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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 788, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38481169

RESUMO

Light and moderate alcohol use has been reported to be associated with both impaired and enhanced cognition. The purpose of this study was to explore whether there was a linear relationship between visual memory and alcohol consumption in males and females in a large middle-aged birth cohort population in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. Data were collected from 5585 participants completing 31-year (1997-1998) and 46-year (2012-2014) follow-ups including Paired Associate Learning (PAL) test at 46-years follow-up. The participants were originally from 12,231 study population of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966). The PAL test was conducted to assess visual memory. Reported alcohol use was measured as total daily use of alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits converted into grams and as frequency and amount of use of beer, wine, and spirits. The total daily alcohol use was not associated with reduced visual memory. The frequency of use of beer and wine in males was associated with better visual memory in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. Using six or more servings of spirits was associated with worse visual memory in males in cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. Using six or more servings of spirits was associated with worse visual memory in males in cross-sectional and longitudinal setting. The study suggested a lack of a linear association between drinking and visual memory in the middle-aged population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Vinho , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Coorte de Nascimento , Estudos Transversais , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Cerveja
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2368, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531860

RESUMO

The perception and appreciation of food flavor depends on many interacting chemical compounds and external factors, and therefore proves challenging to understand and predict. Here, we combine extensive chemical and sensory analyses of 250 different beers to train machine learning models that allow predicting flavor and consumer appreciation. For each beer, we measure over 200 chemical properties, perform quantitative descriptive sensory analysis with a trained tasting panel and map data from over 180,000 consumer reviews to train 10 different machine learning models. The best-performing algorithm, Gradient Boosting, yields models that significantly outperform predictions based on conventional statistics and accurately predict complex food features and consumer appreciation from chemical profiles. Model dissection allows identifying specific and unexpected compounds as drivers of beer flavor and appreciation. Adding these compounds results in variants of commercial alcoholic and non-alcoholic beers with improved consumer appreciation. Together, our study reveals how big data and machine learning uncover complex links between food chemistry, flavor and consumer perception, and lays the foundation to develop novel, tailored foods with superior flavors.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Percepção Gustatória , Cerveja/análise , Aprendizado de Máquina , Comportamento do Consumidor , Paladar
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 7618-7628, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538519

RESUMO

Beer has over 600 flavor compounds and creates a positive tasting experience with acceptable sensory properties, which are essential for the best consumer experience. Spontaneous and mixed-culture fermentation beers, generally classified as sour beers, are gaining popularity compared to typical lager or ale styles, which have dominated in the USA for the last few decades. Unique and acceptable flavor compounds characterize sour beers, but some unfavorable aspects appear in conjunction. One such unfavorable flavor is called "mousy". This description is usually labeled as an unpleasant odor, identifying spoilage of fermented food and beverages. It is related as having the odor of mouse urine, cereal, corn tortilla chips, or freshly baked sour bread. The main compounds responsible for it are N-heterocyclic compounds: 2-acetyltetrahydropyridine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-ethyltetrahydropyridine. The most common beverages associated with mousy off-flavor are identified in wines, sour beers, other grain-based beverages, and kombucha, which may contain heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and/or yeast/fungus cultures. In particular, the fungal species Brettanomyces bruxellensis are associated with mousy-off flavor occurrence in fermented beverages matrices. However, many factors for N-heterocycle formation are not well-understood. Currently, the research and development of mixed-cultured beer and non/low alcohol beverages (NABLAB) has increased to obtain the highest quality, sensory, functionality, and most notably safety standards, and also to meet consumers' demand for a balanced sourness in these beverages. This paper introduces mousy off-flavor expression in beers and beverages, which occurs in spontaneous or mixed-culture fermentations, with a focus on sour beers due to common inconsistency aspects in fermentation. We discuss and suggest possible pathways of mousy off-flavor development in the beer matrix, which also apply to other fermented beverages, including non/low alcohol drinks, e.g., kombucha and low/nonalcohol beers. Some precautions and modifications may prevent the occurrence of these off-flavor compounds in the beverage matrix: improving raw material quality, adjusting brewing processes, and using specific strains of yeast and bacteria that are less likely to produce the off-flavor. Conceivably, it is clear that spontaneous and mixed culture fermentation is gaining popularity in industrial, craft, and home brewing. The review discusses important elements to identify and understand metabolic pathways, following the prevention of spoilage targeted to off-flavor compounds development in beers and NABLABs.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Vinho , Animais , Camundongos , Cerveja/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Vinho/análise , Bactérias , Fermentação
4.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104479, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431325

