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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 203, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pentatrichomonas hominis inhabits the digestive tracts of several vertebrates, such as humans, monkeys, pigs, dogs, cats and rats. This protozoan was originally considered a commensal of the digestive tract but has subsequently been identified as a potential zoonotic parasite and a causative agent of diarrhoea. Molecular techniques are considered more sensitive and specific to detect P. hominis. This study aimed to determine the presence and genetic diversity of P. hominis in animals in Thailand. A total of 403 faecal samples were collected from 119 cats, 55 dogs, 73 goats, 35 monkeys, 55 cattle and 66 pigs, and the presence of P. hominis was determined using the nested polymerase chain reaction method. Sequence analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes was used to determine the genotype of the organism. RESULTS: Twenty-six samples (26/403, 6.45%) were positive for P. hominis. The highest prevalence was found in cats (21/119; 17.65%), followed by cattle (3/55; 5.45%) and dogs (2/55; 3.64%). Seven out of 26 nucleotides demonstrated 100% sequence identity with existing sequences; additionally, 16 novel sequence patterns were identified. All nucleotide sequences of P. hominis-positive samples were shown in the same branch with the previously described P. hominis sequences found in humans, dogs and goat. CONCLUSION: This is the first study on P. hominis infections in animals in Thailand. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of P. hominis was significantly higher in cats than in cattle and dogs. Cats were the main reservoir host; however, P. hominis can infect several kinds of animals. Therefore, the proper waste management of animals is necessary to reduce and prevent infection in the community.


Assuntos
Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/classificação , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Cercopithecidae/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
2.
J Morphol ; 282(9): 1287-1297, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053126

RESUMO

The sacrum, an essential skeletal element in the trunk, articulates with the ilium and lumbar and caudal vertebrae. While there are known morphological differences between hominoids and cercopithecoids (Old World monkeys), sacral morphological variations among cercopithecoids have rarely been studied outside of research on tail length variation. Increased knowledge regarding sacral variations in extant primates, however, could help in understanding and reconstructing their evolutionary development. Therefore, this study aimed to explore phylogenetic sacral shape variations among cercopithecoids. Geometric morphometric analyses were performed on 221 sacra from 39 different cercopithecoid species. Clear shape differences were observed among Colobinae, Cercopithecini, and Papionini, particularly in the spinous processes and sacral lateral mass. These parts function as muscle attachment points or skeletal joints, and variations in them seemed to reflect their required functions. However, the significance of the relationship between shape and function was not so great as to explain all the observed variation. According to recent genetic/developmental biological studies, shape variations may also be caused by the pleiotropic effects of some genes, such as posterior Hox genes. Therefore, while skeletal morphology has previously been considered to be directly connected to skeletal function, this study's results suggest that other factors influencing sacral shape require further research.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Sacro , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Filogenia , Primatas
3.
Mol Immunol ; 132: 79-81, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550067

RESUMO

Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are major players in the host immunity, providing defense against bacterial and viral invaders. Multigene families may suffer different processes of evolution. Gene families related to the immune system usually follow the birth-and-death evolution process, where duplicated genes can be deleted, gain new functions or become non-functional. We analyzed publicly available primate GBP sequences and their genomic organization and observed that GBP7 genes appear to have emerged from a duplication of GBP4 and seem to be only present in primates. Furthermore, GBP3 genes are only present in Simiiformes and probably originated from GBP1 genes. Finally, a duplication event occurred in the GBP6 in Tarsiiformes and became functional which might also explain the duplication of GBP6 in New World monkeys and Cercopithecidae. Taken together, this study provides new knowledge on the evolution of GBPs in primates and suggests that a revision of the GBPs nomenclature is necessary.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/classificação , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Primatas/genética , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Platirrinos/genética , Tarsii/genética
4.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000954, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270638

