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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250003, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339392

RESUMO

Abstract This study estimated the length-weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m taken for standard length (SL - 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW - 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.


Resumo Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Caraciformes , Characidae , Brasil , Rios
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249158, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339346

RESUMO

Abstract The knowledge of the testicular and ovarian morphology of a particular fish species is of paramount importance. Such analyze enables the development of studies and techniques aiming the improvement of their reproduction, management, commercialization and even their conservation. This study performed the ovarian and testicular characterization of the ornamental Amazon fish Serrapinnus kriegi. A total of three males and three females had their gonads analyzed by optical microscopy. Females present ovaries filled with oocytes in asynchronous development, indicating partial spawning in the species. Moreover, the micropyle and micropilar cell formation was observed in primary growing oocytes, representing a precocious oocyte development; and the zona radiata in the final vitellogenic oocytes is thicker than other related species, evidencing the development of a better protection to the embryos in function of the waters' turbulence that characterize it spawning sites in the Amazonian streams. The male specimens' present anastomosed tubular testes with unrestricted spermatogonia spread along the entire seminiferous tubules. The present data elucidate the dynamic of spermatogenesis and oogenesis of an ornamental Amazonian species, through the description of the male and female germ cells development.


Resumo O conhecimento da morfologia testicular e ovariana de uma determinada espécie de peixe é de suma importância, pois através destas análises é possível o desenvolvimento de estudos e técnicas visando o melhoramento de sua reprodução, manejo e comercialização e até mesmo auxiliar em sua conservação. Este estudo realizou a caracterização ovariana e testicular do peixe Amazônico ornamental Serrapinnus kriegi. Um total de três machos e três fêmeas tiveram suas gônadas analisadas através de microscopia óptica. As fêmeas apresentam ovários preenchidos por oócitos em desenvolvimento assincrônico, indicando desova parcelada da espécie. Além disso, observou-se a formação de micrópila e célula micropilar em oócitos em crescimento primário, representando o desenvolvimento precoce do oócito; a zona radiata nos oócitos vitelogênicos finais é mais espessa em comparação a outras espécies relacionadas, evidenciando o desenvolvimento de uma melhor proteção aos embriões, em função das águas turbulentas que caracterizam seu local de desova nos córregos amazônicos. Os machos apresentam testículos do tipo tubular anastomosado com espermatogônias irrestritas, espalhadas por todo o túbulo seminífero. Os dados apresentados elucidam a dinâmica da espermatogênese e oogênese de uma espécie de peixe ornamental amazônica, por meio da descrição das células germinativas masculinas e femininas.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Characidae , Oócitos , Oogênese , Ovário , Testículo , Gônadas
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244591

RESUMO

The Characidae family of fish is composed of commercially important species for which little is known about the regulation of feeding. Fish are ectotherms so that their body temperature fluctuates with the temperature of the surrounding water. Changes in water temperature can thus have major effects on the physiology of fish, in particular their feeding. The mechanisms by which appetite is influenced by changes in temperatures in fish remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of temperature on feeding behavior, food intake and the expression of appetite regulators in three characid fish (black tetra, neon tetra and cavefish) by submitting them to four different temperatures for 2 weeks (20°C, 24°C, 28°C, 32°C). In all species, food intake increased with increasing temperature. In neon and black tetras, increasing temperatures decreased expressions of orexin and leptin and increased that of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). In cavefish, temperature had no effect on brain orexin, leptin or CART. In all three species, higher temperatures induced increases in intestine expression of cholecystokinin (CCK), but no effects were seen for intestine ghrelin and peptide YY expressions. Our results show that temperature affects feeding in Characidae fish and induces species-specific changes in the expression of appetite regulators.


Assuntos
Apetite , Characidae , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Characidae/fisiologia , Orexinas/metabolismo , Leptina/farmacologia , Temperatura , Neônio/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Água
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18709, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379982

RESUMO

We investigated the hypothesis that intra ejaculate sperm competition screens against the transmission of deleterious alleles, including new mutants, from male parent to offspring. Recent investigations have established that sperm haploid genotypes can have major effects on sperm traits such as cellular robustness, longevity, and fertilization success. However, there is no evidence that new mutations can meaningfully affect sperm phenotypes. We tested this directly by comparing sperm from mutagenized and non-mutagenized control males in Astyanax fish. We used N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) to induce single base substitutions in spermatogonial stem cells. We looked at swimming velocity, an important factor contributing to fertilization success, and flagellar length. Variability in swimming velocity was significantly higher in sperm from mutagenized males than in control sperm, reflecting their increased allelic diversity. In contrast, flagellar length, which is fixed during diploid stages of spermatogenesis, was unaffected by ENU treatment. We briefly discuss the implications of intra-ejaculate screening for maintenance of anisogamy and for outcomes of assisted reproductive technology.


