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1.
Compr Psychiatry ; 121: 152359, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previously Cloninger's temperament traits have been researched as a risk factor for depression mostly in cross-sectional studies. In these studies, especially high harm avoidance has been associated with an increased risk of depression. The main objective of this study was to investigate how temperament traits affect the risk of the onset of depression in a previously mentally healthy adult population. METHODS: This study includes a follow-up period of 23 years from the age of 31 until 54 in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study. Temperament was measured at the 31-year follow-up using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The outcome of the study was depressive disorder diagnosis during the follow-up in both sexes. To be able to take correlations between temperament traits we also did an analysis using temperament clusters. RESULTS: Our sample size was 3999 individuals, out of which 240 were diagnosed with depression. For women an increase in the TCI score for novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) or persistence (P) increased the risk of depression during the follow-up. For men only HA was a significant predictor of depression. An increase in reward dependence (RD) was found to reduce the risk of psychotic depression. In the analysis using the temperament clusters, the cluster including shy and pessimistic individuals was associated with risk for depression diagnosis in men. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective general population-based cohort study added to previous knowledge of high HA being a risk factor for depression, but it also found new associations such as higher P and NS.


Assuntos
Depressão , Temperamento , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Transversais , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 832, 2022 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to now several subtypes of social anxiety disorder (SAD) have been proposed. METHODS: In the present study, we used a cluster analytic approach to identify qualitatively different subgroups of SAD based on temperament characteristics, that is, harm avoidance (HA) and novelty seeking (NS) dimensions of Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. RESULTS: Based on a large, diverse clinical sample (n = 575), we found evidence for two distinct subgroups of SAD: a larger (59%) prototypic, inhibited cluster characterized by high HA and low NS, and a smaller atypic, and comparatively more impulsive cluster characterized by medium to high HA and increased NS. The subgroups differed regarding a variety of sociodemographic and clinical variables. While the prototypic SAD subtype suffered from more severe SAD and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and reduced social functioning, the atypic NS subtype showcased higher reproductive behaviour, self-directedness and -transcendence, comparatively. Additional hierarchical logistic regression highlights the contribution of age and education. CONCLUSIONS: Our results valuably extend previous evidence for the existence of at least two distinct subtypes of SAD. A better knowledge of the characteristic differences in prototypic behaviour, personality, coping strategies and comorbidities between the identified (and further) subtypes can contribute to the development of effective prevention interventions and promotes the conceptualization of tailored treatments.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Adulto , Humanos , Comportamento Exploratório , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Temperamento , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497530

RESUMO

According to Cloninger's model, personality is conceptualized in temperament and character traits contributing to a child's psychosocial development. Additionally, parent-child interaction is important for the child's socio-emotional development. To date, the relationship between attachment and temperament and character for child mental health development and its effects on parents remains mostly unclear. The aim of the present study was thus to examine the relationship of attachment, temperament and character, parental stress, and mental health problems among 125 children (mean age = 7.14 years) in Switzerland. Temperament and character, attachment disorder (symptoms), parental stress, and mental health problems were assessed with psychometric questionnaires; attachment was assessed with an additional observational measure. Descriptive characters of the sample were presented, and group differences and correlations were computed. For temperament traits, results revealed significant group differences for novelty seeking and persistence and attachment disorder types. For character traits, the findings showed significant group differences for self-directedness and cooperativeness and attachment disorder types. Moderate effect sizes for groups differences were found. Further, the mixed-type (inhibited and disinhibited) and inhibited attachment disorder type were the most burdened groups. The present findings suggest that temperament and character traits, as well as parental stress and mental health problems are associated with the occurrence of attachment disorders among children. Future longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to examine the causal relationships of temperament and character with attachment, including person-related and environmental factors among children.


