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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2121105119, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215474

RESUMO

Among mammals, the order Primates is exceptional in having a high taxonomic richness in which the taxa are arboreal, semiterrestrial, or terrestrial. Although habitual terrestriality is pervasive among the apes and African and Asian monkeys (catarrhines), it is largely absent among monkeys of the Americas (platyrrhines), as well as galagos, lemurs, and lorises (strepsirrhines), which are mostly arboreal. Numerous ecological drivers and species-specific factors are suggested to set the conditions for an evolutionary shift from arboreality to terrestriality, and current environmental conditions may provide analogous scenarios to those transitional periods. Therefore, we investigated predominantly arboreal, diurnal primate genera from the Americas and Madagascar that lack fully terrestrial taxa, to determine whether ecological drivers (habitat canopy cover, predation risk, maximum temperature, precipitation, primate species richness, human population density, and distance to roads) or species-specific traits (body mass, group size, and degree of frugivory) associate with increased terrestriality. We collated 150,961 observation hours across 2,227 months from 47 species at 20 sites in Madagascar and 48 sites in the Americas. Multiple factors were associated with ground use in these otherwise arboreal species, including increased temperature, a decrease in canopy cover, a dietary shift away from frugivory, and larger group size. These factors mostly explain intraspecific differences in terrestriality. As humanity modifies habitats and causes climate change, our results suggest that species already inhabiting hot, sparsely canopied sites, and exhibiting more generalized diets, are more likely to shift toward greater ground use.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Primatas , América , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Madagáscar , Mamíferos , Árvores
2.
J Comp Pathol ; 199: 55-74, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308890

RESUMO

We present the pathology of monkeys naturally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from five different colonies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. On the basis of gross and histopathological findings, the lesions were classified into chronic-active, extrapulmonary, early-activation or latent-reactivation stages. Typical granulomatous pneumonia was seen in 46.6% of cases (six rhesus monkeys [Macaca mulatta] and one Uta Hick's bearded saki [Chiropotes utahickae]). The absence of pulmonary granulomas did not preclude a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB): classical granulomatous pneumonia was observed in the chronic-active and latent-reactivation stages but not in the extrapulmonary and early-activation stages. The early-activation stage was characterized by interstitial pneumonia with a predominance of foamy macrophages and molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of M. tuberculosis complex infection. TB should be considered as a cause of interstitial pneumonia in New World Monkeys. We recommend the use of immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis for diagnosis of TB, even when typical macroscopic or histological changes are not observed.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pneumonia , Tuberculose , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Brasil , Tuberculose/veterinária , Granuloma/veterinária , Granuloma/patologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Macaca mulatta
3.
J Hum Evol ; 171: 103251, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113226

RESUMO

Yuanmoupithecus xiaoyuan, a small catarrhine from the Late Miocene of Yunnan in southern China, was initially suggested to be related to Miocene proconsuloids or dendropithecoids from East Africa, but subsequent reports indicated that it might be more closely related to hylobatids. Here, detailed comparisons of the material, including seven newly discovered teeth and a partial lower face of a juvenile individual, provide crucial evidence to help establish its phylogenetic relationships. Yuanmoupithecus exhibits a suite of synapomorphies that support a close phylogenetic relationship with extant hylobatids. Furthermore, based on the retention of several primitive features of the dentition, Yuanmoupithecus can be shown to be the sister taxon of crown hylobatids. The contention that Kapi ramnagarensis from the Middle Miocene of India might represent an earlier species of hylobatid is not supported here. Instead, Kapi is inferred to be a specialized pliopithecoid more closely related to Krishnapithecus krishnaii from the Late Miocene of India. Currently then, Yuanmoupithecus represents the earliest known definitively identified hylobatid and the only member of the clade predating the Pleistocene. It extends the fossil record of hylobatids back to 7-8 Ma and fills a critical gap in the evolutionary history of hominoids that has up until now remained elusive. Even so, molecular estimates of a divergence date of hylobatids from other hominoids at about 17-22 Ma signifies that there is still a substantial gap in the fossil record of more than 10 million years that needs to be filled in order to document the biogeographic origins and early evolution of hylobatids.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Hominidae , Animais , Cercopithecidae , China , Fósseis , Filogenia
4.
J Hum Evol ; 170: 103234, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001899