Assuntos
Characidae , Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Espermatozoides , Characidae/genética , Espermatogênese/genética , Mutagênese , Fertilização
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 252: 106315, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195002

RESUMO

Copper waterborne toxicity is well understood in aquatic organisms. However, the dietary copper effects are much less known, especially in tropical fish. The toxicity of copper via the trophic route could be influenced by the composition of the food, and diets naturally impregnated with copper seem to have greater toxicity at lower concentrations than artificially impregnated ones. Thus, our objective was to investigate the effects of copper on juveniles of the Neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus fed on live prey (Astyanax altiparanae) previously exposed to the metal (20 µg L - 1) for 96 h. The prey fish were given to H. malabaricus every 96 h, totaling 10 doses at the end of the experiment. Thus, after 40 days fish were killed and tissues were sampled. Blood showed to be the only tissue in which copper accumulated. Anemia was found and there was damage to the DNA of erythrocytes. Furthermore, ionic imbalances were observed in plasma. There was an increase in the concentration of Na+ and Cl- and a decrease in Ca2+, which were associated with increased copper uptake in the gastrointestinal tract of fish fed on copper exposed prey. All the antioxidant enzymes evaluated in the gills showed decreased activity compared to the control group. Copper seems to have interfered in the energy metabolism of H. malabaricus, since a lower condition factor and feed conversion efficiency rate were observed in fish fed with copper diet. The present study confirms the trophic route as an important copper toxicity pathway for H. malabaricus and reinforces the idea that metal toxicity can be increased when it is naturally impregnated in the prey tissues, even if the prey has been exposed to the metal only for a short period of time.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Antioxidantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Caraciformes/metabolismo , Characidae/metabolismo , Biomarcadores
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 22(1): 116, 2022 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggression is observed across the animal kingdom, and benefits animals in a number of ways to increase fitness and promote survival. While aggressive behaviors vary widely across populations and can evolve as an adaptation to a particular environment, the complexity of aggressive behaviors presents a challenge to studying the evolution of aggression. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus exists as an aggressive river-dwelling surface form and multiple populations of a blind cave form, some of which exhibit reduced aggression, providing the opportunity to investigate how evolution shapes aggressive behaviors. RESULTS: To define how aggressive behaviors evolve, we performed a high-resolution analysis of multiple social behaviors that occur during aggressive interactions in A. mexicanus. We found that many of the aggression-associated behaviors observed in surface-surface aggressive encounters were reduced or lost in Pachón cavefish. Interestingly, one behavior, circling, was observed more often in cavefish, suggesting evolution of a shift in the types of social behaviors exhibited by cavefish. Further, detailed analysis revealed substantive differences in aggression-related sub-behaviors in independently evolved cavefish populations, suggesting independent evolution of reduced aggression between cave populations. We found that many aggressive behaviors are still present when surface fish fight in the dark, suggesting that these reductions in aggression-associated and escape-associated behaviors in cavefish are likely independent of loss of vision in this species. Further, levels of aggression within populations were largely independent of type of opponent (cave vs. surface) or individual stress levels, measured through quantifying stress-like behaviors, suggesting these behaviors are hardwired and not reflective of population-specific changes in other cave-evolved traits. CONCLUSION: These results reveal that loss of aggression in cavefish evolved through the loss of multiple aggression-associated behaviors and raise the possibility that independent genetic mechanisms underlie changes in each behavior within populations and across populations. Taken together, these findings reveal the complexity of evolution of social behaviors and establish A. mexicanus as a model for investigating the evolutionary and genetic basis of aggressive behavior.


