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1.
Nurs Ethics ; 31(1): 3-6, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408916

Assuntos
Caráter , Humanos
2.
Sports Health ; 16(2): 213-221, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Securing a professional baseball career is a formidable task, and only a unique few can overcome the obstacles necessary to become a Major League player in the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO). When achieving a spot in a KBO Major League team, a player's technical aspect may be influenced by their initial neuropsychological status. HYPOTHESIS: Personality and neurocognitive functions influence long-term pro-baseball league success. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort observational study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: From the start of each player's career, we monitored the status and course of 153 baseball players in the KBO from 2009 to 2019 who agreed to participate in this study. The Korean versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y (STAI-KY) analyzed traits and estimated state and trait anxiety levels, respectively. The Trail Making Test (TMT) (parts A and B) assessed attention shifting, and, in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), perseverative errors determined cognitive flexibility. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to predict player status variables, with TCI and neurocognitive function variables as covariates. RESULTS: High novelty-seeking scores, low state anxiety, and short TMT A results reliably predict KBO Major League participation in a player's third year. Similarly, low state anxiety scores and high harm avoidance, reward dependence, and self-transcendence scores accurately predict KBO Major League participation in a player's fifth year. Lastly, short TMT A results, low perseverative error scores, and high novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and self-transcendence efficiently predict KBO Major League participation in a player's seventh year. CONCLUSION: Draft ranking, personality, and neurocognitive function are associated with pro-baseball league achievement. In particular, personality and neuropsychological functions are associated with long-term success. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clinically, sound personality and neuropsychological functions determine KBO Major League success.


Assuntos
Beisebol , Humanos , Ansiedade , Temperamento , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade
3.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(3): 362, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378808

Assuntos
Caráter
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298293, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358977

RESUMO

Could judgments about others' moral character be changed under group pressure produced by human and virtual agents? In Study 1 (N = 103), participants first judged targets' moral character privately and two weeks later in the presence of real humans. Analysis of how many times participants changed their private moral judgments under group pressure showed that moral conformity occurred, on average, 43% of the time. In Study 2 (N = 138), we extended this using Virtual Reality, where group pressure was produced either by avatars allegedly controlled by humans or AI. While replicating the effect of moral conformity (at 28% of the time), we find that the moral conformity for the human and AI-controlled avatars did not differ. Our results suggest that human and nonhuman groups shape moral character judgments in both the physical and virtual worlds, shedding new light on the potential social consequences of moral conformity in the modern digital world.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Relações Interpessoais , Caráter , Conformidade Social
5.
J Affect Disord ; 350: 388-395, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A great number of case-control and population-based studies have shown that depression patients differ from healthy controls in their temperament traits. We investigated whether polygenic risk for depression predicts trajectories of temperament traits from early adulthood to middle age. METHODS: Participants came from the population-based Young Finns Study (n = 2212). The calculation for Polygenic risk for depression (PRS) was based on the most recent genome-wide association study. Temperament traits of Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence, and Persistence were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory in 1997, 2001, 2007, and 2012 (participants being 24-50-year-olds). As covariates, we used depressive symptoms as assessed by a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory, psychosocial family environment from parent-filled questionnaires, and socioeconomic factors from adulthood. RESULTS: High PRS predicted higher Persistence from early adulthood to middle age (p = 0.003) when controlling for depressive symptoms, psychosocial family environment, and socioeconomic factors. PRS did not predict trajectories of Novelty Seeking (p = 0.063-0.416 in different models) or Reward Dependence (p = 0.531-0.736). The results remained unaffected when participants with diagnosed affective disorders were excluded. Additionally, we found an interaction between PRS and depressive symptoms when predicting the Harm Avoidance subscale Anticipatory Worry, indicating that the association of Anticipatory Worry with depressive symptoms is stronger in individuals with higher (vs. lower) PRS. LIMITATIONS: There was some attrition due to the long follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: High polygenic risk for major depression may predict differences in temperament trajectories among those who have not developed any severe affective disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Temperamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade
6.
J Pers Assess ; 106(1): 116-126, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37036124