RESUMO

Understanding the biogeography and evolution of Miocene catarrhines relies on accurate specimen provenience. It has long been speculated that some catarrhine specimens among the early collections from Miocene sites in Kenya have incorrect provenience data. The provenience of one of these, the holotype of Equatorius africanus (NHM M16649), was previously revised based on x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Here we use nondestructive portable x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to test the provenience of additional catarrhine specimens that, based on morphology and/or incomplete provenience information, were identified as possibly having been collected at a different site from that recorded at museum accession. We test the hypotheses that two specimens purportedly from the Early Miocene site of Rusinga (KNM-RU 1681 and KNM-RU 1999) are instead from Maboko, three specimens purportedly from the Middle Miocene site of Fort Ternan (KNM-FT 8, KNM-FT 41, and KNM-FT 3318) are instead from Songhor, and one specimen accessioned as being from Songhor (KNM-SO 5352) is from that site. Elemental data reveal that two of the specimens (KNM-FT 3318 and KNM-RU 1681) are likely to have been collected at sites other than their museum-accessioned provenience, while two others (KNM-RU 1999, and KNM-FT 41) were confirmed to have correct provenience. Results for both KNM-FT 8 and KNM-SO 5352, while somewhat equivocal, are best interpreted as supporting their accessioned provenience. Our results have implications for the distribution of certain catarrhine species during the Miocene in Kenya. Confirmation of the provenience of the specimens also facilitates taxonomic attribution, and resulted in additions to the morphological characterizations of some species. The protocol presented here has potential for wider application to assessing questions of provenience for fossils from other locations and periods.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Quênia , Primatas , Espectrometria por Raios X
5.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891351

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are viral "fossils" in the human genome that originated from the ancient integration of exogenous retroviruses. Although HERVs have sporadically been reported in nonhuman primate genomes, their deep origination in pan-primates remains to be explored. Hence, based on the in silico genomic mining of full-length HERVs in 49 primates, we performed the largest systematic survey to date of the distribution, phylogeny, and functional predictions of HERVs. Most importantly, we obtained conclusive evidence of nonhuman origin for most contemporary HERVs. We found that various supergroups, including HERVW9, HUERSP, HSERVIII, HERVIPADP, HERVK, and HERVHF, were widely distributed in Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini (New World monkeys) and Catarrhini (Old World monkeys and apes). We found that numerous HERVHFs are spread by vertical transmission within Catarrhini and one HERVHF was traced in 17 species, indicating its ancient nature. We also discovered that 164 HERVs were likely involved in genomic rearrangement and 107 HERVs were potentially coopted in the form of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in humans. In summary, we provided comprehensive data on the deep origination of modern HERVs in pan-primates.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Filogenia , Platirrinos
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3823, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264686

RESUMO

The TAR DNA Binding Protein (TARDBP) gene has become relevant after the discovery of its several pathogenic mutations. The lack of evolutionary history is in contrast to the amount of studies found in the literature. This study investigated the evolutionary dynamics associated with the retrotransposition of the TARDBP gene in primates. We identified novel retropseudogenes that likely originated in the ancestors of anthropoids, catarrhines, and lemuriformes, i.e. the strepsirrhine clade that inhabit Madagascar. We also found species-specific retropseudogenes in the Philippine tarsier, Bolivian squirrel monkey, capuchin monkey and vervet. The identification of a retropseudocopy of the TARDBP gene overlapping a lncRNA that is potentially expressed opens a new avenue to investigate TARDBP gene regulation, especially in the context of TARDBP associated pathologies.


Assuntos
Primatas , Tarsiidae , Animais , Cebus , Cercopithecidae , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Primatas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Tarsiidae/genética
8.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(1): 1-10, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339144