Assuntos
Characidae , Adaptação Fisiológica , Agressão , Animais , Cavernas , Characidae/genética , Fenótipo
8.
Curr Biol ; 32(17): 3720-3730.e3, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926509

RESUMO

Sensory systems display remarkable plasticity and are under strong evolutionary selection. The Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, consists of eyed river-dwelling surface populations and multiple independent cave populations that have converged on eye loss, providing the opportunity to examine the evolution of sensory circuits in response to environmental perturbation. Functional analysis across multiple transgenic populations expressing GCaMP6s showed that functional connectivity of the optic tectum largely did not differ between populations, except for the selective loss of negatively correlated activity within the cavefish tectum, suggesting positively correlated neural activity is resistant to an evolved loss of input from the retina. Furthermore, analysis of surface-cave hybrid fish reveals that changes in the tectum are genetically distinct from those encoding eye loss. Together, these findings uncover the independent evolution of multiple components of the visual system and establish the use of functional imaging in A. mexicanus to study neural circuit evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Characidae , Animais , Cavernas , Characidae/fisiologia , Retina/fisiologia , Colículos Superiores
9.
Evol Dev ; 24(5): 131-144, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924750

RESUMO

Evolution in response to a change in ecology often coincides with various morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits. For most organisms little is known about the genetic and functional relationship between evolutionarily derived traits, representing a critical gap in our understanding of adaptation. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, consists of largely independent populations of fish that inhabit at least 30 caves in Northeast Mexico, and a surface fish population, that inhabit the rivers of Mexico and Southern Texas. The recent application of molecular genetic approaches combined with behavioral phenotyping have established A. mexicanus as a model for studying the evolution of complex traits. Cave populations of A. mexicanus are interfertile with surface populations and have evolved numerous traits including eye degeneration, insomnia, albinism, and enhanced mechanosensory function. The interfertility of different populations from the same species provides a unique opportunity to define the genetic relationship between evolved traits and assess the co-evolution of behavioral and morphological traits with one another. To define the relationships between morphological and behavioral traits, we developed a pipeline to test individual fish for multiple traits. This pipeline confirmed differences in locomotor activity, prey capture, and startle reflex between surface and cavefish populations. To measure the relationship between traits, individual F2 hybrid fish were characterized for locomotor behavior, prey-capture behavior, startle reflex, and morphological attributes. Analysis revealed an association between body length and slower escape reflex, suggesting a trade-off between increased size and predator avoidance in cavefish. Overall, there were few associations between individual behavioral traits, or behavioral and morphological traits, suggesting independent genetic changes underlie the evolution of the measured behavioral and morphological traits. Taken together, this approach provides a novel system to identify genetic underpinnings of naturally occurring variation in morphological and behavioral traits.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Characidae , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Characidae/genética , México , Fenótipo
10.
Parasitol Int ; 91: 102658, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007705

RESUMO

Henneguya polarislonga n. sp. is described from the gills of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken, 1875) (Characiformes, Characidae) from streams of the Middle Paranapanema River, Upper Paraná River basin, in the São Paulo State, Brazil. The proposed new species is supported by a combination of morphological and molecular characterization (partial fragment of the SSU rDNA). Thirty specimens of A. lacustris were analyzed and myxospores were found in the gill lamellae of one specimen (Prevalence = 3.3%). Henneguya polarislonga n. sp. was morphometrically and genetically distinct from other Henneguya spp. previously described in Astyanax spp., mainly differing in the total length and caudal appendages length of the mature myxospores. Comparative analysis of the SSU rDNA sequences revealed that Seisactinomyxon-type actinospores previously reported parasitizing oligochaetes are developmental stages of the life cycle of Henneguya polarislonga n. sp. (similarity of 99.9%). This is the first time that an actinospore and a myxospore are correlated through molecular analysis in Brazil, contributing to the knowledge of the myxozoan ecology and biodiversity.


Assuntos
Characidae , Cnidários , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cnidários/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Brânquias , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Myxozoa/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Filogenia
11.
Ecotoxicology ; 31(8): 1205-1216, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042120

RESUMO

The antidiabetic drug metformin is widely prescribed and found in different concentrations in the environment around the world, raising concern about potential impacts on aquatic life. Analyses of the effects of exposure of biological models to aquatic contaminants are important for assessing pollution effects on fish health. The gills of fishes represent primary targets of disturbance by pollutants, mainly because of the large surface of the respiratory epithelium and the high perfusion rate, which both help the entry of pollutants into this tissue. In this context, the aim of this work was to use gill histological analyses biomarkers to evaluate the toxicity of metformin on aquatic environmental systems, by means of chronic exposure for 90 days of Astyanax lacustris (lambari), an ecologically important neotropical species that can be used as an environmental bioindicator. Histopathological analyses were performed using Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The main changes were lamellar fusion, telangiectasia hyperplasia and disappearance of microridges. The morphological changes observed possibly interfere with the gill physiology, indicating an unfavorable situation to the presence of metformin in the water, pointing to a concern that metformin may pose a risk to Astyanax lacustris and likely to other fish species, compromising the dynamics of the aquatic ecosystem as a whole. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Characidae , Metformina , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores , Ecossistema , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Água Doce , Brânquias , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/toxicidade , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Água/análise , Água/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 216(1-2): 49-53, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876521