RESUMO

Saccharomyces pastorianus, hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus, were generally regarded as authentic lager beer yeasts. In recent years, with more new findings of other Saccharomyces genus hybrids, yeasts used in lager beer brewing have been proved much more complicated than previous cognition. In this study, we analyzed the different fermentation characteristics of 54 yeast strains used for lager brewing in normal and very high gravity brewing based on group classification. The difference between Group Ⅰ and Group Ⅱ lager yeasts were more striking in very high gravity brewing. However, during our research progress, we realized that some yeasts used in this study were actually hybrids of S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Features of these hybrids could be beneficial to very high gravity brewing. We further discussed about the mechanism behind their outstanding characteristics and the reason why group classification methods of lager beer yeasts had limitations. Hybridization in yeasts is constantly getting richer. Lager yeasts could have more possibilities based on better understandings of their genetic background and roles of other Saccharomyces genus hybrids. Their heterosis shed light on innovation in brewing and other diverse fermentation industries.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fermentação , Saccharomyces/genética , Cerveja
5.
Molecules ; 29(4)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38398596

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a significant decline in interest in high-alcohol beers, while interest in low- and non-alcohol beers is growing. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the addition of coriander seeds at various stages of the production of low-alcohol wheat beer (mashing, boiling, and fermentation). The presented article uses biological methods to produce low-alcohol beer. For this purpose, first, the mashing process was modified (breaking 44 °C for 20 min, followed by 75 °C for 60 min). The chemical composition and aroma components of the obtained beers were determined using various chromatographic methods (HPLC, GC-MS, and GC-O). Differences were found between the aroma components depending on the stage of production at which the coriander seeds were added. Beers with the addition of coriander seeds at the fermentation stage had the highest terpene content (linalool, camphor, trans-linalool oxide, and γ-terpinene) and boiling (myrcene, limonene, citronellol, and geraniol). The least desirable process is the addition of coriander seeds at the mashing stage due to the lowest content of volatile compounds. Additionally, beers with the addition of coriander seeds for fermentation were characterized by a higher content of antioxidant compounds. This proves that the addition of coriander seeds during beer production could improve the fermentation process and modify the quality of the obtaining beer.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Coriandrum , Cerveja/análise , Triticum/química , Coriandrum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Sementes/química , Fermentação
6.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 35(4): 746-755, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422384

RESUMO

Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are essential raw materials for beer brewing, and the major contributors to beer bitterness are isohumulones (iso-α-acids) and humulinones. In recent years, many breweries have focused on the production of hop-forward beer styles by adding hops after or during the cold fermentation stage, which will tend to release humulinones or other hop-derived bitter compounds. In this study, a LC-MS/MS method was developed for quantification of 60 hop-derived bitter compounds in 25 min. Reverse-phase chromatography with an alkaline methanol/acetonitrile (70:30) mobile phase was used for the separation. The quantitative range was 0.053-3912 ng/mL with correlation coefficient r > 0.99, and the LOQ were 0.26 and 0.053 ng/mL for iso-α-acids and humulinones. Precision (RSD < 5.0%) and accuracy (recovery 86.3%-118.1%) were both satisfactory. The abundance of hop-derived bitter compounds in the dry-hopped beer (Double-India Pale Ale) and the nondry-hopped beer (Vienna Lager) were monitored throughout the fermentation and storage stages, and the formation of oxidation and cyclization products showed difference profiles between these two beers. The quantification results reveal how hop-derived bitter compounds change throughout the brewing process, as well as the influence of hops and brewing techniques on beer bitterness.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Humulus , Cromatografia Líquida , Cerveja/análise , Humulus/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ácidos/química
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 415: 110630, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401380