RESUMO

We examined the incremental validity of character in predicting health outcomes and well-being beyond personality traits and investigated the extent to which health-related behaviors mediate the relationship between character and well-being. Findings indicate that several character cores (e.g., transcendence, fortitude) predict well-being, health behaviors, and health outcomes beyond different measures of personality traits, indicating that character is discriminable from personality as indicated by incremental prediction. In particular, fortitude, temperance, transcendence, and sincerity appear to be key players. Implications for character research are discussed.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Temperamento , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Caráter
7.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 78(1): 64-70, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37772465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that personality traits may be associated with ADHD and comorbid concerns. We investigated temperament and character traits associated with internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in adolescents with or without ADHD. METHODS: The population consisted of a subsample (n = 457) of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) that comprised 16-year-old adolescents with and without symptoms of ADHD. ADHD and psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Kiddie-SADS-PL and temperament and character profiles were determined with TCI-125. Outcomes were examined using Pearson's chi-square test, Analyses of Covariance and Cohen's d. RESULTS: The adolescents with ADHD endorsed more novelty seeking and less persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness than those without. Comparison of the personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities with the ADHD cases showed that comorbidities did not particularly affect the temperament and character profiles, but rather ADHD accounted for the differences between the personality traits. However, the temperament and character traits predicted externalizing and internalizing psychiatric disorders in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal unique comorbidity-related temperament factors, which may have implications for adaptive and personalizing intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Temperamento , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Caráter , Comorbidade , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Inventário de Personalidade
8.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 212(3): 152-158, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38090971

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate emotion dysregulation and temperament-character traits in adolescents with functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD). Forty adolescents with FNSD and 40 healthy adolescents were evaluated by a semiconstructed diagnosis interview, Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire (REQ), and Children's Somatization Inventory-24 (CSI-24). The external and internal dysfunctional emotion regulation scores of REQ, all subscales of DERS, except the awareness subscale, and CSI-24 scores were significantly higher in FNSD patients compared with healthy controls. There were significant differences between the groups in terms of harm avoidance and reward dependence subscale scores of TCI. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the external dysfunctional emotion regulation strategy, somatization, and reward dependence are significant predictors of FNSD. Our results provide evidence that adolescents with FNSD experience emotional dysregulation and that the differential value of some temperament-character traits in the diagnosis of FNSD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo , Temperamento , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Caráter , Transtornos Dissociativos , Inventário de Personalidade
9.
Psicol. Estud. (Online) ; 29: e54827, 2024. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1529189

RESUMO

RESUMO. Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o conhecimento de crianças e pré-adolescentes em relação aos termos que designam as forças de caráter e compreender como percebem a expressão desses traços nos próprios comportamentos e nos de outras pessoas. Foram entrevistados 17 participantes, de oito a 13 anos (M = 10,6; DP = 1,5). Para cada força foram feitas sete perguntas, que investigavam a definição do termo e exemplos da expressão da força nos outros e nos próprios entrevistados. As entrevistas foram gravadas e transcritas para análise de conteúdo, ao fim gerando categorias para cada força. As forças descritas com maior facilidade pelos participantes e suas respectivas definições foram criatividade (capacidade de criar coisas), curiosidade e amor ao aprendizado (busca de conhecimento e novas experiências), honestidade (falar a verdade), amor (comportamento de dar carinho), bondade (ajudar e cuidar do outro), trabalho em equipe (realização de trabalhos colaborativos em brincadeiras ou atividades escolares), perdão (08 categorias a respeito de sua definição, sem destaque para alguma) e esperança (desejar acontecimento futuro). Esses achados podem tornar mais acessível o desenvolvimento e a avaliação das forças nessa faixa etária.