RESUMO

The fish Astyanax mexicanus comes in two very different forms: a "normal" river morph, and a blind, depigmented cave morph, living in the total and permanent darkness of Mexican caves. This species is on the way to becoming a model of choice in evolutionary and comparative biology, both for the study of the evolution of behavior, physiology or morphology, and for molecular genetics or population genetics. Here, I present the advancement of knowledge in the field of the developmental evolution of the eye of the cave morph. By rewinding back in time its development from the eye of the larva to the retinal field at the end of gastrulation, the cave-dwelling Astyanax embryo reveals mechanisms and processes likely to contribute to evolutionary variations between species, but also to pathological variations in the morphogenesis of the optic region.


Title: La boîte à outils de l'évolution développementale ou comment les poissons cavernicoles mexicains ont perdu leurs yeux. Abstract: Le poisson Astyanax mexicanus se présente sous deux formes très différentes : un morphe de rivière « normal ¼, et un morphe cavernicole, aveugle et dépigmenté, vivant dans l'obscurité totale et permanente de grottes mexicaines. Cette espèce est en passe de devenir un modèle de choix en biologie évolutive et comparée, tant pour l'étude de l'évolution des comportements, de la physiologie ou de la morphologie, que pour la génétique moléculaire ou la génétique des populations. Je présente ici l'avancée des connaissances dans le domaine de l'évolution développementale de l'œil du morphe cavernicole. En remontant dans le temps son développement « à l'envers ¼ depuis l'œil de la larve jusqu'au champ rétinien en fin de gastrulation, l'embryon d'Astyanax cavernicole révèle des mécanismes et processus susceptibles de contribuer aux variations évolutives entre espèces et aux variations pathologiques de la morphogenèse de la région optique.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Characidae , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Characidae/genética , Olho
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270967, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877693

RESUMO

The blind troglobite cavefish Sinocyclocheilus rhinocerous lives in oligotrophic, phreatic subterranean waters and possesses a unique cranial morphology including a pronounced supra-occipital horn. We used a combined approach of laboratory observations and Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling to characterize the swimming behavior and other hydrodynamic aspects, i.e., drag coefficients and lateral line sensing distance of S. rhinocerous. Motion capture and tracking based on an Artificial Neural Network, complemented by a Particle Image Velocimetry system to map out water velocity fields, were utilized to analyze the motion of a live specimen in a laboratory aquarium. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations on flow fields and pressure fields, based on digital models of S. rhinocerous, were also performed. These simulations were compared to analogous simulations employing models of the sympatric, large-eyed troglophile cavefish S. angustiporus. Features of the cavefish swimming behavior deduced from the both live-specimen experiments and simulations included average swimming velocities and three dimensional trajectories, estimates for drag coefficients and potential lateral line sensing distances, and mapping of the flow field around the fish. As expected, typical S. rhinocerous swimming speeds were relatively slow. The lateral line sensing distance was approximately 0.25 body lengths, which may explain the observation that specimen introduced to a new environment tend to swim parallel and near to the walls. Three-dimensional simulations demonstrate that just upstream from the region under the supra-occipital horn the equipotential of the water pressure and velocity fields are nearly vertical. Results support the hypothesis that the conspicuous cranial horn of S. rhinocerous may lead to greater stimulus of the lateral line compared to fish that do not possess such morphology.


Assuntos
Characidae , Cyprinidae , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , China , Cyprinidae/anatomia & histologia , Hidrodinâmica , Natação , Água
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 843: 157032, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779728