RESUMO

Our understanding of the evolutionary history of primates is undergoing continual revision due to ongoing genome sequencing efforts. Bolstered by growing fossil evidence, these data have led to increased acceptance of once controversial hypotheses regarding phylogenetic relationships, hybridization and introgression, and the biogeographical history of primate groups. Among these findings is a pattern of recent introgression between species within all major primate groups examined to date, though little is known about introgression deeper in time. To address this and other phylogenetic questions, here, we present new reference genome assemblies for 3 Old World monkey (OWM) species: Colobus angolensis ssp. palliatus (the black and white colobus), Macaca nemestrina (southern pig-tailed macaque), and Mandrillus leucophaeus (the drill). We combine these data with 23 additional primate genomes to estimate both the species tree and individual gene trees using thousands of loci. While our species tree is largely consistent with previous phylogenetic hypotheses, the gene trees reveal high levels of genealogical discordance associated with multiple primate radiations. We use strongly asymmetric patterns of gene tree discordance around specific branches to identify multiple instances of introgression between ancestral primate lineages. In addition, we exploit recent fossil evidence to perform fossil-calibrated molecular dating analyses across the tree. Taken together, our genome-wide data help to resolve multiple contentious sets of relationships among primates, while also providing insight into the biological processes and technical artifacts that led to the disagreements in the first place.


Assuntos
Introgressão Genética/genética , Primatas/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fósseis , Fluxo Gênico/genética , Genoma/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
6.
J Hum Evol ; 148: 102886, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031954

RESUMO

The late Early Miocene site of Buluk, Kenya, has yielded fossil remains of several catarrhine primates, including 16 dentognathic specimens of the stem cercopithecoid Noropithecus bulukensis. With the exception of the large sample of Victoriapithecus macinnesi from the middle Miocene of Maboko Island, Kenya, the majority of stem cercopithecoid taxa are represented by small sample sizes. We describe and analyze 91 new cercopithecoid fossils collected from Buluk between 2004 and 2018, including several previously undescribed tooth positions for N. bulukensis, and provide the first evaluation of dental metric and morphological variation in this sample. The results show that the expanded Buluk sample exhibits high levels of dental variation in the postcanine tooth row, similar to V. macinnesi at Maboko, but this variation is consistent with a single-species hypothesis. Subtle differences in the shape of the I1, breadth of the C1 and P3, relative breadth of M1, upper and lower molar distal shelf lengths, the degree of M2 basal flare, and a less-developed lower molar distal lophid differentiate the dentition of N. bulukensis from V. macinnesi. Although differences exist between the N. bulukensis and V. macinnesi dental samples, the high degree of variation within each sample complicates the identification of many individual specimens. New partial maxillae and mandibles allow reassessment of previously described diagnostic differences between N. bulukensis and V. macinnesi, negating upper molar arcade shape as a diagnostic feature and confirming the existence of differences in mandibular symphyseal morphology. Overall, new fossils from Buluk provide new evidence of the dentognathic anatomy of a medium-sized cercopithecoid that coexisted with a diverse group of noncercopithecoid catarrhines at the end of the early Miocene.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Primatas , Animais , Cercopithecidae , Quênia , Dente Molar
7.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731344

RESUMO

The genesis of gene families by the capture of host genes and their subsequent duplication is a crucial process in the evolution of large DNA viruses. CD48 is a cell surface molecule that interacts via its N-terminal immunoglobulin (Ig) domain with the cell surface receptor 2B4 (CD244), regulating leukocyte cytotoxicity. We previously reported the presence of five CD48 homologs (vCD48s) in two related cytomegaloviruses, and demonstrated that one of them, A43, binds 2B4 and acts as a soluble CD48 decoy receptor impairing NK cell function. Here, we have characterized the rest of these vCD48s. We show that they are highly glycosylated proteins that display remarkably distinct features: divergent biochemical properties, cellular locations, and temporal expression kinetics. In contrast to A43, none of them interacts with 2B4. Consistent with this, molecular modeling of the N-terminal Ig domains of these vCD48s evidences notable changes as compared to CD48, suggesting that they interact with alternative targets. Accordingly, we demonstrate that one of them, S30, tightly binds CD2, a crucial T- and NK-cell adhesion and costimulatory molecule. Thus, our findings show how a key host immune receptor gene captured by a virus can be subsequently remodeled to evolve new immunoevasins with altered binding properties.