RESUMEN. Este estudio buscó analizar el conocimiento de niños y pre-adolescentes sobre los términos que fueron designados como fortalezas de carácter, y comprender cómo perciben estos rasgos en sus proprios comportamientos y en los de otras personas. Diecisiete participantes entre ocho y trece años fueron entrevistados (M = 10.6; SD = 1.5). Para cada fortaleza, se hicieron siete preguntas, que investigaron la definición del término y ejemplos prácticos de su expresión. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas para el análisis de contenido, creando categorías para cada fortaleza. Las fortalezas descritas por los participantes con mayor facilidad y sus respectivas definiciones fueron: creatividad (capacidad de crear cosas), curiosidad y amor por el aprendizaje (búsqueda de conocimiento y nuevas experiencias), honestidad (decir la verdad), amor (comportamientos afectivos), amabilidad (ayudar y cuidar a los demás), trabajo en equipo (desempeño del trabajo colaborativo en juegos o actividades escolares), perdón (ocho categorías con respecto a su definición, sin énfasis en ninguna) y esperanza (deseo por un evento futuro). Estos hallazgos pueden facilitar el desarrollo y la evaluación de las fortalezas con este grupo de edad.


ABSTRACT This study aims to analyze the children and pre-adolescents' knowledge regarding terms that designate character strengths and to understand how they perceive the expression of these traits in their and other people's behavior. Seventeen participants aged eight to thirteen were interviewed (M = 10.6; SD = 1.5). For each strength, seven questions were asked, which investigated the definition and examples of the strength expression. The interviews were recorded and transcribed for content analysis, generating categories for each strength. The strengths most easily described by the participants and their respective definitions were: creativity (ability to create things), curiosity and love for learning (searching for knowledge and new experiences), honesty (speaking the truth), love (acts involving affection), kindness (helping and caring for others), teamwork (collaborative works in games or school activities), forgiveness (eight categories regarding their definition, without highlighting any) and hope (longing for a future event). These findings may make developing and evaluating character strengths in this age group more accessible.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Caráter , Criança , Compreensão , Comportamento , Criatividade , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Comportamento Exploratório , Perdão , Esperança , Psicologia Positiva/educação , Dinâmica de Grupo/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Amor
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37976225

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of care burden and personality traits of caregivers on treatment compliance and social functionality of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients aged 18-65 years diagnosed with schizophrenia (DSM-5 criteria) who were followed up in the hospital between December 2020 and June 2021. Fifty caregivers (ie, spouses, parents, siblings, and children) were also included in the study. All study participants completed a sociodemographic data form. Caregivers completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Zarit Care Burden Scale (ZCBS). Patients completed the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), the Morisky Treatment Adherence Scale (MTAS), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).Results: There was a positive correlation between MTAS and PANSS scores (r = 0.293, P < .05) of patients with schizophrenia and a negative correlation between MTAS and SFS total scores (r = -0.468, P < .01). There was a positive correlation between MTAS and ZCBS-dependency subgroup scores (P < .05). A positive correlation was found between caregivers' TCI subdimensions, especially self-directedness total score and SFS total score (P < .01), as well as between self-transcendence total score and total ZCBS score (P < .05).Conclusions: Based on the study results, temperament and character characteristics of caregivers affect both the care burden of caregivers and the social functionality of patients; however, larger samples are required to measure the effects of caregivers' personality traits and care burden on patients' functioning and adherence to treatment.Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2023;25(6):23m03522. Author affiliations are listed at the end of this article.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Criança , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Cuidadores , Fardo do Cuidador , Estudos Transversais , Temperamento , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade , Cooperação do Paciente
11.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 22: 15347354231197648, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37799020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence shows that life satisfaction is positively related to character strengths, and although this association has been observed in different populations, it is scarce in breast cancer patients. This study analyzes the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction in Spanish women diagnosed with breast cancer. METHODS: A sample of 117 women completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the Spanish version of the VIA Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS). Correlation analysis and regression modeling were performed to determine which strengths predict life satisfaction. RESULTS: The results of the correlation analysis showed that 15 strengths were positively and significantly associated with life satisfaction, with the highest correlations corresponding to zest, hope, curiosity, social intelligence, love, gratitude, and judgment. Regression modeling indicated that of these, zest and hope were key strengths for predicting life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that intervention programs based on the development of zest and hope could help to improve life satisfaction and, therefore, the psychological well-being of women with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Caráter , Bem-Estar Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0289872, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561694