RESUMO

Obstructive and incidental urolithiasis cases were evaluated in 5 Asian colobine monkey species (n= 21 individuals) that included 12 silvery langurs (Trachypithecus cristatus), 6 spectacled langurs (Trachypithecus obscurus), 1 Javan langur (Trachypithecus auratus auratus), 1 François' langur (Trachypithecus francoisi), and 1 red-shanked douc langur (Pygathrix nemaeus) from eight zoologic institutions. All institutions that responded were Association of Zoos and Aquariums, European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, or World Association of Zoos and Aquariums accredited. Males were more commonly represented in the total number of cases (86%), and all cases of obstructive urolithiasis occurred in males. The most common clinical signs observed in obstructive cases included stranguria (58.8%), lethargy (41.2%), anorexia (29.4%), depression (17.6%), and penile manipulation (11.8%). Clinicopathologic abnormalities revealed azotemia (76.5%), anemia (35.3%), and hyperkalemia (23.5%). Eleven of the 21 cases included urinalysis results, and crystalluria was reported in all 11. Obstructive cases were more commonly managed surgically, with medical management following. Instances of individual obstruction ranged from 0 (incidental finding) to 18, with a median of 8 (mean of 4.3) recurrent obstructions. A total of 39 urolith analyses were available from 17 of 21 cases, with calcium carbonate being the most common type isolated (37 of 39, 94.9%). Calcium oxalate was observed in the remaining 5.1% of cases (2 of 39). No cases exhibited a consistent match of crystalluria and urolith type. Death or euthanasia secondary to obstructive urolithiasis occurred in 52.4% of cases. Urinary obstruction secondary to urolithiasis appears to be a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in Asian colobine species, and further study into etiology and preventive medicine should be undertaken.


Assuntos
Presbytini , Urolitíase , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Masculino , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Urolitíase/epidemiologia , Urolitíase/veterinária
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(1)2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052460

RESUMO

Simian endogenous retrovirus, SERV, is a successful germ line invader restricted to Old World monkey (OWM) species. (1) Background: The availability of high-quality primate genomes warrants a study of the characteristics, evolution, and distribution of SERV proviruses. (2) Methods: Cercopithecinae OWM genomes from public databases were queried for the presence of full-length SERV proviruses. A dataset of 81 Cer-SERV genomes was generated and analyzed. (3) Results: Full-length Cer-SERV proviruses were mainly found in terrestrial OWM, and less so in arboreal, forest- dwelling monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existence of two genotypes, Cer-SERV-1 and Cer-SERV-2, with Cer-SERV-1 showing evidence of recent germ-line expansions. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) variation indicated that most proviruses were of a similar age and were estimated to be between <0.3 and 10 million years old. Integrations shared between species were relatively rare. Sequence analysis further showed extensive CpG methylation-associated mutations, variable Primer Binding Site (PBS) use with Cer-SERV-1 using PBSlys3 and Cer-SERV-2 using PBSlys1,2, and the recent gain of LTR motifs for transcription factors active during embryogenesis in Cer-SERV-1. (4) Conclusions: sequence analysis of 81 SERV proviruses from Cercopithecinae OWM genomes provides evidence for the adaptation of this retrovirus to germ line reproduction.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Provírus/fisiologia , Retrovirus dos Símios/fisiologia , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Sequências Repetidas Terminais
10.
J Hum Evol ; 163: 103136, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033736

RESUMO

The living guenons (Cercopithecini, Cercopithecidae) are speciose and widely distributed across sub-Saharan Africa but are poorly represented in the fossil record. In addition, the craniodental and skeletal similarity of the guenons has hampered the identification of fragmentary material, likely obscuring the taxonomic diversity represented in the fossil record. Here, we describe a new fossil guenon specimen (LAET 75-3703) from the Lower Ngaloba Beds, Laetoli in Tanzania, dated to ∼1.7-1.2 Ma and preserving the lower face and mandible. Comparison to 278 extant guenon specimens, representing all six extant genera, identified several informative traits for distinguishing between the morphologically similar Chlorocebus and Cercopithecus, and these support the attribution of LAET 75-3703 to Chlorocebus. A discriminant function analysis of seven craniodental indices on a subsample of Chlorocebus and Cercopithecus was robust with an overall correct classification rate of 80.4%, and it classified LAET 75-3703 as a member of Chlorocebus with a posterior probability of 92.7%. LAET 75-3703 shares with Chlorocebus the presence of small 'thumbprint' depressions on the maxilla; a tall, narrow, and diamond-shaped nasal aperture; a relatively longer and shallower face; relatively buccolingually broader molars; and a shallow mandible that decreases in depth posteriorly. In addition, LAET 75-3703 is distinguished from all extant guenons, including other species of Chlorocebus, in having a very small P3 relative to M1 area. As such, LAET 75-3703 is assigned to a new species, Chlorocebus ngedere sp. nov. This specimen represents the first cercopithecin from Laetoli, as well as the oldest fossil cercopithecin confidently attributed to a modern genus.