Assuntos
Antígeno CD48/genética , Antígeno CD48/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Cercopithecidae/virologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Saimiri/virologia , Homologia de Sequência , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/virologia
8.
Anal Biochem ; 606: 113825, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712063

RESUMO

Alu elements, averaging ~300bp in length, are a family of primate-specific short intersperse nuclear elements (SINEs) with more than one million copies and contributing to ~11% of primate genomes. Despite mostly being shared among primates, our recent study revealed highly differential recent Alu transposition among the genomes of primates from Hominidae and Cercopithecidae families. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed six primate genomes and revealed species- and lineage-specific Alu profile exclusively defined by AluY composition. Among all Alus from the 6 genomes, we identified 5401 Alu master copies with 99% being from the AluY subfamily. The numbers of Alu master copies are positively correlated to the number of AluY elements in the genomes with the baboon genome having the largest number of most recent Alu master copies at high activities, while the crab-eating macaque genome having a low number of Alu master copies with low activity. Furthermore, the expression level of Alu master copies is positively correlated with their transposition activity. Our results support the concept that Alu transposition in primate genomes is driven by a small number of master copies, the number and relative activity of which contribute to the differential Alu transposition in recent primate genomes.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu , Cercopithecidae/genética , Genoma , Hominidae/genética , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Evolução Molecular , Dosagem de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
J Hum Evol ; 144: 102789, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485477

RESUMO

The Early Pliocene Sagantole Fm. in the Gona Project area, Afar State, Ethiopia, is noted for discoveries of the early hominin Ardipithecus ramidus. A large series of fossil cercopithecid primates dated to between 4.8 and 4.3 Ma has also been collected from these sediments. In this paper, we use qualitative analysis and standard dental and postcranial measures to systematically describe the craniodental remains and tentatively allocate postcrania to taxa where we are able to. We then use these data to compare these specimens to fossil assemblages from contemporary sites, interpret their paleobiology, and discuss implications for the paleoecology of the Gona Sagantole Fm. We recognize three cercopithecid species in the Gona Sagantole Fm. Pliopapio alemui makes up approximately two-thirds of the identifiable specimens; nearly all of the rest are allocated to Kuseracolobus aramisi, and a single molar indicates the presence of a second, somewhat larger but morphologically distinct papionin. Among the Early Pliocene cercopithecids from Gona are also a number of postcranial elements. None of the postcranial remains are directly associated with any of the cranial material. Nonetheless, some of the distal humeri and proximal femora can be tentatively allocated to either Pl. alemui or K. aramisi based on a combination of size, as the latter is approximately 50% larger than the former, and morphology. If these assignments are correct, they suggest K. aramisi was primarily arboreal and similar to most extant colobines, whereas Pl. alemui was more mixed in its substrate use, being more terrestrially adapted than K. aramisi, but less so than extant Papio or Theropithecus. Thus, we interpret the predominance of Pl. alemui over K. aramisi is consistent with a somewhat more open environment at Gona than at Aramis.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Cercopithecidae/fisiologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Etiópia , Feminino , Masculino
10.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 436, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex viruses form a genus within the alphaherpesvirus subfamily, with three identified viral species isolated from Old World monkeys (OWM); Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1 (McHV-1; herpes B), Cercopithecine alphaherpesvirus 2 (SA8), and Papiine alphaherpesvirus 2 (PaHV-2; herpes papio). Herpes B is endemic to macaques, while PaHV-2 and SA8 appear endemic to baboons. All three viruses are genetically and antigenically similar, with SA8 and PaHV-2 thought to be avirulent in humans, while herpes B is a biosafety level 4 pathogen. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has resulted in an increased number of published OWM herpes simplex genomes, allowing an encompassing phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: In this study, phylogenetic networks, in conjunction with a genome-based genetic distance cutoff method were used to examine 27 OWM monkey herpes simplex isolates. Genome-based genetic distances were calculated, resulting in distances between lion and pig-tailed simplex viruses themselves, and versus herpes B core strains that were higher than those between PaHV-2 and SA8 (approximately 14 and 10% respectively). The species distance cutoff was determined to be 8.94%, with the method recovering separate species status for PaHV-2 and SA8 and showed that lion and pig-tailed simplex viruses (vs core herpes B strains) were well over the distance species cutoff. CONCLUSIONS: We propose designating lion and pig-tailed simplex viruses as separate, individual viral species, and that this may be the first identification of viral cryptic species.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/virologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Simplexvirus/classificação , Animais , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , Simplexvirus/genética , Simplexvirus/isolamento & purificação
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9771, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555507