RESUMO

Craft brewing is continually gaining popularity in the United States. Craft brewers are committed to producing a wide variety of products and have a vested interest in product quality. Therefore, these brewers have the expectation that the beer poured at the tap will match the quality product that left the brewery. The presence of biofilm in draught lines is hypothesized as a contributing factor when this expectation is not achieved. Clean in place strategies based on the Sinner's Circle of Cleaning are used to remediate organic and inorganic accumulation in beer draught lines, including controlling biofilm accumulation. A study was conducted to determine if repeated exposure to chemical cleaning of vinyl beer tubing impacted biofilm growth, kill/removal, and subsequent regrowth of a mixed species biofilm. The tubing was conditioned to simulate one, two, and five years of use. The data collected demonstrates a clear trend between simulated age of the tubing and biofilm accumulation on the surface. Bacterial log densities ranged from 5.6 Log10(CFU/cm2) for the new tubing to 6.6 Log10(CFU/cm2) for tubing aged to simulate five years of use. The counts for the yeast were similar. Caustic cleaning of the tubing, regardless of starting biofilm coverage, left less than 2.75 Log10(CFU/cm2) viable bacteria and yeast cells remaining on the tubing surface. This demonstrated the effectiveness of the caustic at controlling biofilm accumulation in the simulated beer draught line. The biofilm that accumulated in the five-year aged tubing was able to recover more quickly, reaching 3.6 Log10(CFU/cm2) within 24 h indicating the treatment did not fully eradicate the biofilm, suggesting that the strong chemistry used in this study would cease to be as effective over time.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Cáusticos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Cáusticos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Bactérias
8.
Int. microbiol ; 27(1): 143-154, Feb. 2024. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-230250

RESUMO

The microbiota during pit mud fermentation is a crucial factor in Baijiu brewing since it determines the yield and flavor. However, the impact of the microbial community during the initial fermentation stage on Baijiu quality remains uncertain. Herein, high-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the microbial diversities and distribution during Baijiu fermentation in individual pit mud workshops at both initial and late stages. During the initial fermentation stage, the bacterial community exerted a more pronounced effect on Baijiu quality than the fungal community. And the high-yield pit mud workshop exhibited lower richness and evenness, as well as greater Bray-Curtis dissimilarity during Baijiu fermentation. Lactobacillus was the dominant genus and biomarker in high-yield pit mud, and it constituted the only genus within the bacterial association network during the late fermentation stage. Fungal communities tended to maintain a simple association network with selected core species. Based on the correlation network, Rhizopus and Trichosporon were identified as biomarkers in Baijiu fermentation process. Together, Lactobacillus and Rhizopus could serve as bio-indicators for Baijiu quality during the initial fermentation stage. Therefore, these findings provided novel insights into microbiota interactions during fermentation and the impact of initial microbiota on final Baijiu quality.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Cerveja/microbiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação , Microbiota , Bactérias , Biomarcadores , Microbiologia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise
9.
Water Sci Technol ; 89(3): 548-561, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358488

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to unravel the impact of high and low temperatures (T) on glycogen-accumulating microorganisms (GAOs) which were stimulated in an aerobic granular sludge plant fed with industrial wastewater, which is derived from the cleaning of trucks transporting chocolate and beer. Among GAOs, Candidatus Competibacter (Ca. Competibacter) was the most abundant. The long-term impact on (1) anaerobic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) uptake, (2) sludge morphology, and (3) microbial community composition was investigated. In addition, the short-term impact of T changes on the anaerobic uptake rate was evaluated. High T (above 38 °C) and low T (below 11 °C) had a negative impact on the relative read abundance of Ca. Competibacter and the anaerobic DOC uptake. Nevertheless, the carbon removal efficiency and the settleability of the biomass were not affected. Denitrifiers such as Thauera and Zoogloea were promoted over Ca. Competibacter under high T and low T, respectively, indicating their positive contribution to granulation maintenance.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Temperatura , Cerveja , Biomassa , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida
10.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 71(2): 460-476, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212282

