of the resistant genotypes. Trends of these typical metabolites levels revealed that CCN51 is susceptible, CEPEC2002 is moderately susceptible, and TSH1188 is resistant to C. cacaofunesta. Therefore, profiles of major metabolites as screened by LC-MS offer an efficient tool to reveal the level of resistance of cacao genotypes to C. cacaofunesta present in any farm around the world.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ceratocystis , Doenças das Plantas , Cromatografia Líquida , Resistência à Doença , Genótipo , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(9): 148, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363541

RESUMO

Black rot, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is one of the most destructive disease of sweet potato worldwide, resulting in significant yield losses. However, a proper management system can increase resistance to this disease. Therefore, this study investigated the potential of using tebuconazole (TEB) and trifloxystrobin (TRI) to improve the antioxidant defense systems in sweet potato as well as the inhibitory effects on the growth of and antioxidant activity in C. fimbriata. Four days after inoculating cut surfaces of sweet potato disks with C. fimbriata, disease development was reduced by different concentrations of TEB + TRI. Infection by C. fimbriata increased the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and electrolyte leakage (EL), and the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) by 138, 152, 73, and 282%, respectively, in sweet potato disks, relative to control. In the sweet potato disks, C. fimbriata reduced the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as the contents of ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) by 82 and 91%, respectively, compared with control. However, TEB + TRI reduced the oxidative damage in the C. fimbriata-inoculated sweet potato disks by enhancing the antioxidant defense systems. On the other hand, applying TEB + TRI increased the levels of H2O2, MDA, and EL, and increased the activity of LOX in C. fimbriata, in which the contents of AsA and GSH decreased, and therefore, inhibited the growth of C. fimbriata. These results suggest that TEB + TRI can significantly control black rot disease in sweet potato by inhibiting the growth of C. fimbriata.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ceratocystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Iminas/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estrobilurinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Ceratocystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Doença , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ipomoea batatas/microbiologia , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(10): 4564-4571, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ceratocystis fimbriata is a hazardous fungal pathogen able to cause black rot disease on sweet potato. The management of C. fimbriata strongly relies on the use of toxic fungicides, and there is a lack of efficient alternative strategies. RESULTS: The antifungal properties of quinolinic acid (QA) were studied for the first time, indicating that QA shows selective antifungal activity against C. fimbriata. QA inhibited completely the mycelial growth of C. fimbriata at less than 0.8 mg mL-1 concentration (pH 4), and was able to produce alterations in the fungal cell wall, and to impede spore agglutination and mycelium formation. QA significantly reduced the concentration of ergosterol, and was able to associate to iron (II), suggesting that QA may be a lanosterol 14-α demethylase inhibitor. In preventive applications, QA reduced the disease incidence of C. fimbriata on sweet potato by 75%, achieving higher control efficacy in comparison with commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim. CONCLUSIONS: The first selective antifungal agent against C. fimbriata was discovered in this work, and showed suitable antifungal properties for the management of black rot disease. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Ipomoea batatas , Ceratocystis , Doenças das Plantas , Ácido Quinolínico
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 173: 104777, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771256

RESUMO

Ceratocystis fimbriata is the pathogen of black rot disease, which widely exists in sweet potato producing areas all over the world. The antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aureofaciens SPS-41 against C. fimbriata was reported in our previous study. In this study, we attempted to reveal the underlying antifungal mechanism of SPS-41 volatiles. Our results showed that the VOCs released by SPS-41 caused the morphological change of hyphae, destroyed the integrity of cell membrane, reduced the content of ergosterol, and induced massive accumulation of reactive oxygen species in C. fimbriata cells. Furthermore, SPS-41 fumigation decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, acetyl-CoA and pyruvate content of C. fimbriata cells, as well as the mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity. In addition, the VOCs generated by SPS-41 reduced the intracellular ATP content and increased the extracellular ATP content of C. fimbriata. In summary, SPS-41 fumigation exerted its antifungal activity by inducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in C. fimbriata.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ceratocystis , Mitocôndrias , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças das Plantas , Pseudomonas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
20.
Phytopathology ; 111(9): 1660-1669, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534610

RESUMO

Black rot of sweetpotato, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is an important reemerging disease threatening sweetpotato production in the United States. This study assessed disease susceptibility of the storage root surface, storage root cambium, and slips (vine cuttings) of 48 sweetpotato cultivars, advanced breeding lines, and wild relative accessions. We also characterized the effect of storage root development on susceptibility to C. fimbriata. None of the cultivars examined at the storage root level were resistant, with most cultivars exhibiting similar levels of susceptibility. In storage roots, Jewel and Covington were the least susceptible and significantly different from White Bonita, the most susceptible cultivar. In the slip, significant differences in disease incidence were observed for above- and below-ground plant structures among cultivars, advanced breeding lines, and wild relative accessions. Burgundy and Ipomoea littoralis displayed less below-ground disease incidence compared with NASPOT 8, Sunnyside, and LSU-417, the most susceptible cultivars. Correlation of black rot susceptibility between storage roots and slips was not significant, suggesting that slip assays are not useful to predict resistance in storage roots. Immature, early-developing storage roots were comparatively more susceptible than older, fully developed storage roots. The high significant correlation between the storage root cross-section area and the cross-sectional lesion ratio suggests the presence of an unfavorable environment for C. fimbriata as the storage root develops. Incorporating applications of effective fungicides at transplanting and during early-storage root development when sweetpotato tissues are most susceptible to black rot infection may improve disease management efforts.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Ceratocystis , Estudos Transversais , Doenças das Plantas
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