Assuntos
Cercopithecinae , Fósseis , Animais , Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecus , Tanzânia
11.
J Hum Evol ; 162: 103104, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883260

RESUMO

In this article, we describe an almost complete macaque mandible from the Middle Pleistocene locality Marathousa 1 in the Megalopolis Basin of southern Greece. The mandible belonged to a male individual of advanced ontogenetic age and of estimated body mass ∼13 kg. Comparative metric analysis of its teeth permits its attribution to the Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus, a species that was geographically widely distributed in Western Eurasia during the Plio-Pleistocene. The dental dimensions of the Marathousa 1 macaque fit better within the variation of the Early Pleistocene M. s. florentina and the Middle to Late Pleistocene M. s. pliocena rather than with the extant representative M. s. sylvanus. Moreover, principal component analysis reveals a better match with M. s. pliocena. However, because no clear-cut diagnostic criteria have been defined to differentiate these European fossil subspecies, we attribute the Marathousa 1 specimen to M. s. cf. pliocena, in agreement with the chronology of the locality. Previously known only from the Early Pleistocene of Greece by some isolated teeth, this is the first record of Macaca in the Middle Pleistocene of the country and one of very few in the eastern sector of the peri-Mediterranean region. We discuss the presence of macaques in the paleolake environment of Marathousa 1, as well as their predation risks from both carnivores and hominins present at the locality.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae , Hominidae , Animais , Fósseis , Grécia , Macaca , Masculino , Primatas
12.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(3): 182-188, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251155

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Viral hepatitis E is a zooanthroponotic disease that occurs in humans and various animals, including monkeys. It is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) (Hepeviridae, Orthohepevirus: Orthohepevirus A), for which 8 genotypes have been described to date. Among them, strains of genotypes 1 and 2 have been isolated from humans, strains of genotypes 3 and 4 from humans and animals, and strains of genotypes 5-8 from animals only. The main threat of the disease is associated with the documented zoonotic transmission of HEV genotypes 3, 4, 7, and 8, to humans through infected meat, blood and milk. Thus, monkeys could be involved in the transmission of HEV.The aim of this work was to study serological and molecular genetic markers of HEV infection in strepsirrhines (Old World monkeys, Cercopithecoidea), imported to the Adler Primate Center from various regions of the world (Tanzania, Vietnam, Mauritius). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fecal (n = 224) and blood serum samples (n = 395) from cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) were examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The data obtained show the high detection rate (51.8%) of IgG antibodies to HEV among 5 groups of cynomolgus monkeys imported from Vietnam, with a predominance of highly reactive sera (84%). High detection rate of IgM antibodies in these animals (10.4%) was observed, with the large number of IgM-reactive sera in one particular group of animals (36.8%). The fact of detection of HEV RNA in two groups of cynomolgus monkeys (11.9% and 5.7%) is of particular importance. All HEV sequences of isolated from monkeys belonged to genotype 4. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that monkeys (in particular, cynomolgus monkeys) can serve as a natural reservoir of HEV genotype 4 for humans. This requires an appropriate set of anti-epidemic measures in a number of situations.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Macaca fascicularis , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Chlorocebus aethiops , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/veterinária , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M , RNA Viral/genética
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 203, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pentatrichomonas hominis inhabits the digestive tracts of several vertebrates, such as humans, monkeys, pigs, dogs, cats and rats. This protozoan was originally considered a commensal of the digestive tract but has subsequently been identified as a potential zoonotic parasite and a causative agent of diarrhoea. Molecular techniques are considered more sensitive and specific to detect P. hominis. This study aimed to determine the presence and genetic diversity of P. hominis in animals in Thailand. A total of 403 faecal samples were collected from 119 cats, 55 dogs, 73 goats, 35 monkeys, 55 cattle and 66 pigs, and the presence of P. hominis was determined using the nested polymerase chain reaction method. Sequence analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes was used to determine the genotype of the organism. RESULTS: Twenty-six samples (26/403, 6.45%) were positive for P. hominis. The highest prevalence was found in cats (21/119; 17.65%), followed by cattle (3/55; 5.45%) and dogs (2/55; 3.64%). Seven out of 26 nucleotides demonstrated 100% sequence identity with existing sequences; additionally, 16 novel sequence patterns were identified. All nucleotide sequences of P. hominis-positive samples were shown in the same branch with the previously described P. hominis sequences found in humans, dogs and goat. CONCLUSION: This is the first study on P. hominis infections in animals in Thailand. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of P. hominis was significantly higher in cats than in cattle and dogs. Cats were the main reservoir host; however, P. hominis can infect several kinds of animals. Therefore, the proper waste management of animals is necessary to reduce and prevent infection in the community.