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether assessments of psychopathology vs. character strengths were associated with systematic differences concerning transient psychological states (i.e., cognitive performance, state mood, optimism, therapy motivation, perceived stigma) in individuals with psychotic disorders. An additional goal was to evaluate the acceptance and appraisal of a subsequent online character-strength intervention, consisting of top-two strengths feedback, and to explore associations between character strengths and psychotic symptoms. The study thus aimed to contribute to the discussion on the extension of current treatment approaches for schizophrenia through positive psychological interventions. METHODS: The study was implemented online applying a randomized within-subject cross-over design in N = 39 patients with self-reported psychosis. After a baseline assessment, briefly capturing psychological states (including cognition: TMT A/B, positive and negative affect, motivation for change/ therapy, optimism, and self-stigma) participants were randomly assigned to a first questionnaire block, which addressed either individual character strengths (VIA-IS) or psychopathology (CAPE & BSI). This was followed by a second, brief assessment of transient psychological states, whereafter the second questionnaire block was conducted, this time with the respective opposite (strengths or psychopathology) assessment. A final psychological states assessment was conducted. Afterwards, participants received feedback on their top-two strengths and a brief psycho-education, followed by a qualitative assessment. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, there were no differences between the psychological states after the pathology vs. character strengths assessment blocks. Character strengths mainly correlated negatively with negative symptoms, with medium to large effect sizes. Participants were generally satisfied with the intervention and rated a focus on personal strengths in psychotherapy as highly important. CONCLUSION: Our main hypothesis stating that the assessment of character strengths (vs. psychopathology) is associated with differences in subsequent psychological states could not be confirmed. Qualitative findings indicate that the emphasis on individual character strengths interventions is well accepted and viewed as important. The associations of character strengths with negative symptoms are important from the background of the cognitive model or defeatist beliefs (e.g., amotivation due to perceiving the self as 'incapable'), which could be addressed in experimental or intervention studies targeting character strengths.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Caráter , Afeto , Cognição
13.
PeerJ ; 11: e15861, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37583915

RESUMO

Background: Morningness (morning-eveningness preference or chronotypes) and personality can be both associated with well-being, but few studies have directly compared these two constructs as correlates of well-being. Thus, the first purpose of this study was to test the effects of interactions between stable personality traits (temperaments) and morningness on well-being. Furthermore, personality factors are often composed of both stable biological factors (temperament) and socio-cultural factors (character), and little is known about personality interplay of temperament and character factors with respect to morningness and well-being. The second purpose of this study was therefore to examine the sequential mediating effects of temperament and character factors on the relationship between morningness and well-being. Methods: The Composite Scale of Morningness, the Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised Short Version (TCI-RS), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used to measure morningness, personality dimensions, and well-being, respectively, in 287 Korean university students. Moderating and sequentially mediating effects of temperament and character traits were determined using Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS after controlling for sex and age. Results: First, novelty-seeking (NS) and persistence (PS) temperaments have demonstrated the moderating effect in the association between morningness and well-being. The positive effects of morningness on life satisfaction increased with lower NS and PS, respectively. However, other temperaments such as harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD) have not shown the moderation in the relationship between morningness on well-being. Second, HA temperament and self-directedness (SD) character sequentially mediated the relationship between morningness and well-being. The combination of low scores of HA and high scores of SD have shown the positive effect on the relationship between morningness and well-being. Discussion: This study demonstrated that both the interactions between temperaments and morningness, and combination of specific TCI-RS temperament and character traits play important roles in influencing the association between morningness and well-being. The significance of the mature SD character and its implications for well-being are discussed with limitation of the present study.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento , Caráter
14.
Cognition ; 239: 105570, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37536142

