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1.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(6): e16664, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830671

RESUMO

Milk is a complex biochemical fluid that includes macronutrients and microbiota, which, together, are known to facilitate infant growth, mediate the colonization of infant microbiomes, and promote immune development. Examining factors that shape milk microbiomes and milk-nutrient interplay across host taxa is critical to resolving the evolution of the milk environment. Using a comparative approach across four cercopithecine primate species housed at three facilities under similar management conditions, we test for the respective influences of the local environment (housing facility) and host species on milk (a) macronutrients (fat, sugar, and protein), (b) microbiomes (16S rRNA), and (c) predicted microbial functions. We found that milk macronutrients were structured according to host species, while milk microbiomes and predicted function were strongly shaped by the local environment and, to a lesser extent, host species. The milk microbiomes of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at two different facilities more closely resembled those of heterospecific facility-mates compared to conspecifics at a different facility. We found similar, facility-driven patterns of microbial functions linked to physiology and immune modulation, suggesting that milk microbiomes may influence infant health and development. These results provide novel insight into the complexity of milk and its potential impact on infants across species and environments.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Leite , Nutrientes , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Animais , Leite/microbiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Feminino , Cercopithecidae/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Evolução Biológica
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2822, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561329

RESUMO

The systematic status of the small-bodied catarrhine primate Pliobates cataloniae, from the Miocene (11.6 Ma) of Spain, is controversial because it displays a mosaic of primitive and derived features compared with extant hominoids (apes and humans). Cladistic analyses have recovered Pliobates as either a stem hominoid or as a pliopithecoid stem catarrhine (i.e., preceding the cercopithecoid-hominoid divergence). Here, we describe additional dental remains of P. cataloniae from another locality that display unambiguous synapomorphies of crouzeliid pliopithecoids. Our cladistic analyses support a close phylogenetic link with poorly-known small crouzeliids from Europe based on (cranio)dental characters but recover pliopithecoids as stem hominoids when postcranial characters are included. We conclude that Pliobates is a derived stem catarrhine that shows postcranial convergences with modern apes in the elbow and wrist joints-thus clarifying pliopithecoid evolution and illustrating the plausibility of independent acquisition of postcranial similarities between hylobatids and hominids.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Primatas , Cercopithecidae , Evolução Biológica
3.
J Hum Evol ; 190: 103508, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599140

RESUMO

The Mount Galili Formation in the Afar region, Ethiopia, samples a critical time in hominin evolution, 4.4 to 3.8 Ma, documenting the last appearance of Ardipithecus and the origin of Australopithecus. This period is also important in the evolution of cercopithecids, especially the origin of Theropithecus in general and Theropithecus oswaldi lineage in particular. Galili has provided a total of 655 cercopithecid specimens that include crania, mandibles, isolated teeth and postcrania. All the fossils were recovered from the Lasdanan (5.3-4.43 Ma), Dhidinley (4.43-3.9 Ma) and Shabeley Laag (∼3.92-3.8 Ma) Members. Here, we described and analyzed 362 fossils employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Descriptions of the material were supplemented with dental metrics and cranial shape analysis using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Results indicate the presence of at least six cercopithecid taxa: Theropithecus oswaldi serengetensis (n = 28), Theropithecus sp. (n = 2), three non-Theropithecus papionin groups (n = 134) and one colobine-size group (n = 58). The T. o. serengetensis represents the earliest form of the lineage, documented from ∼3.9 Ma Galili sediments. The three Galili papionins include a smaller taxon, a medium-sized taxon comparable to Pliopapio alemui and a large papionin overlapping in size with Soromandrillus, Gorgopithecus and Dinopithecus. The majority of Galili colobines have closest affinities to Kuseracolobus aramisi and some overlap with other taxa. Papionins dominate the Galili cercopithecid collection, although colobines are still fairly common (approximately 25% of the sample). Thus, Galili sample is like Kanapoi (4.2-4.1 Ma) and Gona (5.2-3.9 Ma) localities but distinct from Aramis, suggesting paleoecological similarity to the former sites. On the other hand, Theropithecus is less abundant at Galili than geologically younger Hadar (3.4-3.2 Ma) and Woranso-Mille (3.8-3.6 Ma) sites. Whether this difference is due to sampling, time or landscape variation requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Theropithecus , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Fósseis , Etiópia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
4.
Am J Primatol ; 86(5): e23607, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369692