Assuntos
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/classificação , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Cercopithecidae/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
14.
J Morphol ; 282(9): 1287-1297, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053126

RESUMO

The sacrum, an essential skeletal element in the trunk, articulates with the ilium and lumbar and caudal vertebrae. While there are known morphological differences between hominoids and cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys), sacral morphological variations among cercopithecoids have rarely been studied outside of research on tail length variation. Increased knowledge regarding sacral variations in extant primates, however, could help in understanding and reconstructing their evolutionary development. Therefore, this study aimed to explore phylogenetic sacral shape variations among cercopithecoids. Geometric morphometric analyses were performed on 221 sacra from 39 different cercopithecoid species. Clear shape differences were observed among Colobinae, Cercopithecini, and Papionini, particularly in the spinous processes and sacral lateral mass. These parts function as muscle attachment points or skeletal joints, and variations in them seemed to reflect their required functions. However, the significance of the relationship between shape and function was not so great as to explain all the observed variation. According to recent genetic/developmental biological studies, shape variations may also be caused by the pleiotropic effects of some genes, such as posterior Hox genes. Therefore, while skeletal morphology has previously been considered to be directly connected to skeletal function, this study's results suggest that other factors influencing sacral shape require further research.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Sacro , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Filogenia , Primatas
15.
Mol Immunol ; 132: 79-81, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550067

RESUMO

Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are major players in the host immunity, providing defense against bacterial and viral invaders. Multigene families may suffer different processes of evolution. Gene families related to the immune system usually follow the birth-and-death evolution process, where duplicated genes can be deleted, gain new functions or become non-functional. We analyzed publicly available primate GBP sequences and their genomic organization and observed that GBP7 genes appear to have emerged from a duplication of GBP4 and seem to be only present in primates. Furthermore, GBP3 genes are only present in Simiiformes and probably originated from GBP1 genes. Finally, a duplication event occurred in the GBP6 in Tarsiiformes and became functional which might also explain the duplication of GBP6 in New World monkeys and Cercopithecidae. Taken together, this study provides new knowledge on the evolution of GBPs in primates and suggests that a revision of the GBPs nomenclature is necessary.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/classificação , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Primatas/genética , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Platirrinos/genética , Tarsii/genética
16.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000954, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270638

RESUMO

Our understanding of the evolutionary history of primates is undergoing continual revision due to ongoing genome sequencing efforts. Bolstered by growing fossil evidence, these data have led to increased acceptance of once controversial hypotheses regarding phylogenetic relationships, hybridization and introgression, and the biogeographical history of primate groups. Among these findings is a pattern of recent introgression between species within all major primate groups examined to date, though little is known about introgression deeper in time. To address this and other phylogenetic questions, here, we present new reference genome assemblies for 3 Old World monkey (OWM) species: Colobus angolensis ssp. palliatus (the black and white colobus), Macaca nemestrina (southern pig-tailed macaque), and Mandrillus leucophaeus (the drill). We combine these data with 23 additional primate genomes to estimate both the species tree and individual gene trees using thousands of loci. While our species tree is largely consistent with previous phylogenetic hypotheses, the gene trees reveal high levels of genealogical discordance associated with multiple primate radiations. We use strongly asymmetric patterns of gene tree discordance around specific branches to identify multiple instances of introgression between ancestral primate lineages. In addition, we exploit recent fossil evidence to perform fossil-calibrated molecular dating analyses across the tree. Taken together, our genome-wide data help to resolve multiple contentious sets of relationships among primates, while also providing insight into the biological processes and technical artifacts that led to the disagreements in the first place.