RESUMO

Beer is a beverage that contains gluten and cannot be consumed by people with celiac disease. In this context, the enzyme prolyl endoprotease (PEP) can be used to reduce the gluten content in beer. The present study aimed to produce the PEP from Aspergillus sp. FSDE 16 using solid-state fermentation with 5 conditions and comparing with a similar commercial enzyme produced from Aspergillus niger in the production of a gluten-free beer. The results of the performed cultures showed that during the culture, the most increased protease activity (54.46 U/mL) occurred on the 4th day. In contrast, for PEP, the highest activity (0.0356 U/mL) was obtained on the 3rd day of culture in condition. Regarding beer production, cell growth, pH, and total soluble solids showed similar behavior over the 7 days for beers produced without enzyme addition or with the addition of commercial enzyme and with the addition of the enzyme extract produced. The addition of the enzyme and the enzyme extract did not promote changes, and all the beers produced showed similar and satisfactory results, with acid pH between 4 and 5, total soluble solids ranging from 4.80 to 5.05, alcohol content ranging from 2.83% to 3.08%, and all beers having a dark character with deep amber and light copper color. Gluten removal was effectively using the commercial enzyme and the enzyme produced according to condition (v) reaching gluten concentrations equal to 17 ± 5.31 and 21.19 ± 11.28 ppm, respectively. In this way, the production of the enzyme by SSF and its application in the removal of gluten in beer was efficient.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Serina Endopeptidases , Humanos , Cerveja/análise , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Prolil Oligopeptidases , Fermentação , Glutens/análise , Glutens/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger , Extratos Vegetais
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 412: 110529, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38181520

RESUMO

In recent years, interest in non-Saccharomyces yeasts for the innovation and development of different and alternative beer styles has been increasing, especially for the microbrewing industry. This work studied the biodiversity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts based on isolates from grapes of different Uruguayan vineyards, craft breweries and raw materials, with the aim of selecting autochthonous non-Saccharomyces yeasts with a brewing attitude. Brewing tests were performed on synthetic wort developed for this purpose, and the evolution of alcoholic fermentation was monitored by measuring glucose, maltose, maltotriose consumption, ethanol and glycerol production and final sensory analysis. A total of two hundred seventy-one yeast strains belonging to different genera were evaluated according to these parameters. After evaluating alcoholic fermentation performance, a native yeast strain belonging to the species Starmerella meliponinorum was selected due to its high maltotriose consumption and glycerol production, making it a very promising brewing yeast, especially for production of low carbohydrate beers.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Glicerol , Fermentação , Fazendas , Leveduras , Biodiversidade , Cerveja/análise
12.
Genome Biol ; 25(1): 10, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38178179

RESUMO

The history of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aka brewer's or baker's yeast, is intertwined with our own. Initially domesticated 8,000 years ago to provide sustenance to our ancestors, for the past 150 years, yeast has served as a model research subject and a platform for technology. In this review, we highlight many ways in which yeast has served to catalyze the fields of functional genomics, genome editing, gene-environment interaction investigation, proteomics, and bioinformatics-emphasizing how yeast has served as a catalyst for innovation. Several possible futures for this model organism in synthetic biology, drug personalization, and multi-omics research are also presented.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 504, 2024 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38177258

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze whether it is possible to brew beer without using cereals so that the produced beverage could be easily accessible for the population suffering from celiac disease and other gluten-related disorders. Green lentil seeds were malted and then mashed using a congress mashing procedure to assess their advantages and disadvantages in the brewing process. Based on the congress mashing procedure, the mashing process needed to produce beer was developed, and beers were produced from the lentil malts germinated during malting for 96 h, 120 h and 144 h. It was possible to produce beers from the lentil malts; however, they were characterized by a lower alcohol content, lower degree of attenuation and some discrepancies between the concentrations of various volatiles (such as acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and 1-propanol) compared to the control beer produced from barley malt.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Lens (Planta) , Cerveja/análise , Plântula/química , Glutens/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Hordeum/química
14.
Food Chem ; 441: 138387, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38211478