RESUMO

We investigated how natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) of the Rio Negro (Amazon) affects acute copper (Cu) toxicity to local fish: the cardinal tetra (Paracheirodon axelrodi) and the dwarf cichlid (Apistogramma agassizii). It is established that Cu2+ complexation with DOM decreases Cu bioavailability (and thus toxicity) to aquatic organisms, as conceptualized by the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). However, we also know that Rio Negro's DOM can interact with fish gills and have a beneficial effect on Na+ homeostasis, the main target of acute Cu toxicity in freshwater animals. We aimed to tease apart these potential protective effects of DOM against Cu-induced Na+ imbalances in fish. In the laboratory, we acclimated fish to Rio Negro water (10 mg L-1 DOC) and to a low-DOM water (1.4 mg L-1 DOC) with similar ion composition and pH (5.9). We measured 3-h Cu uptake in gills and unidirectional and net Na+ physiological fluxes across a range of Cu concentrations in both waters. Various DOM pre-acclimation times (0, 1 and 5 days) were evaluated in experiments with P. axelrodi. Copper exposure led to similar levels of net Na+ loss in the two fish, but with distinct effects on Na+ influx and efflux rates reflecting their different ionoregulation strategies. Rio Negro DOM protected against Cu uptake and toxicity in the two fish species. Both Cu uptake in fish gills and Na+ regulation disturbances were relatively well predicted by the modelled aqueous free Cu2+ ion concentration. These findings suggest that protection by DOM occurs mainly from Cu complexation under the tested conditions. The prevalence of this geochemical-type protection over a physiological-type protection agrees with the BLM conceptual framework, supporting the use of the BLM to assess the risk of Cu in these Amazonian waters.


Assuntos
Characidae , Ciclídeos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Íons , Sódio , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(58): 87828-87843, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821333

RESUMO

Disturbance in the landscape surrounding streams can interfere with water quality and cause harm to aquatic organisms. In this study, we evaluate the influence of land use on the genetic and biochemical biomarkers of fish in streams of Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). We also evaluated whether biomarker responses are seasonally consistent. For this purpose, individuals of the Neotropical tetra fish Astyanax lacustris were exposed in cages for 96 h, in 13 streams draining agroecosystems with different degrees of disturbance during the dry and wet seasons. After exposure, blood, liver, and gills were collected for multibiomarker analyses (micronuclei, erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, and biotransformation enzyme). The results showed that the gradient of anthropic disturbance was positively associated with genotoxic damage (erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities) and negatively associated with antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes of the liver in both seasons. No association of the gradient of anthropic disturbance with the frequency of micronuclei and for most gill enzymes was found for both seasons. Landscape disturbance was also negatively associated with water quality in the wet season. These results indicate that changes in land use interfere with the genetic and biochemical processes of organisms. Thus, the multibiomarker approach may represent an effective strategy for assessing and monitoring terrestrial landscape disturbance.


Assuntos
Characidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pradaria , Brânquias/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Characidae/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Syst Parasitol ; 99(6): 671-681, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834090

RESUMO

A new parasitic copepod, Tiddergasilus bipartitus n. sp. (Copepoda, Ergasilidae), is described herein based on three adult females found attached to the gills of the yellow-tail lambari Astyanax lacustris (Lütken), sampled in Pardo River, municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Tiddergasilus bipartitus n. sp. was recognized as a new member of the monotypic genus Tiddergasilus Marques & Boeger, 2018 by having: antennule 6-segmented; maxillary basis armed with 2 terminal teeth and ornamented with multiple spinules; second and third leg both with endopod 3-segmented. The new copepod can be distinguished from its congener, Tiddergasilus iheringi (Tidd, 1942), by the morphology of the antennal claw, number of somites/segments in abdomen and fourth leg, and by the ornamentation of the first leg. This report expands the geographic distribution and diversity of fish species parasitized with Tiddergasilus spp. in Brazil. Moreover, it also represents the first report of an ergasilid species in the Pardo River. A list of diagnostic features for the Brazilian species of Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 is provided herein, in order to aid comparisons with the species of this complex genus.


Assuntos
Characidae , Copépodes , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Brasil , Characidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Brânquias/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Elife ; 112022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703366

RESUMO

Insights from organisms, which have evolved natural strategies for promoting survivability under extreme environmental pressures, may help guide future research into novel approaches for enhancing human longevity. The cave-adapted Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, has attracted interest as a model system for metabolic resilience, a term we use to denote the property of maintaining health and longevity under conditions that would be highly deleterious in other organisms (Figure 1). Cave-dwelling populations of Mexican tetra exhibit elevated blood glucose, insulin resistance and hypertrophic visceral adipocytes compared to surface-dwelling counterparts. However, cavefish appear to avoid pathologies typically associated with these conditions, such as accumulation of advanced-glycation-end-products (AGEs) and chronic tissue inflammation. The metabolic strategies underlying the resilience properties of A. mexicanus cavefish, and how they relate to environmental challenges of the cave environment, are poorly understood. Here, we provide an untargeted metabolomics study of long- and short-term fasting in two A. mexicanus cave populations and one surface population. We find that, although the metabolome of cavefish bears many similarities with pathological conditions such as metabolic syndrome, cavefish also exhibit features not commonly associated with a pathological condition, and in some cases considered indicative of an overall robust metabolic condition. These include a reduction in cholesteryl esters and intermediates of protein glycation, and an increase in antioxidants and metabolites associated with hypoxia and longevity. This work suggests that certain metabolic features associated with human pathologies are either not intrinsically harmful, or can be counteracted by reciprocal adaptations. We provide a transparent pipeline for reproducing our analysis and a Shiny app for other researchers to explore and visualize our dataset.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Characidae , Envelhecimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Metaboloma , Açúcares
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10115, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710938