Assuntos
Caráter , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Criança , Temperamento , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicometria
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e061994, 2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the patients' experiences on character strengths that Chinese patients experience after the diagnosis of breast cancer. DESIGN: A qualitative, exploratory study using semistructured interviews based on the patients' lived experience after being diagnosed with breast cancer. Ethics approval was granted. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Values in Action Classification of Strengths provided conceptual framework for analysing strengths. Directed content analysis based on the classification of strengths and framework analysis were used to analyse transcribed data. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guideline was followed. SETTING: The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital in China. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients over 18 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between October 2019 and December 2020 were recruited. We used purposive sample method to collected data from 24 participants diagnosed with breast cancer. RESULTS: Six themes (virtues) emerged from our analysis. In addition, two new subthemes (character strengths) emerged in this study, selflessness and pragmatism, respectively. Patients with breast cancer described a large repertoire of character strengths they used or wished for during survivorship, including gratitude, hope, humility, kindness, humour, honesty and forgiveness. Cultural values (eg, collectivism, familyism, Confucianism and Buddhist beliefs) helped structure the experiences of Chinese patients' character strengths. Patients wanted their character strengths to be more noticed, appreciated and encouraged by others and reported their psychological trajectory of using personal strengths. CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that patients with breast cancer believing character strengths are important to them. Medical staff should pay more attention to motivating and cultivating character strengths of patients with breast cancer. Attention to make strength-based practices workable in clinical health promotion programmes is necessary. The healthcare system should develop tailored individualised psychological services that specifically address patients' needs for the application of personalised character strengths. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04219267, Pre-results.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Caráter , China , Percepção
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17217, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241672

RESUMO

Recent research has shown that moral character judgments are prone to the liking bias-well-liked people are seen as morally superior to disliked or neutral ones. However, whether moral information about their past behavior would moderate the liking bias is still an open empirical question addressed in present studies. In Study 1 (N = 653), participants updated their biased moral character impressions when moral information about the target was introduced after the liking induction. In preregistered Study 2 (N = 601), when moral information about the target was presented before the liking induction, moral information had a stronger impact on moral character judgments than liking. Study 3 (N = 398) showed that moral character impression updating was three times greater when moral information was presented after (vs. before) the attitude induction. Further analyses of changes in participants' moral judgments certainty revealed that moral information reduced their uncertainty stronger than attitudes. In effect, the latter were more amenable to updating than information-based judgments. Thus, we present evidence that moral information updates moral character impressions biased by liking. Nevertheless, liking also, but to a lesser extent, updates moral character impressions initially grounded on moral information. We propose that certainty about others' moral character explains when and how moral information limits the impact of attitudinal influences on moral character judgments.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Caráter , Emoções , Humanos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30202, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107514

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify personality traits associated with suicide attempt in a clinical sample. Temperament and character inventory (TCI) profiles of 759 patients who met the inclusion criteria among 1000 randomly selected hospital records collected. Of these 759 patients, 103 had a history of at least 1 actual suicide attempt (suicidal group) whereas 656 had no such history (nonsuicidal group). The suicidal group showed higher scores of novelty seeking (mean ± SD: 36.1 ± 1.2 vs 33.3 ± 0.5; P = .026) and harm avoidance (57.1 ± 1.5 vs 53.0 ± 0.6; P = .01) but lower scores of self-directedness (27.5 ± 1.5 vs 34.4 ± 0.6; P < .001) than the nonsuicidal group. Higher novelty seeking (OR [95% CI]: 1.031 [1.008-1.054]; P = .007) and lower self-directedness: 0.955 [0.927-0.983]; P = .002 were also associated with suicide attempts in the analysis of 7 personality scales. These findings suggest that patients who attempt suicide differ from nonattempters in terms of personality traits, especially in novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and self-directedness (SD). It is noteworthy that this study contains data from actual visits to the emergency room to evaluate suicide attempts. Abbreviations: CO = cooperativeness, Ha = harm avoidance, NS = novelty seeking, PS = persistence, RD = reward dependence, SD = self-directedness, ST = self-transcendence, TCI = temperament and character inventory.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Temperamento , Caráter , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Personalidade
8.
Arch Pediatr ; 29(7): 475-479, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of personality traits in self-asphyxial behaviors remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore temperament and character profiles of youth reporting participation in the choking game using Cloninger's biopsychosocial model of personality. METHODS: Data were collected among French middle-school students (N=1771) aged 9-16 years (mean age=13.0, SD=1.3) and randomly selected from 13 public establishments located in different regions of France. Logistic regression models were run to identify Cloninger's temperamental and character dimensions associated with engagement in the choking game. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis revealed that participants showed high scores of novelty-seeking (Cohen's d=0.293, p<0.001) and low levels of cooperativeness (Cohen's d=0.182, p<0.01), persistence (Cohen's d=0.182, p<0.05), and reward dependence (Cohen's d=0.241, p<0.01). However, multivariate modeling indicated that only the novelty-seeking dimension tended to slightly differentiate participants from non-participants within the global sample (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1-1.06). When we compared girls and boys, we found a slight trend in association only in boys (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1-1.08). CONCLUSIONS: Our study, which contributes to the growing literature on the psychological correlates of choking activities and is the first to investigate the potential predictive role of personality traits in this risky behavior, suggests to some extent that (a) the choking game could possibly be influenced by some temperamental characteristics, and that (b) it might not have the same function according to the gender considered.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias , Temperamento , Adolescente , Caráter , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade
9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 155: 347-354, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The temperament and character dimensions of personality appear to be networking structures that interact nonlinearly. Previous studies have attempted to classify temperament and character subtypes using a person-centered approach but have been unable to explore the relationship between the combination of temperament and character and psychopathology patterns in a transdiagnostic sample. The purpose of this study was to examine how symptomatology patterns differ according to individuals' personality profiles, employing a psychobiological model in a transdiagnostic psychiatric sample. METHODS: Participants were 1881 patients who visited the psychiatry department of a major medical hospital in Seoul, Korea, and completed both the Temperament Character Inventory (TCI) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructed Form (MMPI-2-RF) as part of their psychological evaluation. We performed two separate latent profile analyses using four temperament and four character indicators of the TCI to identify personality profiles and nine restructured clinical scales of the MMPI-2-RF to identify symptom patterns. RESULTS: Five personality classes emerged: "vulnerable-maladaptive," "stable-adaptive," "average," "inhibited-neurotic," and "impulsive-irrational." Moreover, six symptom classes emerged: "non-distressed," "depressed," "emotionally-distressed," "average," "dysfunctional thoughts," and "confused." The personality profiles comprising a combination of rigid temperament and immature character were related to patterns of more severe subjective pain and symptoms. However, profiles with less rigid temperament and less immature character exhibited more diverse symptom patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This study examined the relationship between personality profiles and symptomatology patterns, suggesting that understanding patients' personality profiles may be helpful in predicting symptom manifestation and establishing treatment plans.