RESUMO

Triple-knockout (TKO) pigs (with added protective human transgenes) are likely to be optimal sources of organs for clinical organ xenotransplantation because many humans have minimal or no natural antibody to TKO pig cells. However, Old World monkeys (OWMs) have naturally-existing antibodies directed to TKO cells. We measured anti-pig IgM/IgG binding, and complement-dependent cytotoxicity to wild-type (WT), α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO), and TKO pig peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using sera from humans, several OWMs, and two New World monkeys (NWMs). Furthermore, we compared survival of GTKO (n = 5) and TKO (n = 3) pig kidneys in baboons. OWMs had significantly greater IgM binding and cytotoxicity to TKO PBMCs than humans or NWMs. Mean anti-TKO IgM was significantly higher in OWMs and significantly lower in NWMs than in humans. Cytotoxicity of OWM sera to TKO PBMCs was significantly greater than of human serum, but there was no significant difference between human and NWM sera. The median survival of TKO pig kidneys (4 days) in baboons was significantly shorter than that of GTKO kidneys (136 days) (p < 0.05). Even though considered ideal for clinical xenotransplantation, the presence of naturally-existing antibodies to TKO pig cells in OWMs complicates the transplantation of TKO pig kidneys in OWMs.


Assuntos
Antígenos Heterófilos/imunologia , Carboidratos/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Transplante Heterólogo/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anticorpos Heterófilos/imunologia , Carboidratos/genética , Cercopithecidae , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Papio , Suínos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 303(12): 3068-3084, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220100

RESUMO

The cranium contains almost all of the vertebrate sensory organs and plays an essential role in vertebrate evolution. Research on the primate cranium has revealed that it is both highly integrated and modular, but studies have historically focused on covariance between the neurocranium and facial skeleton rather than on bones specific to special senses such as vision. The goal of this work is to investigate patterns and magnitudes of craniofacial covariation in extant cercopithecids with particular attention to the orbits. This study takes a quantitative approach using data collected from 38 homologous cranial landmarks across 11 genera of cercopithecid monkeys (Cercopithecidae, N = 291). These data demonstrate that both patterns and magnitudes of craniofacial covariation differ across Cercopithecidae at subfamily, tribe, and genus levels, with the strongest integration in the papionins (and specifically Papio) and significantly weaker covariation in the colobines, particularly Presbytis. Orbital height does not covary with other measurements of the cranium to the same degree as other cranial traits in Cercopithecidae and is highly constrained across the family. This study has important implications for our understanding of the evolution and development of morphological diversity in the cercopithecid cranium and evolution of the primate eye. This study also highlights the potential error of broad assumptions about generalizing patterns and magnitudes of modularity and integration across primates. Additionally, these findings reiterate the importance of trait selection for interpreting fossil taxonomy, as craniofacial covariation may impact phenotypes commonly used to differentiate fossil primate species.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fenótipo , Filogenia
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2431, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051450

RESUMO

Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) is a primate species, which belongs to the Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) family. It is closely related to human, serving as a model for human health related research. However, the genetic studies on and genomic resources of mandrill are limited, especially in comparison to other primate species. Here we produced 284 Gb data, providing 96-fold coverage (considering the estimated genome size of 2.9 Gb), to construct a reference genome for the mandrill. The assembled draft genome was 2.79 Gb with contig N50 of 20.48 Kb and scaffold N50 of 3.56 Mb. We annotated the mandrill genome to find 43.83% repeat elements, as well as 21,906 protein-coding genes. The draft genome was of good quality with 98% gene annotation coverage by Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO). Based on comparative genomic analyses of  the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the immune system in mandrill and human, we found that 17 genes in the mandrill that have been associated with disease phenotypes in human such as Lung cancer, cranial volume and asthma, barbored amino acids changing mutations. Gene family analyses revealed expansion of several genes, and several genes associated with stress environmental adaptation and innate immunity responses exhibited signatures of positive selection. In summary, we established the first draft genome of  the mandrill of value for studies on evolution and human health.


Assuntos
Mandrillus/genética , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Tamanho do Genoma , Genômica , Humanos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica , Filogenia
14.
J Hum Evol ; 140: 102642, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959361

RESUMO

Recent fieldwork at Kanapoi has expanded the sample of fossil cercopithecids, facilitating a re-appraisal of their taxonomy. The assemblage now includes at least one species of cercopithecin, two papionins, and two colobines. The guenon Nanopithecus browni is similar in dental size to extant Miopithecus. We tentatively re-affirm the identification of Parapapio cf. ado and confirm the presence of Theropithecus. The colobines include a small form tentatively attributed to Kuseracolobus and a second larger species. The Kanapoi fossils represent the oldest occurrences of guenons in Africa and of the important genus Theropithecus, the most abundant and widespread primate in the Neogene of Africa. In the assemblage, Parapapio cf. ado is the most abundant form, comprising the majority of specimens. All of the other taxa are comparatively rare. Colobines make up a small part of the Kanapoi fossil assemblage compared to most other contemporary sites, including Allia Bay, Kenya, where, like Kanapoi, Australopithecus anamensis has been found. The presence of Theropithecus is consistent with the presence of some relatively open habitat at Kanapoi. While the ecological preferences of the small cercopithecin are unknown, most guenons are associated with relatively wooded habitats, as are most colobines, suggesting the availability of at least some wooded areas.