RESUMO

Rapid facial mimicry (RFM), the rapid and automatic replication of facial expression perceived, is considered a basic form of empathy and was investigated mainly during play. RFM occurs in Catarrhini (Old World primates), but it is not still demonstrated in Platyrrhini (New World primates). For this reason, we collected video data on playful interactions (Nplay_interactions = 149) in three species of spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps-N = 11, Ateles hybridus-N = 14, and Ateles paniscus-N = 6) housed at La Vallée des Singes and the ZooParc de Beauval (France). For the first time, we demonstrated the occurrence of RFM in Platyrrhini (analyzing 175 events). Players' sex, age, species, relationship quality, and kinship did not modulate RFM probably due to the species' complex fission-fusion dynamics and flexible interindividual social relationships. Compared to the absence of any playful expressions or the presence of only not replicated play face, RFM prolonged the session duration and was sequentially associated with more types of more intense offensive playful patterns (patterns aimed at attacking/pursuing the playmate). We proposed that RFM may favor synchronization and context sharing between players, thus decreasing the risk of behavior misinterpretation while simultaneously fostering a more competitive nature of play. In conclusion, this study stimulates additional research on the evolutionary origins of motor mimicry in primates, possibly dating back to before the divergence of New and Old World monkeys. Furthermore, it also points toward the possibility that RFM may not always lead to cooperation but also to competition, depending on the context and species' social and cognitive features.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Platirrinos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae
5.
Am J Biol Anthropol ; 183(1): 92-106, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37649439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although a bounding gait is practiced by a diversity of animals, the morphological characteristics, kinematics, and energetics associated with this locomotor form remain poorly understood. This study focuses on the locomotor anatomy of two species of African colobine monkeys (Piliocolobus badius, a leaper, and Colobus polykomos, a leaper-bounder) in an effort to assess if bounding should be considered a unique primate locomotor category or is better viewed as a behavior on a leaping continuum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 femora, 28 humeri, and 45 ossa coxae from the two species provide comparative morphological data. Free-body models of bounding and leaping are presented to characterize loading conditions. Species differences in morphometric traits are evaluated via parametric and nonparametric tests (i.e., analysis of variance, resampling). RESULTS: C. polykomos exhibits traits that align more closely with putative leaping specializations when compared to P. badius (e.g., large femoral head, long femur, low femoral neck angle), while also possessing certain traits that are not (e.g., long femoral neck and reduced relative femoral robusticity). Consequently, C. polykomos likely experiences absolutely greater joint forces at the hip and higher bending at the femoral neck both when it leaps and bounds, given equivalent accelerations in bounding and leaping. DISCUSSION: Bounding is best described as a form of low-acceleration leaping. If bounding has lower acceleration requirements relative to leaping, C. polykomos achieves locomotor competence with less energy, relatively smaller bending moments, and reduced joint forces.


Assuntos
Colobus , Locomoção , Animais , Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Marcha , Extremidade Inferior
6.
J Gen Virol ; 104(11)2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37910158

RESUMO

Enteroviruses primarily affect young children with a varying severity of disease. Recent outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurological disease due to EV-D68 and EV-A71, as well as atypical hand-foot-and-mouth-disease due to CVA6, have brought to light the potency of enteroviruses to emerge as severe human pathogens. Enterovirus D111 (EV-D111) is an enteric pathogen initially detected in Central Africa in human and wildlife samples and was recently detected in environmental samples. The natural history and epidemiology of EV-D111 are poorly studied. Here, the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies to EV-D111 was estimated in human and wildlife samples from five countries. We report high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies measured against EV-D111 in human populations (range, 55-83 %), a proxy for previous infection, which indicates active virus circulation in absence of detection in clinical cases and a high number of undiagnosed infections. Notably, seroprevalence in samples from the UK varied by age and was higher in children and older adults (1-5 and >60 years old), but lower in ages 11-60. EV-D111 seroprevalence in apes and Old World monkeys was 50 % (33-66 %), which also suggests prior exposure and supports existing knowledge of enterovirus circulation in wild and captive apes and Old World monkeys. Generally, reported cases of infection likely underestimate the prevalence of infection particularly when the knowledge of community transmission is limited. Continued serologic surveillance and detection of EV-D111 in clinical and environmental samples will allow for a more robust assessment of EV-D111 epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Hominidae , Animais , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Primatas , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/veterinária , Cercopithecidae , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Antígenos Virais
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(8)2023 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37628657