RESUMO

This study was aimed to unravel the effect of raw materials (barley and wheat), wheat concentration (0, 25, 40, and 100 %), wheat species (common and durum), beer style (Blanche and Weiss), and yeast (US-05 and WB-06) on the chemical composition, volatiles, and sensory profile of wheat craft beers by using a multivariate statistical approach. Beer samples were analysed for their composition, volatiles and sensory profile and data were processed using unsupervised multivariate analyses, PLS regression and a multi-omics approach using multi-block PLS-DA. Multi-block variable sparsification was used as an embedded dimension reduction step. The adopted multi-omics approach permitted to correctly classify beers with different styles and wheat concentration, and to accurate classify (95 % accuracy) beers according to yeast type. Wheat species was of lower importance since it permitted a classification with 49 % accuracy which increased to 74 % in Blanche beers, thus suggesting that malting flattened differences determined by wheat species.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fermento Seco , Cerveja/análise , Triticum , Multiômica
15.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 25(3): 225-233, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38251446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the physical and mental well being of people working in our academic institution. METHODS: This online survey targeted professors ( n  = 108), researchers ( n  = 78), technical and administrative staff ( n  = 279) working in the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna (Pisa, Italy). Twenty-four multiple-choice questions explored the physical and mental health status, the main cardiovascular risk factors and levels of physical activity, the risk of cancer, and eating and drinking habits. RESULTS: Over 1 week, 112 participants out of 465 (24%) completed the survey [69% women, median age 43 years (interquartile range 33-53)]. The physical and mental health were judged as 'poor' by 5% and 13%. Many individuals had at least one cardiovascular risk factor (diabetes, 4%; hypertension, 10%; family history of coronary artery disease before 40 years, 21%; hypercholesterolemia, 24%; current or former smoking habit, 39%), and 6% had all of them. Many participants were rather sedentary: for example, 44% never or hardly ever walked at a quick pace for ≥20 min. As for eating and drinking habits, 36% ate sweets five or six times a week or every day, 15% drank beer and/or wine at least five or six times a week, and 5% drank spirits three or four times a week. CONCLUSIONS: A small but not negligeable proportion of responders complained of 'poor' health, and 65% had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. The global levels of physical activity and eating and drinking habits were globally suboptimal. Educational and screening activities to improve the wellbeing of people working in academia are advisable.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Vinho , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Universidades , Cerveja , Nível de Saúde
16.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 68, 2024 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216745

RESUMO

Beer is made via the fermentation of an aqueous extract predominantly composed of malted barley flavoured with hops. The transforming microorganism is typically a single strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and for the majority of major beer brands the yeast strain is a unique component. The present yeast used to make Guinness stout brewed in Dublin, Ireland, can be traced back to 1903, but its origins are unknown. To that end, we used Illumina and Nanopore sequencing to generate whole-genome sequencing data for a total of 22 S. cerevisiae yeast strains: 16 from the Guinness collection and 6 other historical Irish brewing. The origins of the Guinness yeast were determined with a SNP-based analysis, demonstrating that the Guinness strains occupy a distinct group separate from other historical Irish brewing yeasts. Assessment of chromosome number, copy number variation and phenotypic evaluation of key brewing attributes established Guinness yeast-specific SNPs but no specific chromosomal amplifications. Our analysis also demonstrated the effects of yeast storage on phylogeny. Altogether, our results suggest that the Guinness yeast used today is related to the first deposited Guinness yeast; the 1903 Watling Laboratory Guinness yeast.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Cerveja , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fermentação
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(1): 16001, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between alcohol and certain cancers is well established, yet beyond ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde, little is known about the presence of other carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene (a Group I carcinogen). OBJECTIVES: We summarized the published literature on PAH levels in alcoholic beverages to identify potential gaps in knowledge to inform future research. METHODS: Medline and Scopus were searched for primary research published from January 1966 to November 2023 that quantified PAH levels among various types of alcoholic beverages, including whisky, rum, brandy, gin, vodka, wine, and beer. Studies that were not primary literature were excluded; only studies that quantified PAH content in the specified alcoholic beverages were included. RESULTS: Ten studies published from 1966 to 2019 met the criteria for review. Other than beverage type, no publication reported selection criteria for their samples of tested alcohol products. Studies used a variety of analytical methods to detect PAHs. Of the 10 studies, 7 were published after 2000, and 6 assessed <20 products. Of the studies, 7 examined spirits; 3, beer; and 4, wines. Benzo[a]pyrene was most prevalent among spirit products, particularly whisky, with values generally exceeding acceptable levels for drinking water. Some beer and wine products also contained PAHs, albeit at lower levels and less frequently than spirit products. DISCUSSION: PAHs are found in some alcohol products and appear to vary by beverage type. However, there is an incomplete understanding of their presence and levels among large, representative samples from the range of currently available alcohol products. Addressing this gap could improve understanding of alcohol-cancer relationships and may have important implications for public health and the regulation of alcohol products. In addition, novel methods, such as direct mass spectroscopy, may facilitate more thorough testing of samples to further investigate this relationship. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13506.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Vinho , Benzo(a)pireno , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Cerveja/análise , Vinho/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Carcinógenos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039344