Assuntos
Biota , Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Feminino , Quênia , Masculino
15.
Horm Behav ; 119: 104664, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899261

RESUMO

Primates develop slowly relative to their body size, a pattern posited to result from ecological risk aversion. Little is known, however, about how energy balance contributes to allostatic load in juveniles. Using data collected over 8 consecutive months, we examined variation in energy balance (as measured by urinary C-peptide) and how energy balance, life history status, and social competition related to allostatic load (as measured by deviation from baseline fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, dfGCs) in 41 wild juvenile blue monkeys from 3 social groups. Juvenile energy balance was higher among females, older juveniles, when ripe fruit was more available, and when rainfall was lower. Energy balance, but not life history or competitive environments, predicted dfGC concentrations, such that juveniles generally had lower mean dfGCs when they had higher energy balance. An additional exploratory analysis of how dfGCs relate to social strategies revealed that subjects had lower dfGCs when they groomed less, and played more. Time spent grooming interacted with energy balance in predicting dfGC concentrations, so that individuals that groomed more actually had higher dfGCs when they had higher energy balance. Together these results reveal that energetic deficiencies are a true ecological risk factor in blue monkeys, and suggest that navigating the social environment via overt affiliative behavior is potentially both a stress-relieving and stress-inducing endeavor during development.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Cercopithecus , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Meio Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Peptídeo C/urina , Cercopithecidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cercopithecidae/metabolismo , Cercopithecus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cercopithecus/metabolismo , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/análise , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
16.
Evolution ; 74(4): 702-715, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849049

RESUMO

Primate limb morphology is often described as either generalized, that is, suited to a range of locomotor and positional behaviors, or specialized for unique locomotor behaviors such as brachiation or bipedalism. The evolution of highly specialized limb morphology may result in loss of evolvability, that is, in a decreased capacity of the locomotor skeleton to evolve in response to selection towards alternative ecomorphological niches. Using evolutionary simulations, I show that the highly specialized limb anatomy of hominoids is associated with a significant loss of evolvability, defined as the number of generations to reach alternative adaptive peaks, and in parallel an increased risk of extinction, particularly in simulated evolution toward generalized quadrupedal limb proportions. Loss of evolvability in apes and humans correlates with three factors: (1) decreased correlation among limb bone lengths (i.e., integration), which slows the rate of change along lines of least evolutionary resistance; (2) limb specialization, which places apes and humans in relatively remote areas of morphospace; and (3) increased skeletal size as a proxy for body size. Thus, locomotor over-specialization can lead to evolutionary dead-ends that significantly increase the probability of hominoid populations going extinct before evolving new adaptive morphologies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Cercopithecidae/anatomia & histologia , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hylobatidae/anatomia & histologia , Locomoção , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
17.
ISME J ; 14(2): 609-622, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719654

RESUMO

Documenting the natural diversity of eukaryotic organisms in the nonhuman primate (NHP) gut is important for understanding the evolution of the mammalian gut microbiome, its role in digestion, health and disease, and the consequences of anthropogenic change on primate biology and conservation. Despite the ecological significance of gut-associated eukaryotes, little is known about the factors that influence their assembly and diversity in mammals. In this study, we used an 18S rRNA gene fragment metabarcoding approach to assess the eukaryotic assemblage of 62 individuals representing 16 NHP species. We find that cercopithecoids, and especially the cercopithecines, have substantially higher alpha diversity than other NHP groups. Gut-associated protists and nematodes are widespread among NHPs, consistent with their ancient association with NHP hosts. However, we do not find a consistent signal of phylosymbiosis or host-species specificity. Rather, gut eukaryotes are only weakly structured by primate phylogeny with minimal signal from diet, in contrast to previous reports of NHP gut bacteria. The results of this study indicate that gut-associated eukaryotes offer different information than gut-associated bacteria and add to our understanding of the structure of the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenômica , Primatas/microbiologia , Primatas/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Blastocisto/classificação , Cercopithecidae/microbiologia , Cercopithecidae/parasitologia , Cilióforos/classificação , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Endolimax/classificação , Endolimax/genética , Endolimax/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/classificação , Entamoeba/genética , Eucariotos/classificação , Eucariotos/genética , Eucariotos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Hominidae/microbiologia , Hominidae/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Lemur/microbiologia , Lemur/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Platirrinos/microbiologia , Platirrinos/parasitologia
18.
Immunogenetics ; 72(1-2): 25-36, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624862