Assuntos
MMPI , Temperamento , Caráter , Humanos , Dor , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 316: 114776, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964417

RESUMO

Novelty seeking is a tendency to approach new situations, putatively driven by the brain's catecholaminergic system. It is traditionally measured via self-report, but a laboratory-based paradigm, the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM), quantifies behavior in a novel environment and has utility in cross-species studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. Our primary aim assessed whether self-reported novelty-seeking traits were associated with novelty-seeking behavior in the hBPM. An existing sample of 106 volunteers were categorized as high vs. low novelty seekers using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Subjects had been randomized to one dose of amphetamine (10 or 20 mg) or modafinil (200 or 400 mg), allowing us to explore whether a pharmacological catecholamine challenge further enhanced novelty-seeking behavior. High TCI novelty-seekers had more hBPM motor activity and novel object interactions. The exploratory analyses, although limited by low power, suggested that amphetamine and modafinil did not markedly moderate novelty-seeking traits. The hBPM demonstrates construct validity as a lab-based measure of novelty seeking and thus useful in translational studies of neuropsychiatric conditions and treatment options. Further research may illuminate whether a biological predisposition towards higher catecholaminergic activity, combined with the novelty-seeking trait, may increase propensity for risky and addictive behaviors.


Assuntos
Caráter , Comportamento Exploratório , Humanos , Modafinila , Temperamento
12.
Scand J Psychol ; 63(5): 495-503, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674278

RESUMO

Personality neuroscience is focusing on the correlation between individual differences and the efficiency of large-scale networks from the perspective of the brain as an interconnected network. A suitable technique to explore this relationship is the magnetoencephalography (MEG), but not many MEG studies are aimed at investigating topological properties correlated to personality traits. By using MEG, the present study aims to evaluate how individual differences described in Cloninger's psychobiological model are correlated with specific cerebral structures. Fifty healthy individuals (20 males, 30 females, mean age: 27.4 ± 4.8 years) underwent Temperament and Character Inventory examination and MEG recording during a resting state condition. High harm avoidance scores were associated with a reduced centrality of the left caudate nucleus and this negative correlation was maintained in females when we analyzed gender differences. Our data suggest that the caudate nucleus plays a key role in adaptive behavior and could be a critical node in insular salience network. The clear difference between males and females allows us to suggest that topological organization correlated to personality is highly dependent on gender. Our findings provide new insights to evaluate the mutual influences of topological and functional connectivity in neural communication efficiency and disruption as biomarkers of psychopathological traits.