RESUMO

Moral dilemmas are inescapable in daily life, and people must often choose between two desirable character traits, like being a diligent employee or being a devoted parent. These moral dilemmas arise because people hold competing moral values that sometimes conflict. Furthermore, people differ in which values they prioritize, so we do not always approve of how others resolve moral dilemmas. How are we to think of people who sacrifice one of our most cherished moral values for a value that we consider less important? The "Good True Self Hypothesis" predicts that we will reliably project our most strongly held moral values onto others, even after these people lapse. In other words, people who highly value generosity should consistently expect others to be generous, even after they act frugally in a particular instance. However, reasoning from an error-management perspective instead suggests the "Moral Stringency Hypothesis," which predicts that we should be especially prone to discredit the moral character of people who deviate from our most deeply cherished moral ideals, given the potential costs of affiliating with people who do not reliably adhere to our core moral values. In other words, people who most highly value generosity should be quickest to stop considering others to be generous if they act frugally in a particular instance. Across two studies conducted on Prolific (N = 966), we found consistent evidence that people weight moral lapses more heavily when rating others' membership in highly cherished moral categories, supporting the Moral Stringency Hypothesis. In Study 2, we examined a possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Although perceptions of hypocrisy played a role in moral updating, personal moral values and subsequent judgments of a person's potential as a good cooperative partner provided the clearest explanation for changes in moral character attributions. Overall, the robust tendency toward moral stringency carries significant practical and theoretical implications.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Humanos , Julgamento , Resolução de Problemas , Caráter
15.
Can J Aging ; 42(3): 455-465, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37157820

RESUMO

During the pandemic, older adults were perceived as a vulnerable group without considering their various strengths. This study explored the associations between character strengths and resilience, and verified if some of these could predict resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 92 participants (women = 79.1%), ≥ 70 years of age (mean = 75.6 years), completed an online version of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths - Positively keyed (VIA-IS-P) to assess 24 character strengths (grouped under six virtues) and the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. Results showed that 20 of the 24 strengths correlated positively and significantly with resilience. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the virtues of courage and transcendence, as well as attitudes toward aging, uniquely predicted the level of resilience. Interventions should be developed to improve certain strengths (e.g., creativity, zest, hope, humor, and curiosity), while reducing ageism, in order to promote resilience.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Caráter , Envelhecimento , Virtudes
16.
J Psychosom Res ; 169: 111322, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37018955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Presence of gallstones is associated with a range of risk factors that have previously shown associations with personality traits. Our aim was to assess the differences in personality traits between the patients with and without gallstones. METHODS: This study used a case-control design with 308 participants from the general population, 68.2% female, mean age 49.2 (SD 9.24) years, of whom 154 (50%) participants had asymptomatic gallstones. Personality was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory - Revised - 140 (TCI-R-140) and depression with the Center for Epidemiological Study of Depression Scale (CESD). Cut-off ≥16 on the CES-D was used as an exclusion criterion. Subjects were also checked for metabolic risk factors and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The group with gallstones had significantly more pronounced metabolic risk factors and higher prevalence of smoking and alcohol usage in comparison with the group without gallstones. This group also exhibited higher temperament dimension Harm avoidance (HA) and lower character dimension Self-directedness (SD). Metabolic variables differed based on character dimension Cooperativeness (CO), smoking based on temperament dimensions Novelty seeking (NS) and HA, and alcohol usage on dimension NS within the gallstones group. In the logistic regression, controlled for smoking, alcohol usage and metabolic variables, temperament dimension HA was shown to be a significant predictor of the presence of gallstones. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that personality may be associated with the presence of gallstones. Future longitudinal studies addressing the complex interplay of personality traits, psychological mechanisms and the associated behavioral, metabolic and neurobiological factors, are needed.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Personalidade , Temperamento , Caráter , Inventário de Personalidade
17.
Cognition ; 236: 105437, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36989917

RESUMO

People sometimes do things that they think are morally wrong. We investigate how actors' perceptions of the morality of their own behaviors affects observer evaluations. In Study 1 (n = 302), we presented participants with six different descriptions of actors who routinely engaged in a morally questionable behavior and varied whether the actors thought the behavior was morally wrong. Actors who believed their behavior was wrong were seen as having better moral character, but their behavior was rated as more wrong. In Study 2 (n = 391) we investigated whether perceptions of actor metadesires were responsible for the effects of actor beliefs on character judgments. We used the same stimuli and measures as in Study 1 but added a measure of the actor's perceived desires to engage in the behaviors. As predicted, the effect of actors' moral beliefs on judgments of their moral character was mediated by perceived metadesires. In Study 3 (n = 1092) we replicated these findings in a between-participants design and further found that the effect of actor beliefs on act and character judgments was moderated by participant beliefs about the general acceptability of the behavior.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Humanos , Emoções , Caráter
18.
Schizophr Res ; 252: 348-406, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36804473

