Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.951
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267436, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511884

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has impacted urban transportation mobility throughout the world. In this paper, we investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the urban mobility network's structural characteristics. We contribute to the literature by discussing how various community areas in the city traffic network are impacted by the pandemic. We analyze a large dataset on urban mobility from the city of Chicago and derive various insights. Our analysis of the mobility network structure is important because a better understanding of such networks can help control the spread of the disease by reducing interactions among individuals. We find that the pandemic significantly impacted the structure of the mobility network of taxis in Chicago. Our study reveals some important pointers for policymakers that could potentially aid in developing urban transportation policies during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Chicago/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Pandemias , Transportes
2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267217, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507555

RESUMO

Explanations for police misconduct often center on a narrow notion of "problem officers," the proverbial "bad apples." Such an individualistic approach not only ignores the larger systemic problems of policing but also takes for granted the group-based nature of police work. Nearly all of police work is group-based and officers' formal and informal networks can impact behavior, including misconduct. In extreme cases, groups of officers (what we refer to as, "crews") have even been observed to coordinate their abusive and even criminal behaviors. This study adopts a social network and machine learning approach to empirically investigate the presence and impact of officer crews engaging in alleged misconduct in a major U.S. city: Chicago, IL. Using data on Chicago police officers between 1971 and 2018, we identify potential crews and analyze their impact on alleged misconduct and violence. Results detected approximately 160 possible crews, comprised of less than 4% of all Chicago police officers. Officers in these crews were involved in an outsized amount of alleged and actual misconduct, accounting for approximately 25% of all use of force complaints, city payouts for civil and criminal litigations, and police-involved shootings. The detected crews also contributed to racial disparities in arrests and civilian complaints, generating nearly 18% of all complaints filed by Black Chicagoans and 14% of complaints filed by Hispanic Chicagoans.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Polícia , Chicago , Humanos , Violência
3.
Curr Sports Med Rep ; 21(5): 149-154, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522438

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Medical planning for a marathon requires an understanding of the volumes and types of injuries experienced by runners during a race. This chart review of medical records from the 2018 Bank of America Chicago Marathon (N = 1016) measured volume and types of injuries at the race aid stations to determine the impact that race distance has on medical resource utilization. The type and volume of each injured runner diagnosis was compared between quartiles of the race using a chisquare analysis. The most common presenting complaints were musculoskeletal (MSK), followed by medical/other, and then wound care. The proportion of MSK complaints increased over the course of the race, whereas the percentage of medical and wound care complaints was highest at the finish line tents. Understanding the expected volume and type of injuries along the course of a race optimizes medical planning and leads to better utilization of resources and staff.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Corrida , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Chicago , Humanos , Corrida de Maratona , Corrida/lesões
4.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(3): 226-233, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524355

RESUMO

Background: Peanut component tests (PCT) have become important in the evaluation of peanut allergy. There remains a paucity of research across the United States in investigating the utility of PCT in clinical practice in conjunction with current standards of care. Objective: The primary aims were to evaluate the performance and sensitization patterns of PCT in clinical practice when first available at our institution. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 184 children with PCT and oral food challenge (OFC) results between 2012 and 2017. Simple logistic regression models assessed the associations between PCT and OFC outcomes. Receiver operator characteristic curves were constructed, and a predicted probability curve was derived for Ara h2. Results: The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age at OFC was 4 years (2-7 years), and 111 patients (60%) were boys. Ara h 2 was the most commonly sensitized PCT. Sixty-one patients (33%) reacted at OFC. Ara h 2 specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) ≥ 0.35 kUA/L was associated with increased odds of reacting at OFC (odds ratio 5.91 95% confidence interval, 2.93-11.89; p < 0.001); however, 19 patients (37%) positive for Ara h 2 did not react. Ara h 2 sIgE of 0.49 kUA/L and 4.58 kUA/L were associated with 50% and 90% probability, respectively, of reacting at OFC. Among those sensitized only to Ara h 8 or 9 (n = 21), 86% had no reaction. There was no statistically significant association with polysensitization to Ara h 1, 2, and 3, and peanut OFC outcome. Conclusion: Although the Ara h 2 sIgE value was associated with clinical reactivity, a significant proportion of the patients sensitized to Ara h 2 tolerated peanut. OFC remains an important tool in the evaluation of peanut allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Albuminas 2S de Plantas , Alérgenos , Antígenos de Plantas , Arachis , Chicago , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Masculino , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 11(4): 15, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435922