RESUMO

Many cases of Toxoplasma gondii infection have been reported worldwide in non-human primates (NHPs), especially in captive New World monkeys. However, few studies on toxoplasmosis in Old World monkeys have been conducted. In this study, serological and molecular biological analyses were carried out to look for T. gondii antibodies and T. gondii infection in 13 NHPs from China. T. gondii infection was confirmed in 8 NHP cases. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 1/5 New World monkeys and in 4/7 Old World monkeys. T. gondii DNA was detected in 3/5 New World monkeys and 5/7 Old World monkeys. The one ring-tailed lemur was negative for both antibodies and DNA of T. gondii. The most common clinical manifestations of T. gondii infection were malaise, poor appetite, emaciation, and foamy nasal discharge. The most common histopathological findings were interstitial pneumonia, necrotic hepatitis, necrotizing myocarditis, lymphadenitis, and necrotic splenitis. One viable T. gondii strain was successfully isolated from the myocardium of a patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) by bioassay in mice. T. gondii tachyzoites were obtained from cell cultures and were designated as TgMonkeyCHn2. The genotype of this strain belongs to ToxoDB genotype #9, and the allele of ROP18/ROP5 gene was 3/6. TgMonkeyCHn2 tachyzoites were avirulent in Swiss mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fatal toxoplasmosis in a patas monkey. T. gondii infection in patas monkeys may indicate environmental contamination by oocysts. The patas monkey is a new host record for T. gondii.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Camundongos , Erythrocebus patas , Toxoplasma/genética , Cercopithecidae , China , Platirrinos , Anticorpos
8.
Primates ; 64(6): 573-578, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37603116

RESUMO

How primate mothers interact with their dead infants has attracted much attention from primatologists. In particular, the care given to infant corpses has been well documented, and some researchers have employed quantitative analyses to explore the underlying mechanisms of this behavior. In contrast, instances of maternal cannibalism, another striking response to dead infants, are relatively uncommon and the factors contributing to this phenomenon remain unclear among primates. Here, we report a new case of stillbirth and subsequent maternal cannibalism that occurred in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques residing on Awajishima Island, Japan. In the observed case, a multiparous female gave a stillbirth in the winter of 2022. The newborn appeared premature due to the lack of hair and unformed limbs, and the unseasonal birth. Initially, the mother cared for the newborn by licking and holding the body, but she suddenly began consuming the entire corpse, except for the parts around the head. This is the first case of maternal cannibalism by a multiparous mother of free-ranging Japanese macaque. We compared this case with those previously reported in Old World monkeys, and discussed the possible link between stillbirth, maternal care, and cannibalization towards deceased infants. In order to understand how primates comprehend the concepts of "death" and how their maternal relationships have evolved, it would be important to focus not only on maternal care toward dead infants but also cannibalism that could occur at the end of the caregiving.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Macaca fuscata , Humanos , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Natimorto/veterinária , Primatas , Cercopithecidae , Cadáver
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 19(1): 122, 2023 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37573315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conductive anaesthesia of the nerves around the head is one of the methods of intraoperative pain relief (under deep anaesthesia but before proceeding with the procedure). Performing this procedure on primates is especially challenging for the veterinarian, due to their cranial anatomy and topography, which has more in common with the human skull than with the skulls of other animals. Knowledge of key bony structures, including cranial foramina, is essential for effective anaesthesia of the cranial nerves. RESULTS: In this study, the differences in the topography of the cranial foramina in eight selected species of primates were examined: Angola colobus (Colobus angolensis), Celebes crested macaque (Macaca nigra), L'Hoest's monkey (Allochrocebus lhoesti), baboon (Papio cynocephalus), buff-bellied capuchin (Sapajus xanthosternos), black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), crowned lemur (Eulemur coronatus), and a ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) coming from the Wroclaw Zoological Garden (Poland). The cranial nerves running through the foramina have also been described and their anaesthesia techniques against bone points have been tested to relieve post-operative pain in the area of the head supplied by these nerves. CONCLUSION: The tests carried out show differences in the topography of the cranial foramina, and therefore also differences in the methods of injection, so the results obtained in this study may be useful in veterinary medicine, especially for practising veterinarians.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Cebidae , Lemur , Lemuridae , Humanos , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Colobus , Osteologia , Primatas , Macaca , Crânio , Nervos Cranianos , Anestesia/veterinária
10.
J Hum Evol ; 182: 103413, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562101