Assuntos
Caráter , Magnetoencefalografia , Adulto , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vaccine ; 40(23): 3236-3243, 2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Therefore, vaccinations are of immense importance. If vaccination willingness is to be increased, possible influencing factors should be identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of active immunisation in MS patients in association with sociodemographic, clinical-neurological, psychopathological and personality variables using the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. METHOD: Four hundred and four MS patients from two German neurological hospitals were examined for their vaccination attitudes, in detail, the general willingness to vaccinate and the current vaccination status of mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) as well as tetanus and influenza. We also looked at the current level of disability in relation to the current vaccination status, as well as possible associated personality and psychopathological variables. RESULTS: Patients with a complete MMR vaccination status were significantly younger and those with a complete influenza vaccination status were significantly older than those with related incomplete vaccination status. Tetanus vaccination status completeness did not differ depending on age and did not show substantial association with personality scores. However, influenza vaccination completeness was associated with differences in personality and psychopathological variables; extraversion, openness, novelty seeking, harm avoidance and anxiety. A reported general vaccination willingness was significantly correlated with the current completeness of tetanus and influenza vaccinations. Novelty seeking, persistence, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and neuroticism were found associated with an increased vaccination willingness. Anxiety and depression were not related to general vaccination willingness. CONCLUSIONS: No specific personality trait could be defined on its own in relation to general vaccination willingness or complete vaccination status. Younger patients should be made more aware of influenza vaccination. Reasons for rather low vaccination rates need to be further investigated.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Esclerose Múltipla , Tétano , Caráter , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
14.
Psychol Sci ; 33(5): 789-797, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486472

RESUMO

Across four experiments with U.S.-based online participants (N = 1,495 adults), I found that paying people to engage in moralistic punishment reduces their willingness to do so. In an economic game with real stakes, providing a monetary bonus for engaging in third-party punishment of unfair offers nearly cut participants' willingness to do so in half. In judgments of hypothetical transgressions, participants viewed punishers who accepted payment as having worse character and rated the punishers' punitive actions as less morally acceptable. Willingness to engage in punishment was restored if participants were offered large enough payments or were told that punishment accompanied by payment still signals moral virtue. Data were consistent with a signal-corruption mechanism whereby payment interferes with the prosocial signal that moralistic punishment provides about a punisher's motives. These findings have implications for the cultural evolution of punishment and suggest that understanding perpetrators' sociomoral incentives is essential to implementing conflict-reduction policies.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Punição , Adulto , Caráter , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Motivação
15.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 123(6): 1223-1242, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389724

RESUMO

People are excessively confident that they can judge others' characteristics from their appearance. This research identifies a novel antecedent of this phenomenon. Ten studies (N = 2,967, 4 preregistered) find that the more people believe that appearance reveals character, the more confident they are in their appearance-based judgments, and therefore, the more they support the use of facial profiling technologies in law enforcement, education, and business. Specifically, people who believe that appearance reveals character support the use of facial profiling in general (Studies 1a and 1b), and even when they themselves are the target of profiling (Studies 1c and 1d). Experimentally inducing people to believe that appearance reveals character increases their support for facial profiling (Study 2), because it increases their confidence in the ability to make appearance-based judgments (Study 3). An intervention that undermines people's confidence in their appearance-based judgments reduces their support for facial profiling (Study 4). The relationship between the lay theory and support for facial profiling is weaker among people with a growth mindset about personality, as facial profiling presumes a relatively unchanging character (Study 5a). This relationship is also weaker among people who believe in free will, as facial profiling presumes that individuals have limited free will (Study 5b). The appearance reveals character lay theory is a stronger predictor of support for profiling than analogous beliefs in other domains, such as the belief that Facebook likes reveal personality (Study 6). These findings identify a novel lay theory that underpins people's meta-cognitions about their confidence in appearance-related judgments and their policy positions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Julgamento , Humanos , Caráter , Personalidade
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329135