RESUMO

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to the innate and adaptive immune responses of jawed vertebrates. Characteristic of the MHC are high gene density, gene copy number variation, and allelic polymorphism. Because apes and monkeys are the closest living relatives of humans, the MHCs of these non-human primates (NHP) are studied in depth in the context of evolution, biomedicine, and conservation biology. The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD)-MHC NHP Database (IPD-MHC NHP), which curates MHC data of great and small apes, as well as Old and New World monkeys, has been upgraded. The curators of the database are responsible for providing official designations for newly discovered alleles. This nomenclature report updates the 2012 report, and summarizes important nomenclature issues and relevant novel features of the IPD-MHC NHP Database.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Primatas/genética , Primatas/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Cercopithecidae/genética , Hominidae/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/fisiologia , Filogenia , Platirrinos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Terminologia como Assunto
19.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 91(3): 219-227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574501

RESUMO

Stable isotopes of oxygen often vary within a community of primates. For example, folivorous monkeys that forage in the upper reaches of the forest canopy tend to evince high δ18O values, whereas those that prefer the understory tend to have lower δ18O values. Given that leaves also have high δ18O values, particularly higher in the canopy, there is uncertainty as to which behavioural variable - vertical stratification or folivory - is the primary determinant of variation in δ18O values. Here, we explore further δ18O values from the Taï Forest monkeys (n = 7 species; n = 33 individuals) by examining the interaction between diet and vertical stratification, thereby allowing us to differentiate the effects of each covariate. We found that δ18O values varied as a function of mean canopy height, but not folivory, resolving uncertainty about the primary cause of δ18O variation. This outcome revolves largely, but not entirely, on the behaviours of Procolobus verus, a highly folivorous but understory forager. Relatively elevated values in Cercopithecus diana, a frugivorous but middle-to-high canopy forager, raises the possibility that plant reproductive tissues (e.g., fruits, flowers) may be increasingly sensitive to evaporative fractionation at higher forest canopy levels. Overall, our results further affirm the value of using δ18O values to estimate the vertical behaviour of primate species in a fossil assemblage.


Assuntos
Cercopithecidae/fisiologia , Dieta , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Costa do Marfim , Ecossistema , Florestas
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 196, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BLOC1S2 gene encodes the multifunctional protein BLOS2, a shared subunit of two lysosomal trafficking complexes: i) biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 and i) BLOC-1-related complex. In our previous study, we identified an intriguing unreported transcript of the BLOC1S2 gene that has a novel exon derived from two transposable elements (TEs), MIR and AluSp. To investigate the evolutionary footprint and molecular mechanism of action of this transcript, we performed PCR and RT-PCR experiments and sequencing analyses using genomic DNA and RNA samples from humans and various non-human primates. RESULTS: The results showed that the MIR element had integrated into the genome of our common ancestor, specifically in the BLOC1S2 gene region, before the radiation of all primate lineages and that the AluSp element had integrated into the genome of our common ancestor, fortunately in the middle of the MIR sequences, after the divergence of Old World monkeys and New World monkeys. The combined MIR and AluSp sequences provide a 3' splice site (AG) and 5' splice site (GT), respectively, and generate the Old World monkey-specific transcripts. Moreover, branch point sequences for the intron removal process are provided by the MIR and AluSp combination. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that sequential integration into the same location and sequence divergence events of two different TEs generated lineage-specific transcripts through sequence collaboration during primate evolution.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Evolução Molecular , Primatas/genética , Elementos Alu , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cercopithecidae/classificação , Cercopithecidae/genética , Éxons , Humanos , Íntrons , MicroRNAs/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos , Platirrinos/classificação , Platirrinos/genética , Primatas/classificação , Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma
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