RESUMO

Purpose: The lamina cribrosa (LC) has an important role in the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. The purpose of this study is to characterize in vivo, noninvasively, and in 3D the structure of the LC in healthy non-human primates (NHPs). Methods: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT; Leica, Chicago, IL) scans of the optic nerve head (ONH) were obtained from healthy adult rhesus macaques monkeys. Using a previously reported semi-automated segmentation algorithm, microstructure measurements were assessed in central and peripheral regions of an equal area, in quadrants and depth-wise. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare parameters among regions, adjusting for visibility, age, analyzable depth, graded scan quality, disc area, and the correlation between eyes. Spearmen's rank correlation coefficients were calculated for assessing the association between the lamina's parameters. Results: Sixteen eyes of 10 animals (7 males and 3 females; 9 OD, 7 OS) were analyzed with a mean age of 10.5 ± 2.1 years. The mean analyzable depth was 175 ± 37 µm, with average LC visibility of 25.4 ± 13.0% and average disc area of 2.67 ± 0.45mm2. Within this volume, an average of 74.9 ± 39.0 pores per eye were analyzed. The central region showed statistically significantly thicker beams than the periphery. The quadrant-based analysis showed significant differences between the superior and inferior quadrants. The anterior LC had smaller beams and pores than both middle and posterior lamina. Conclusions: Our study provides in vivo microstructure details of NHP's LC to be used as the foundation for future studies. We demonstrated mostly small but statistically significant regional variations in LC microstructure that should be considered when comparing LC measurements.


Assuntos
Disco Óptico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Animais , Chicago , Feminino , Imageamento Tridimensional , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227512, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426922

RESUMO

Importance: Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are associated with a faster cognitive decline; whether this association is also associated with structural brain alterations, such as white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes, requires investigation. Objective: To evaluate the association of SMCs with WMH volumes and cognitive decline and investigate the role of WMH volumes in the association between SMCs and cognitive decline. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Chicago Health and Aging Project, a population-based cohort study, enrolled adults aged 65 years or older. Data collection occurred in 3-year cycles from 1993 until 2012. Our study comprised 975 participants with magnetic resonance imaging assessments, of which 900 participants had data on SMCs and covariates, and 713 participants provided 2 or more cognitive assessments during the follow-up. Statistical analyses were conducted from May to October 2021. Exposures: SMCs were obtained from self-reported questionnaire data during clinical evaluations, and the cycle, when reported, constituted the baseline of our study. Based on the frequency and severity of concerns, we categorized participants into 3 groups, (1) no concerns, (2) moderate concerns, and (3) very worried. Main Outcomes and Measures: Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging measures of WMH volume and neuropsychological testing assessments of global cognition. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between SMCs and WMH volumes in a multivariable model adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, education, APOE4 status, and total intracranial volume. The association of SMCs with cognitive decline was investigated using linear mixed-effects models for age, sex, race and ethnicity, education, APOE4 status, follow-up time, and each variable in interaction with time to estimate the annual longitudinal change in cognitive function. Results: Of the 900 participants with data on SMCs, covariates, and WMH volumes, 553 (61.4%) were women, 539 (59.9%) were African American, and the mean (SD) age was 79.5 (6.2) years. SMCs were associated with a larger WMH volume and faster cognitive decline. Compared with participants with no concerns, participants who were very worried had higher WMH volumes (ß = 0.833; 95% CI, 0.203-1.463) and 174% faster cognitive decline (ß = -0.049; 95% CI, -0.076 to -0.022). The association between SMCs and cognitive decline remained statistically significant among individuals with large WMH volumes (ie, within the fourth quartile). Within the fourth quartile of WMH volumes, participants who were very worried had 428% faster cognitive decline (ß = -0.077; 95% CI, -0.144 to -0.011) compared with participants with no concerns. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study suggests that SMCs, frequently reported by older individuals, are an important sign of cognitive impairment, especially among people with abnormalities in brain structure, such as larger WMH volumes.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Substância Branca , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Apolipoproteína E4 , Chicago/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Substância Branca/patologia
7.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 38(1): 74-76, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276723