RESUMO

Enamel mechanical properties vary across molar crowns, but the relationship among mechanical properties, tooth function, and phylogeny are not well understood. Fifteen primate lower molars representing fourteen taxa (catarrhine, n = 13; platyrrhine, n = 1) were sectioned in the lingual-buccal plane through the mesial cusps. Gradients of enamel mechanical properties, specifically hardness and elastic modulus, were quantified using nanoindentation from inner (near the enamel-dentine junction), through middle, to outer enamel (near the outer enamel surface) at five positions (buccal lateral, buccal cuspal, occlusal middle, lingual cuspal, lingual lateral). Cuspal positions had higher mechanical property values than lateral positions. Middle enamel had higher mean hardness and elastic modulus values than inner and outer locations in all five crown positions. Functionally, the thicker-enameled buccal cusps of lower molars did not show evidence of increased resistance to failure; instead, lingual cusps-which show higher rates of fracture-had higher average mechanical property values, with no significant differences observed between sides. Preliminary phylogenetic results suggest there is relatively little phylogenetic signal in gradients of mechanical properties through the enamel or across the crown. There appears to be common mechanical property patterns across molar crowns in Catarrhini and potentially among primates more broadly. These results may allow more precise interpretations of dental biomechanics and processes resulting in mechanical failure of enamel in primates, such as wear and fracture.


Assuntos
Dente , Animais , Filogenia , Primatas , Coroas , Cercopithecidae , Dureza , Esmalte Dentário
11.
Sci Adv ; 9(20): eadf9445, 2023 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37205762

RESUMO

Detailed neuroscientific data from macaque monkeys have been essential in advancing understanding of human frontal cortex function, particularly for regions of frontal cortex without homologs in other model species. However, precise transfer of this knowledge for direct use in human applications requires an understanding of monkey to hominid homologies, particularly whether and how sulci and cytoarchitectonic regions in the frontal cortex of macaques relate to those in hominids. We combine sulcal pattern analysis with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and cytoarchitectonic analysis to show that old-world monkey brains have the same principles of organization as hominid brains, with the notable exception of sulci in the frontopolar cortex. This essential comparative framework provides insights into primate brain evolution and a key tool to drive translation from invasive research in monkeys to human applications.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Animais , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Primatas , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Macaca , Cercopithecidae
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(18): e2300545120, 2023 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37098066

RESUMO

The Old World macaque monkey and New World common marmoset provide fundamental models for human visual processing, yet the human ancestral lineage diverged from these monkey lineages over 25 Mya. We therefore asked whether fine-scale synaptic wiring in the nervous system is preserved across these three primate families, despite long periods of independent evolution. We applied connectomic electron microscopy to the specialized foveal retina where circuits for highest acuity and color vision reside. Synaptic motifs arising from the cone photoreceptor type sensitive to short (S) wavelengths and associated with "blue-yellow" (S-ON and S-OFF) color-coding circuitry were reconstructed. We found that distinctive circuitry arises from S cones for each of the three species. The S cones contacted neighboring L and M (long- and middle-wavelength sensitive) cones in humans, but such contacts were rare or absent in macaques and marmosets. We discovered a major S-OFF pathway in the human retina and established its absence in marmosets. Further, the S-ON and S-OFF chromatic pathways make excitatory-type synaptic contacts with L and M cone types in humans, but not in macaques or marmosets. Our results predict that early-stage chromatic signals are distinct in the human retina and imply that solving the human connectome at the nanoscale level of synaptic wiring will be critical for fully understanding the neural basis of human color vision.