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the temperament and impulsiveness profile of short track athletes. Professional athletes (juniors and seniors), under training in the Polish National Team (Nfemale = 21, Nmale = 19, Mage = 20), completed The Temperament and Character Inventory- Revised (TCI-R (56)) and a shortened version of the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation-Seeking, Positive Urgency, Impulsive Behavior Scale (S-UPPS-P). The results proved that skaters obtain higher scores than the general population on the temperamental scales i.e., persistence, harm avoidance and novelty seeking and impulsivity scales i.e., sensation seeking and positive urgency. After the cluster analysis, two homogeneous profiles of short track athletes were determined. The first profile includes athletes with high scores on the reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, temperamental and sensation-seeking impulsiveness scales coupled with low scores on the temperamental scale, harm avoidance and impulsiveness scales: positive urgency, negative urgency and the lack of perseverance. The second profile is the reverse of the first profile for the short track athletes.


Assuntos
Caráter , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Temperamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pers ; 90(6): 1057-1069, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on the associations between cognitive and noncognitive personality traits has widely neglected character strengths, that means positively and morally valued personality traits that constitute good character. METHOD: The present study aimed to bridge this gap by studying the associations between character strengths and fluid intelligence using different operationalizations of character strengths (including self- and informant-reports) and fluid intelligence in children, adolescents, and adults. RESULTS: The results, based on four samples (N = 193/290/330/324), suggested that morally valued personality traits are independent of fluid intelligence, with the exception of love of learning, which showed small but robust positive relationships with fluid intelligence across all samples. CONCLUSIONS: Nonetheless, we argue for further research on the associations with other cognitive abilities and interactions between character strengths and intelligence when examining their relationships with external criteria.


Assuntos
Caráter , Inteligência , Adulto , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Aptidão , Aprendizagem , Cognição
19.
Neuroscience ; 488: 96-101, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227833

RESUMO

Previous neuroimaging studies have highlighted the role of the prefrontal-subcortical circuits in personality trait of novelty seeking (NS), thought to be mediated by the dopaminergic system. However, it remains largely unknown whether cortico-basal-cerebellar connections, heavily influenced by dopamine, are implicated in this temperament dimension as well. The present study aimed to further investigate the relationship between the NS trait and the cortico-basal-cerebellar pathways by using structural covariance network analysis. Ninety-five healthy female volunteers were included in this work, and NS was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Our results showed that NS scores were associated with structural connections between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia, substantiating the implication of the cortico-basal-cerebellar circuits in the NS construct. In addition, structural connections between visual and sensorimotor regions were also associated with NS scores, indicating that sensory and motor information processing may contribute to NS-related behaviors. Overall, the current findings may deepen our understanding of brain structural circuits related to this temperament dimension.


Assuntos
Caráter , Comportamento Exploratório , Gânglios da Base , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dopamina , Feminino , Humanos , Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento
20.
Genes Brain Behav ; 21(4): e12798, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170850

RESUMO

We investigated whether temperament modifies an association between polygenic intelligence potential and cognitive test performance in midlife. The participants (n = 1647, born between 1962 and 1977) were derived from the Young Finns Study. Temperament was assessed with Temperament and Character Inventory over a 15-year follow-up (1997, 2001, 2007, 2012). Polygenic intelligence potential was assessed with a polygenic score for intelligence. Cognitive performance (visual memory, reaction time, sustained attention, spatial working memory) was assessed with CANTAB in midlife. The PGSI was significantly associated with the overall cognitive performance and performance in visual memory, sustained attention and working memory tests but not reaction time test. Temperament did not correlate with polygenic score for intelligence and did not modify an association between the polygenic score and cognitive performance, either. High persistence was associated with higher visual memory (B = 0.092; FDR-adj. p = 0.007) and low harm avoidance with higher overall cognitive performance, specifically better reaction time (B = -0.102; FDR-adj; p = 0.007). The subscales of harm avoidance had different associations with cognitive performance: higher "anticipatory worry," higher "fatigability," and lower "shyness with strangers" were associated with lower cognitive performance, while the role of "fear of uncertainty" was subtest-related. In conclusion, temperament does not help or hinder one from realizing their genetic potential for intelligence. The overall modest relationships between temperament and cognitive performance advise caution if utilizing temperament-related information e.g. in working-life recruitments. Cognitive abilities may be influenced by temperament variables, such as the drive for achievement and anxiety about test performance, but they involve distinct systems of learning and memory.


Assuntos
Cognição , Temperamento , Adulto , Caráter , Humanos , Inteligência/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial
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