RESUMO

To increase the effectiveness of adult mosquito control, more frequent ultra-low volume (ULV) applications have been suggested. In the Chicago area, weather may be a limiting factor to more frequent applications. To investigate this, ULV adulticidal application dates from the Northwest Mosquito Abatement District during June 2011 to September 2020 were compared to historical weather data-wind and rain patterns to determine optimum conditions for conducting ULV treatments. During the 85 applications performed during 2011-20, there would have been an opportunity, based on weather conditions, for an additional consecutive night for about half (48.2%) of the time. These opportunities diminished with each additional application. The most intensive response possible would have been a spray of 5 consecutive nights, which occurred once in 3 of the 10 years investigated.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Chicago , Controle de Mosquitos , Veículos Automotores , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(3): 309-316, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334486

RESUMO

CONTEXT: As response rates to health surveys conducted by telephone continue to decline and costs continue to increase, practitioners are increasingly considering a transition to self-administered mail contact modes. OBJECTIVE: To compare empirical differences observed across adjacent administrations of the Healthy Chicago Survey (HCS) conducted by telephone versus self-administered via mail contact. DESIGN: Data from the 2016, 2018, and 2020 administrations of the HCS are contrasted, and demographic distributions are benchmarked against the American Community Survey to investigate differences that may be linked to the HCS' transition from a telephone to self-administered mail mode between 2018 and 2020. SETTING: All survey data were collected from adult residents of Chicago, Illinois, between 2016 and 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Costs, response rates, key health statistics, demographic distributions, and measures of precision generated from the HCS. RESULTS: The mail mode led to a response rate increase of 6.8% to 38.2% at half the cost per complete. Mail respondents are more likely to be nonminority, female, and hold a college degree. Key health statistic differences are mixed, but design effects are larger in the mail mode, which we attribute to more detailed geographic stratification and weighting employed in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The mail mode is a less costly data collection strategy for the HCS, but it comes with trade-offs. The quasi-random selection of an individual in the household exacerbates sociodemographic distribution disparities.


Assuntos
Serviços Postais , Telefone , Adulto , Chicago , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264983, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271634

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and mortality worldwide. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy leads to high cure rates. However, persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for reinfection after cure and may require multiple DAA treatments to reach the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of HCV elimination by 2030. Using an agent-based model (ABM) that accounts for the complex interplay of demographic factors, risk behaviors, social networks, and geographic location for HCV transmission among PWID, we examined the combination(s) of DAA enrollment (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%), adherence (60%, 70%, 80%, 90%) and frequency of DAA treatment courses needed to achieve the WHO's goal of reducing incident chronic infections by 90% by 2030 among a large population of PWID from Chicago, IL and surrounding suburbs. We also estimated the economic DAA costs associated with each scenario. Our results indicate that a DAA treatment rate of >7.5% per year with 90% adherence results in 75% of enrolled PWID requiring only a single DAA course; however 19% would require 2 courses, 5%, 3 courses and <2%, 4 courses, with an overall DAA cost of $325 million to achieve the WHO goal in metropolitan Chicago. We estimate a 28% increase in the overall DAA cost under low adherence (70%) compared to high adherence (90%). Our modeling results have important public health implications for HCV elimination among U.S. PWID. Using a range of feasible treatment enrollment and adherence rates, we report robust findings supporting the need to address re-exposure and reinfection among PWID to reduce HCV incidence.