Assuntos
Visão de Cores , Conectoma , Animais , Humanos , Callithrix , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/fisiologia , Macaca , Cercopithecidae
13.
J Hum Evol ; 178: 103333, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36965446

RESUMO

Theropithecus brumpti is a primate known from numerous craniodental specimens in the Plio-Pleistocene Shungura Formation (Lower Omo Valley, Ethiopia), but the anatomy of its hindlimb is documented only by a few associated and mostly incomplete postcranial specimens. The adaptations of T. brumpti are still debated, with its substrate preferences and its use of squatting postures recently discussed based on anatomical differences when compared with its extant representative, Theropithecus gelada. Here, we describe an associated femur and tibia (L 869-1 and L 869-2) of a presumed T. brumpti male and a partial foot (L 865-1r and L 865-1t) of a male T. brumpti, dated to ca. 2.6 Ma and ca. 2.32 Ma respectively. Based on univariate and bivariate morphometric analyses, we provide new data on the morphological correlates of substrate preferences and postural behaviors of this fossil species. Our results are in agreement with previous analyses and present T. brumpti as a predominantly terrestrial primate. We demonstrate the presence of osteological correlates associated with the use of squatting behaviors in T. brumpti but also point to significant anatomical differences between this paleontological species and T. gelada. These differences blur the functional value of characters previously identified as diagnostic of T. gelada and its postural behavior. We further document the postcranial distinctiveness of the Theropithecus clade in relation to the Papio clade. This study thus provides new insights into the postcranial anatomy and paleoecology of an abundant fossil primate from the Plio-Pleistocene of eastern Africa.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae , Theropithecus , Animais , Masculino , Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Theropithecus/anatomia & histologia , Paleontologia , Papio/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Membro Posterior
14.
J Hum Evol ; 177: 103326, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36863301

RESUMO

A vast diversity of catarrhines primates has been uncovered in the Middle to Late Miocene (12.5-9.6 Ma) of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (northeastern Spain), including several hominid species (Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Anoiapithecus brevirostris, Dryopithecus fontani, Hispanopithecus laietanus, and Hispanopithecus crusafonti) plus some remains attributed to 'Sivapithecus' occidentalis (of uncertain taxonomic validity). However, Pierolapithecus and Anoiapithecus have also been considered junior synonyms of Dryopithecus by some authors, which entail a lower generic diversity and an inflated intrageneric variation of the latter genus. Since the distinction of these taxa partly relies on dental features, the detailed and quantitative analysis of tooth shape might help disentangling the taxonomic diversity of these Miocene hominids. Using diffeomorphic surface matching and three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, we investigate the enamel-dentine junction shape (which is a reliable taxonomic proxy) of these Miocene hominids, with the aim of investigating their degree of intra- and intergeneric variation compared with that of extant great ape genera. We conducted statistical analyses, including between-group principal component analyses, canonical variate analyses, and permutation tests, to investigate whether the individual and combined (i.e., Dryopithecus s.l.) variation of the extinct genera exceeds that of the extant great apes. Our results indicate that Pierolapithecus, Anoiapithecus, Dryopithecus, and Hispanopithecus show morphological differences of enamel-dentine junction shape relative to the extant great apes that are consistent with their attribution to different genera. Specifically, the variation displayed by the Middle Miocene taxa combined exceeds that of extant great ape genera, thus undermining the single-genus hypothesis. 'Sivapithecus' occidentalis specimens fall close to Dryopithecus but in the absence of well-preserved comparable teeth for Pierolapithecus and Anoiapithecus, their taxonomic attribution remains uncertain. Among the Hispanopithecus sample, IPS1802 from Can Llobateres stands out and might either be an outlier in terms of morphology, or represent another dryopithecine taxon.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Dente , Animais , Fósseis , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecidae , Dentina , Esmalte Dentário
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(2)2023 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36833175