RESUMO

Sustainable beer production requires a comprehensive assessment of potential hazards such as pesticides in both the finished product and waste streams, as these streams can be used to create high-value by-products. This study presents the tracking of 13 fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, epoxiconazole, fenpropidin, fenpropimorph, fluquiconazole, flutriafol, fluxapyroxad, kresoxym-methyl, spiroxamine, propiconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, and tebuconazole), two insecticides (chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin), one herbicide (glyphosate), and one growth regulator (mepiquat) through the beer brewing process. Field-treated rye, wheat, and barley samples containing pesticide residues were used as adjunct during brewing. Samples of the beer as well as the by-products (spent grain, spent hops, trub and spent yeast) were collected and extracted with a modified QuEChERS method for pesticide residues analysis using GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS. Results show that an average of 58% of pesticide residues are retrieved in the by-products with the highest fraction (53%) recovered in the spent grain, 4% in trub, 1% in spent hops, no residues detected in spent yeast and 9% in the beer. This is consistent with these nonpolar pesticides tending to remain adsorbed to the spent grain during brewing. Glyphosate and mepiquat, the most polar pesticides included in this study, showed a different behavior, with the largest fraction (>80%) being retrieved in sweet wort and transferred to the beer. Processing factors were generated for each pesticide from the adjunct to the beer and to the four by-products.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Praguicidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Cerveja/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Praguicidas/análise
20.
J Food Sci ; 89(1): 513-522, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37983755

RESUMO

Belgian Saisons and Lambics are two well-known examples in the brewing industry of mixed fermentations, combination of two or more yeast and/or bacteria strains. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact different pitch rates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (traditional brewing yeast) and S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus (a variant associated with Belgian styles) had on the fermentation kinetics and concentration of the volatile compounds in the finished beers. A series of brews were performed utilizing ratios of S. cerevisiae and diastaticus. The fermentations were heavily monitored, and a model was used to fit fermentation variables. It was found that mixed fermentations produced behaviors that were predictable and proportional to the mixture ratios. As expected, the pure cultural fermentations of diastaticus had a slower fermentation midpoint (M) at 45.45 h versus 28.28 h for S. cerevisiae with the mixed ones falling in between the two. Flavor and aroma play a key role in the acceptability of beer. The mixed fermentations showed a combination of the two different yeast strains aromatic profiles. When combined, there was a strong linearity between alcohols (R2  = 0.94), esters (R2  = 0.89), and the overall total (R2  = 0.91) volatile compounds. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Modeling is a widely utilized tool in several different fields. The purpose of this research is to apply modeling techniques to describe the fermentation speed and flavor profile of a mixed fermentation between S. cerevisiae and diastaticus. The equations from this data can be used by brewers for product development purposes to make beers with certain flavor profiles within a desired timeframe.


Assuntos
Vinho , Fermento Seco , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fermentação , Cerveja/análise , Álcoois/análise , Vinho/análise
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