Assuntos
Usuários de Drogas , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Chicago/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Reinfecção , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e223596, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315915

RESUMO

Importance: Little is known about the association of serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations and physical activity with the rate of cognitive decline in older adults. Objective: To examine the association of physical activity and NfL concentrations with cognitive decline in older adults over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), a population-based cohort study that recruited participants through door-to-door census in 4 Chicago-area communities and collected data between 1993 and 2012 in cycles of 3 years. Participants in CHAP who had 2 or more cognitive function assessments and at least 1 blood sample collected for NfL measurement were selected for inclusion in the current study. Data were analyzed from January to December 2021. Exposures: Self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) and serum NfL concentration (pg/mL). Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of baseline physical activity and NfL concentrations with changes in global cognitive function over time as evaluated using the East Boston Memory Test for episodic memory, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test for perceptual speed, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted to examine associations at baseline and longitudinally. Results: The study sample included 1158 participants (695 [60%] African American; 728 [63%] female), with a mean (SD) age of 77.4 (6.0) years and a mean educational level of 12.6 (3.5) years. Among participants with high NfL concentrations (>25 pg/mL), those who engaged in medium physical activity (<150 minutes per week) had a 12% slower rate of global cognitive decline (SD units, or ß, -0.065; 95% CI, -0.099 to -0.032) and participants who engaged in high physical activity (≥150 minutes per week) had a 36% slower rate of decline (ß, -0.048; 95% CI, -0.080 to -0.016) than did participants with low physical activity (no reported participation) (ß, -0.075; 95% CI, -0.108 to -0.041). For participants with low NfL concentrations (≤25 pg/mL), those who took part in medium physical activity had 43% slower global cognitive decline (ß, -0.025; 95% CI, -0.043 to -0.007) and individuals who participated in high physical activity had 30% slower decline (ß, -0.031; 95% CI, -0.048 to -0.014) than did those who participated in low physical activity (ß, -0.046; 95% CI, -0.066 to -0.025). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that physical activity is associated with diminished cognitive decline among older adults with increased serum NfL concentrations. The results support the potential use of blood biomarkers in measuring the benefits of health behaviors, such as physical activity, and early intervention for older adults at risk for cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Filamentos Intermediários , Idoso , Chicago , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 299: 114881, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278830

RESUMO

Studies show that older adults were lonelier during versus before the COVID-19 pandemic. This may be due in part to guidelines particularly recommending that older adults stay at home, given their elevated risk of COVID-19 complications. However, little is known about the extent to which this population experienced greater intensity in momentary loneliness during versus before the pandemic, and how this relates to their real-time contexts. Here, we build upon recent findings from the Chicago Health and Activity Space in Real-Time (CHART) study that revealed associations between momentary contexts and loneliness among older adults. We analyze ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) from both pre- and during COVID-19 among a subsample of CHART respondents (N = 110 older adults age 65-88 in 2020). Pre-pandemic data were collected across three waves from April 2018-October 2019, and pandemic data were collected across three additional waves from June-September 2020. Participants responded to smartphone "pings" (five per day for 7 days per wave; N = 5596 and N = 7826 before and during the pandemic, respectively) by reporting their momentary loneliness and context (e.g., home). Findings from multi-level regression models suggest that respondents were lonelier in mid-2020 than in years prior, as well as when at home and alone; they were also more likely to be at home during the pandemic. However, the loneliness-inducing effects of being at home (vs. outside the home) and alone (vs. with others) were weaker during versus before COVID-19. Results provide important nuance to broader trends in loneliness among older adults during the pandemic. Specifically, older adults may have adopted new technologies to support social connectedness. It is also possible that, during a time in which social and physical distancing characterized public health guidelines, these contexts grew less isolating as they became a shared experience, or that publicly shared spaces provided fewer opportunities for social engagement.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Chicago/epidemiologia , Humanos , Solidão , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 19: E07, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutrition incentive programs provide low-income populations with a monetary resource to make healthy foods affordable and accessible. This study aimed to use geospatial analysis to evaluate availability of the Link Match nutrition incentive program in Chicago, Illinois, to determine whether underresourced communities have access. METHODS: We obtained 2018 spatial data on census tract-level sociodemographic characteristics in Chicago. Fifty-seven retailers (eg, farmers markets, food cooperatives) offered Link Match across the city's 801 census tracts. We examined ordinary least squares and spatial lag regression models to identify census tract-level variables associated with distance (in miles) from the nearest Link Match retailer. Variables of interest included percentage of non-Hispanic Black residents, percentage of Hispanic residents, median household income, violent crime rate, per capita grocery store availability, and walkability. RESULTS: Most Link Match retailers were located on Chicago's South and West sides. Ordinary least squares regression models indicated that low-income census tracts were on average closer to a Link Match retailer than higher-income tracts were (P < .001). Tracts in the highest quartile of violent crime were also significantly closer to a Link Match retailer than tracts in the lowest quartile (P < .001). After accounting for spatial dependency of census tracts, only violent crime rate was significantly associated with distance to nearest Link Match retailer. CONCLUSION: Link Match retailers in Chicago appear to be in underresourced communities. However, these areas have high violent crime rates, which may negatively influence program use. Additional research is needed on how social and environmental factors influence availability and use of nutrition incentive programs.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Motivação , Chicago , Humanos , Illinois , Estado Nutricional
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2143941, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35133436