RESUMO

The history of Alu retroposons has been choreographed by the systematic accumulation of inherited diagnostic nucleotide substitutions to form discrete subfamilies, each having a distinct nucleotide consensus sequence. The oldest subfamily, AluJ, gave rise to AluS after the split between Strepsirrhini and what would become Catarrhini and Platyrrhini. The AluS lineage gave rise to AluY in catarrhines and to AluTa in platyrrhines. Platyrrhine Alu subfamilies Ta7, Ta10, and Ta15 were assigned names based on a standardized nomenclature. However, with the subsequent intensification of whole genome sequencing (WGS), large scale analyses to characterize Alu subfamilies using the program COSEG identified entire lineages of subfamilies simultaneously. The first platyrrhine genome with WGS, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus; [caljac3]), resulted in Alu subfamily names sf0 to sf94 in an arbitrary order. Although easily resolved by alignment of the consensus sequences, this naming convention can become increasingly confusing as more genomes are independently analyzed. In this study, we reported Alu subfamily characterization for the platyrrhine three-family clade of Cebidae, Callithrichidae, and Aotidae. We investigated one species/genome from each recognized family of Callithrichidae and Aotidae and of both subfamilies (Cebinae and Saimiriinae) of the family Cebidae. Furthermore, we constructed a comprehensive network of Alu subfamily evolution within the three-family clade of platyrrhines to provide a working framework for future research. Alu expansion in the three-family clade has been dominated by AluTa15 and its derivatives.


Assuntos
Cebidae , Animais , Cebidae/genética , Aotidae/genética , Elementos Alu , Evolução Molecular , Cercopithecidae/genética , Nucleotídeos
16.
Elife ; 112022 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458685

RESUMO

Viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to antagonize host immunity such as direct inhibition and relocalization of cellular APOBEC3B (A3B) by the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) of Epstein-Barr virus. Here, we investigate the mechanistic conservation and evolutionary origin of this innate immune counteraction strategy. First, we find that human gamma-herpesvirus RNRs engage A3B via largely distinct surfaces. Second, we show that RNR-mediated enzymatic inhibition and relocalization of A3B depend upon binding to different regions of the catalytic domain. Third, we show that the capability of viral RNRs to antagonize A3B is conserved among gamma-herpesviruses that infect humans and Old World monkeys that encode this enzyme but absent in homologous viruses that infect New World monkeys that naturally lack the A3B gene. Finally, we reconstruct the ancestral primate A3B protein and demonstrate that it is active and similarly engaged by the RNRs from viruses that infect humans and Old World monkeys but not by the RNRs from viruses that infect New World monkeys. These results combine to indicate that the birth of A3B at a critical branchpoint in primate evolution may have been a driving force in selecting for an ancestral gamma-herpesvirus with an expanded RNR functionality through counteraction of this antiviral enzyme.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases , Vírus , Humanos , Animais , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/genética , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Imunidade Inata , Platirrinos/metabolismo , Cercopithecidae/metabolismo , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2121105119, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215474

RESUMO

Among mammals, the order Primates is exceptional in having a high taxonomic richness in which the taxa are arboreal, semiterrestrial, or terrestrial. Although habitual terrestriality is pervasive among the apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), it is largely absent among monkeys of the Americas (platyrrhines), as well as galagos, lemurs, and lorises (strepsirrhines), which are mostly arboreal. Numerous ecological drivers and species-specific factors are suggested to set the conditions for an evolutionary shift from arboreality to terrestriality, and current environmental conditions may provide analogous scenarios to those transitional periods. Therefore, we investigated predominantly arboreal, diurnal primate genera from the Americas and Madagascar that lack fully terrestrial taxa, to determine whether ecological drivers (habitat canopy cover, predation risk, maximum temperature, precipitation, primate species richness, human population density, and distance to roads) or species-specific traits (body mass, group size, and degree of frugivory) associate with increased terrestriality. We collated 150,961 observation hours across 2,227 months from 47 species at 20 sites in Madagascar and 48 sites in the Americas. Multiple factors were associated with ground use in these otherwise arboreal species, including increased temperature, a decrease in canopy cover, a dietary shift away from frugivory, and larger group size. These factors mostly explain intraspecific differences in terrestriality. As humanity modifies habitats and causes climate change, our results suggest that species already inhabiting hot, sparsely canopied sites, and exhibiting more generalized diets, are more likely to shift toward greater ground use.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Primatas , América , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Madagáscar , Mamíferos , Árvores
18.
J Comp Pathol ; 199: 55-74, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308890