RESUMO

Cell lines have become an integral resource and tool for conducting biological experiments ever since the Hela cell line was first developed (Scherer et al. in J Exp Med 97:695-710, 1953). They not only allow detailed investigation of molecular pathways but are faster and more cost-effective than most in vivo approaches. The last decade saw many emerging model systems strengthening basic science research. However, lack of genetic and molecular tools in these newer systems pose many obstacles. Astyanax mexicanus is proving to be an interesting new model system for understanding metabolic adaptation. To further enhance the utility of this system, we developed liver-derived cell lines from both surface-dwelling and cave-dwelling morphotypes. In this study, we provide detailed methodology of the derivation process along with comprehensive biochemical and molecular characterization of the cell lines, which reflect key metabolic traits of cavefish adaptation. We anticipate these cell lines to become a useful resource for the Astyanax community as well as researchers investigating fish biology, comparative physiology, and metabolism.


Assuntos
Characidae , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cavernas , Characidae/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Fígado
19.
Zygote ; 30(5): 719-729, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730544

RESUMO

The Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus presents two contrasting morphs, a widely distributed surface morph and a cave-adapted morph. These cave-adapted morphs have evolved independently from two different lineages (i.e. 'old' and 'new' lineages); therefore, this model system gives a unique opportunity to explore parallel adaptive evolution in biological traits. The present study corresponds to the first morphological description of the Astyanax mexicanus maturation process of the spermatozoa and oocytes, using thermal and hormonal stimuli to promote spermatogenesis and oogenesis, considering surface and cave morphs from both lineages. We corroborate the relevance of thermal and hormonal stimuli to promote gamete maturation. The hormone Ovaprim (GnRHa + Domperidone) is an effective promoter of ovarian development, maturation end in oocytes and spawning in Astyanax mexicanus. The sperm morphology of Astyanax mexicanus includes the sperm head, the midpiece, and tail or flagellum. We found differences in the spermatozoan total length between environments (F = 9.929, P = 0.05) and linages (F = 49.86, P = 0.005). The oocytes showed a spherical conformation with a mean diameter of 822.4 ± 194.1 µm for the surface populations, and 604.6 ± 38.3 µm for the cave populations. The oocyte chorion presents ridges and grooves that are arranged radially towards the micropyle. A plug in the micropyle zone was observed after fertilization, confirmed by the outer membrane of the chorion, which provides some weak adhesiveness to the substrate. We observed differences in chorion thickness between the contrasting environmental conditions. This is the first morphological characterization of the Sótanos Vázquez, Escondido and Tigre, which previous to this study were only known from speleological expeditions, with no previous biological information available.


Assuntos
Characidae , Domperidona , Animais , Cavernas , Células Germinativas , Masculino , Sêmen
20.
Elife ; 112022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35708234

RESUMO

Animals can evolve dramatic sensory functions in response to environmental constraints, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these changes. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, is a leading model to study genetic, behavioral, and physiological evolution by comparing eyed surface populations and blind cave populations. We compared neurophysiological responses of posterior lateral line afferent neurons and motor neurons across A. mexicanus populations to reveal how shifts in sensory function may shape behavioral diversity. These studies indicate differences in intrinsic afferent signaling and gain control across populations. Elevated endogenous afferent activity identified a lower response threshold in the lateral line of blind cavefish relative to surface fish leading to increased evoked potentials during hair cell deflection in cavefish. We next measured the effect of inhibitory corollary discharges from hindbrain efferent neurons onto afferents during locomotion. We discovered that three independently derived cavefish populations have evolved persistent afferent activity during locomotion, suggesting for the first time that partial loss of function in the efferent system can be an evolutionary mechanism for neural adaptation of a vertebrate sensory system.


Assuntos
Characidae , Sistema da Linha Lateral , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Cavernas , Characidae/fisiologia , Sistema da Linha Lateral/fisiologia , Locomoção
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