RESUMO

Importance: Animal experiments and small clinical studies support a role for the gut microbiota in cognitive functioning. Few studies have investigated gut microbiota and cognition in large community samples. Objective: To examine associations of gut microbial composition with measures of cognition in an established population-based study of middle-aged adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the prospective Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort in 4 US metropolitan centers between 2015 and 2016. Data were analyzed in 2019 and 2020. Exposures: Stool DNA were sequenced, and the following gut microbial measures were gathered: (1) ß-diversity (between-person) derived with multivariate principal coordinates analysis; (2) α-diversity (within-person), defined as richness (genera count) and the Shannon index (integrative measure of genera richness and evenness); and (3) taxonomy (107 genera, after filtering). Main Outcomes and Measures: Cognitive status was assessed using 6 clinic-administered cognitive tests: Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Stroop, category fluency, and letter fluency. A global score measure derived using principal components analysis was also assessed; the first principal component explained 56% of variability. Results: Microbiome data were available on 597 CARDIA participants; mean (SD) age was 55.2 (3.5) years, 268 participants (44.7%) were men, and 270 (45.2%) were Black. In multivariable-adjusted principal coordinates analysis, permutational multivariate analysis of variance tests for ß-diversity were statistically significant for all cognition measures (principal component analysis, P = .001; MoCA, P = .001; DSST, P = .001; RAVLT, P = .001; Stroop, P = .007; category fluency, P = .001) with the exception of letter fluency (P = .07). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables (age, race, sex, education), health behaviors (physical activity, diet, smoking, medication use), and clinical covariates (body mass index, diabetes, hypertension), Barnesiella was positively associated with the first principal component (ß, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.08-0.24), DSST (ß, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.35-2.00), and category fluency (ß, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.31-0.87); Lachnospiraceae FCS020 group was positively associated with DSST (ß, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.10-4.23), and Sutterella was negatively associated with MoCA (ß, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.44 to -0.11). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, microbial community composition, based on ß-diversity, was associated with all cognitive measures in multivariable-adjusted analysis. These data contribute to a growing body of literature suggesting that the gut microbiota may be associated with cognitive aging, but must be replicated in larger samples and further researched to identify relevant pathways.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Envelhecimento/patologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , /estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Alabama , California , Chicago , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Raciais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153776, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150671