RESUMO

We present the pathology of monkeys naturally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from five different colonies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. On the basis of gross and histopathological findings, the lesions were classified into chronic-active, extrapulmonary, early-activation or latent-reactivation stages. Typical granulomatous pneumonia was seen in 46.6% of cases (six rhesus monkeys [Macaca mulatta] and one Uta Hick's bearded saki [Chiropotes utahickae]). The absence of pulmonary granulomas did not preclude a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB): classical granulomatous pneumonia was observed in the chronic-active and latent-reactivation stages but not in the extrapulmonary and early-activation stages. The early-activation stage was characterized by interstitial pneumonia with a predominance of foamy macrophages and molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of M. tuberculosis complex infection. TB should be considered as a cause of interstitial pneumonia in New World Monkeys. We recommend the use of immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis for diagnosis of TB, even when typical macroscopic or histological changes are not observed.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pneumonia , Tuberculose , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Brasil , Tuberculose/veterinária , Granuloma/veterinária , Granuloma/patologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Macaca mulatta
19.
J Hum Evol ; 171: 103251, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113226

RESUMO

Yuanmoupithecus xiaoyuan, a small catarrhine from the Late Miocene of Yunnan in southern China, was initially suggested to be related to Miocene proconsuloids or dendropithecoids from East Africa, but subsequent reports indicated that it might be more closely related to hylobatids. Here, detailed comparisons of the material, including seven newly discovered teeth and a partial lower face of a juvenile individual, provide crucial evidence to help establish its phylogenetic relationships. Yuanmoupithecus exhibits a suite of synapomorphies that support a close phylogenetic relationship with extant hylobatids. Furthermore, based on the retention of several primitive features of the dentition, Yuanmoupithecus can be shown to be the sister taxon of crown hylobatids. The contention that Kapi ramnagarensis from the Middle Miocene of India might represent an earlier species of hylobatid is not supported here. Instead, Kapi is inferred to be a specialized pliopithecoid more closely related to Krishnapithecus krishnaii from the Late Miocene of India. Currently then, Yuanmoupithecus represents the earliest known definitively identified hylobatid and the only member of the clade predating the Pleistocene. It extends the fossil record of hylobatids back to 7-8 Ma and fills a critical gap in the evolutionary history of hominoids that has up until now remained elusive. Even so, molecular estimates of a divergence date of hylobatids from other hominoids at about 17-22 Ma signifies that there is still a substantial gap in the fossil record of more than 10 million years that needs to be filled in order to document the biogeographic origins and early evolution of hylobatids.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae , Animais , Cercopithecidae , China , Fósseis , Filogenia
20.
J Hum Evol ; 170: 103234, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001899

RESUMO

Understanding the biogeography and evolution of Miocene catarrhines relies on accurate specimen provenience. It has long been speculated that some catarrhine specimens among the early collections from Miocene sites in Kenya have incorrect provenience data. The provenience of one of these, the holotype of Equatorius africanus (NHM M16649), was previously revised based on x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Here we use nondestructive portable x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to test the provenience of additional catarrhine specimens that, based on morphology and/or incomplete provenience information, were identified as possibly having been collected at a different site from that recorded at museum accession. We test the hypotheses that two specimens purportedly from the Early Miocene site of Rusinga (KNM-RU 1681 and KNM-RU 1999) are instead from Maboko, three specimens purportedly from the Middle Miocene site of Fort Ternan (KNM-FT 8, KNM-FT 41, and KNM-FT 3318) are instead from Songhor, and one specimen accessioned as being from Songhor (KNM-SO 5352) is from that site. Elemental data reveal that two of the specimens (KNM-FT 3318 and KNM-RU 1681) are likely to have been collected at sites other than their museum-accessioned provenience, while two others (KNM-RU 1999, and KNM-FT 41) were confirmed to have correct provenience. Results for both KNM-FT 8 and KNM-SO 5352, while somewhat equivocal, are best interpreted as supporting their accessioned provenience. Our results have implications for the distribution of certain catarrhine species during the Miocene in Kenya. Confirmation of the provenience of the specimens also facilitates taxonomic attribution, and resulted in additions to the morphological characterizations of some species. The protocol presented here has potential for wider application to assessing questions of provenience for fossils from other locations and periods.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Quênia , Primatas , Espectrometria por Raios X
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