RESUMO

This systematic review focuses on personality traits according to both the Five Factor Model and Cloninger Psychobiological Model in relation to treatment related outcome variables across all stages of clinical psychotic illness. Search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases led to final inclusion of 65 studies, which were ranked on quality and analyzed according to the associations between personality and outcome. Main findings are that higher levels of Harm Avoidance and Neuroticism are associated with higher symptom levels, tendency towards passive coping, greater self-stigma, lower quality of life, and Harm Avoidance to higher suicidality. Higher levels of Extraversion and higher levels of Self-Directedness are associated with more preference for active coping, more intrinsic motivation and higher self-esteem. Higher Novelty Seeking is related to more substance use and aggression, in men specifically. On outcome of trauma, care consumption and duration of untreated illness no consistent associations with personality traits were found. Combined evidence from both personality models however reveals a consistent pattern of personality traits related to clinical outcome in psychotic disorder, which is discussed in a dimensional manner.


Assuntos
Caráter , Temperamento , Masculino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Inventário de Personalidade
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 234: 103860, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36774773

RESUMO

Personality and psychopathology are highly relevant and easily relatable constructs. The current study investigated the relationships between dependency and self-criticism, sociotropy and autonomy depressive personality traits, and Cloninger's temperament and character personality traits postulated as vulnerability factors for depression, in relation to depressive and general psychopathology symptoms in a clinical sample of 100 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder. The results showed that self-directedness, a character trait of the temperament and character model, was positively associated with dependency, self-criticism, sociotropy, and autonomy. Applying more in-depth analyses with regression models revealed associations between self-directedness and depressive personality styles dependency and sociotropy, and general psychopathology symptoms was a significant clinical indicator in these relationships. Going beyond the regression models, network analysis showed that self-directedness is associated with self-criticism, sociotropy, autonomy, and general psychopathology symptoms. The relationship between self-directedness and sociotropy, self-criticism and autonomy suggests that these depressive personality traits may be attributable to aspects of self-determination, maturity, responsibility, discipline, and self-acceptance. General psychopathology research informed by literature incorporating personality traits has far-reaching implications for understanding individual differences as well as increasing efforts to contribute to the amelioration of disabling psychological disorders like major depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Temperamento , Humanos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Personalidade , Caráter , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inventário de Personalidade
20.
J Pers ; 91(4): 1012-1034, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395099

RESUMO

Extant theoretical models of personality coherence/incoherence do not sufficiently address the challenge of explaining personality coherence dynamics and the role of psychological mechanisms, including temperament and attention. To overcome these limitations, the Complex-System Approach to Personality (C-SAP) postulates that personality coherence is a within-person structure that arises from the functional consistency/inconsistency between personality traits/types, underlain by specific attentional and temperament mechanisms that have integrative and regulatory potential. The dominant (reactive, regulative) function of stimulation processing in temperament types is the foundation for assessing personality coherence. This paper presents a revised, fine-grained model of personality coherence-originally arising from the C-SAP-that is enriched by a focus on personality coherence dynamics in relation to behavioral consistency. The methodological principles necessary for studying personality coherence dynamics are outlined in detail. This paper also addresses: (a) research methods for relating personality coherence/incoherence to behavioral consistency/inconsistency, and (b) situational contexts that are important to these personality dynamics. In addition, personality coherence dynamics in relation to the self and character and the impact of the C-SAP assumption that behaviors are more stable than traits/types on the relation between personality coherence and behavioral consistency are discussed.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Temperamento , Humanos , Personalidade/fisiologia , Caráter , Transtornos da Personalidade
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