Assuntos
Introgressão Genética/genética , Primatas/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fósseis , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genoma/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
18.
J Hum Evol ; 148: 102886, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031954

RESUMO

The late Early Miocene site of Buluk, Kenya, has yielded fossil remains of several catarrhine primates, including 16 dentognathic specimens of the stem cercopithecoid Noropithecus bulukensis. With the exception of the large sample of Victoriapithecus macinnesi from the middle Miocene of Maboko Island, Kenya, the majority of stem cercopithecoid taxa are represented by small sample sizes. We describe and analyze 91 new cercopithecoid fossils collected from Buluk between 2004 and 2018, including several previously undescribed tooth positions for N. bulukensis, and provide the first evaluation of dental metric and morphological variation in this sample. The results show that the expanded Buluk sample exhibits high levels of dental variation in the postcanine tooth row, similar to V. macinnesi at Maboko, but this variation is consistent with a single-species hypothesis. Subtle differences in the shape of the I1, breadth of the C1 and P3, relative breadth of M1, upper and lower molar distal shelf lengths, the degree of M2 basal flare, and a less-developed lower molar distal lophid differentiate the dentition of N. bulukensis from V. macinnesi. Although differences exist between the N. bulukensis and V. macinnesi dental samples, the high degree of variation within each sample complicates the identification of many individual specimens. New partial maxillae and mandibles allow reassessment of previously described diagnostic differences between N. bulukensis and V. macinnesi, negating upper molar arcade shape as a diagnostic feature and confirming the existence of differences in mandibular symphyseal morphology. Overall, new fossils from Buluk provide new evidence of the dentognathic anatomy of a medium-sized cercopithecoid that coexisted with a diverse group of noncercopithecoid catarrhines at the end of the early Miocene.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Primatas , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Quênia , Dente Molar
19.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731344

RESUMO

The genesis of gene families by the capture of host genes and their subsequent duplication is a crucial process in the evolution of large DNA viruses. CD48 is a cell surface molecule that interacts via its N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) domain with the cell surface receptor 2B4 (CD244), regulating leukocyte cytotoxicity. We previously reported the presence of five CD48 homologs (vCD48s) in two related cytomegaloviruses, and demonstrated that one of them, A43, binds 2B4 and acts as a soluble CD48 decoy receptor impairing NK cell function. Here, we have characterized the rest of these vCD48s. We show that they are highly glycosylated proteins that display remarkably distinct features: divergent biochemical properties, cellular locations, and temporal expression kinetics. In contrast to A43, none of them interacts with 2B4. Consistent with this, molecular modeling of the N-terminal Ig domains of these vCD48s evidences notable changes as compared to CD48, suggesting that they interact with alternative targets. Accordingly, we demonstrate that one of them, S30, tightly binds CD2, a crucial T- and NK-cell adhesion and costimulatory molecule. Thus, our findings show how a key host immune receptor gene captured by a virus can be subsequently remodeled to evolve new immunoevasins with altered binding properties.


Assuntos
Antígeno CD48/genética , Antígeno CD48/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Cercopithecidae/virologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Saimiri/virologia , Homologia de Sequência , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia
20.
Anal Biochem ; 606: 113825, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712063

RESUMO

Alu elements, averaging ~300bp in length, are a family of primate-specific short intersperse nuclear elements (SINEs) with more than one million copies and contributing to ~11% of primate genomes. Despite mostly being shared among primates, our recent study revealed highly differential recent Alu transposition among the genomes of primates from Hominidae and Cercopithecidae families. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed six primate genomes and revealed species- and lineage-specific Alu profile exclusively defined by AluY composition. Among all Alus from the 6 genomes, we identified 5401 Alu master copies with 99% being from the AluY subfamily. The numbers of Alu master copies are positively correlated to the number of AluY elements in the genomes with the baboon genome having the largest number of most recent Alu master copies at high activities, while the crab-eating macaque genome having a low number of Alu master copies with low activity. Furthermore, the expression level of Alu master copies is positively correlated with their transposition activity. Our results support the concept that Alu transposition in primate genomes is driven by a small number of master copies, the number and relative activity of which contribute to the differential Alu transposition in recent primate genomes.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu , Cercopithecidae/genética , Genoma , Hominidae/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Dosagem de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos , Especificidade da Espécie
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