RESUMO

Throughout much of the globe, rivers are used to dispatch treated and untreated wastewater to the detriment of receiving ecosystems. Surprisingly, few studies directly relate water quality variables to fish community responses in receiving waterways on timescales that encompass the incremental and compounding improvements to wastewater infrastructure over time. Chicago (Illinois, USA) represents one such city, within which sits a series of waterways whose flows are primarily controlled by effluent discharges from three large wastewater treatment plants. Random forest regressions were used to construct models which predict changes in fish species richness within the Chicago Area Waterways over a period of 35 years from data on water quality and weather. The average number of species found at any one location across the Chicago Area Waterway system increased from ~5 to ~12 between 1985 and 2019. Decreases in concentrations of variables related to wastewater effluents (i.e., phenols, fecal coliforms, and nitrogenous compounds) were identified as highly informative, allowing increases in species richness to be predicted with a relatively high accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.49). Weather variables (particularly those related to snow and freezing temperatures) were only important predictors in a section of waterway which does not receive wastewater effluent, although consistent increases in rainfall were noted for Chicago and in chloride concentrations within the waterways. Increased rainfall events and harsher winter conditions (induces greater chloride runoff) threaten the progress made to lessen the effects of wastewater on the region. Improvements to how wastewater is treated, and subsequent reductions to harmful constituents of effluents, have improved the aquatic ecosystem and are likely responsible for the increased species richness over the 35-year timeframe studied.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Chicago , Cloretos , Ecossistema , Peixes , Rios/química , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 823: 153263, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066038

RESUMO

Many polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are found in both legacy Aroclor mixtures and modern materials, and both contribute to PCBs levels in ambient air. The various sources of PCBs make it difficult to quantify the relative importance of emissions from remaining legacy materials and emissions of PCBs released from production and use of modern products. To address this challenge, we utilized active and passive sampling, analytical methods optimized for PCBs, and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and cos theta to examine the chemical signature of PCBs in Chicago air. Here we report our findings for over 640 samples collected over 7 years and analyzed for all 209 congeners. We conclude that Aroclor sources (1254, 1016/1242, and 1260) are consistent and dominant contributors to Chicago air. However, non-Aroclors sources accounted for 13%-16% of the total PCBs measured. Our analysis indicates non-Aroclor sources explain 99% of PCB11, 90% of PCB 68, and 58-69% of congeners with 8 to 10 chlorines in Chicago air. All of these are known to be emitted from paints or silicone polymers. Additionally, we identified over 20 congeners that have non-Aroclor contributions of more than 50% including PCB 3 (4-monochlorobiphenyl, 83% non-Aroclor) as well as 7 congeners of unknown sources: PCBs 43, 46, 55, 89, 96, 137, and 139 + 140. Non-Aroclor emission sources contribute to the entire range of congeners from mono- to deca-chlorobiphenyls. We found evidence of highly localized non-Aroclor sources including a signature similar to that of green paint. We also found source signals similar to the PCB congeners volatilizing from and absorbing to neighboring Lake Michigan. The measured profiles vary from season to season: lower chlorinated congeners dominate in winter months while higher chlorinated congeners contribute more in summer.


Assuntos
Arocloros , Bifenilos Policlorados , Ar/análise , Chicago , Lagos/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
17.
AIDS Behav ; 26(6): 1943-1955, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993667

RESUMO

U.S. HIV incidence is threefold higher among Latino individuals than non-Latino Whites. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake remains low among Latino men. Most HIV studies view Latino communities as a monolithic group, ignoring racial and sexual diversity. This analysis examines PrEP-related outcomes including eligibility, first prescription, and second prescription across race and sexual identity in a sample of Latino cisgender men (n = 8271) who sought services from a healthcare network in Chicago in 2012-2019. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Latino-only participants had lower odds of PrEP eligibility and first prescription compared to White-Latino participants. No other significant differences by race were detected. While bisexual participants had equivalent odds of PrEP eligibility, they had lower odds of first PrEP prescription compared to gay participants. Heterosexual participants also had lower odds of PrEP eligibility and initiation. Future research should address unique factors shaping PrEP-related outcomes among diverse Latino populations.


RESUMEN: La incidencia del VIH en los EEUU és 3 veces mayor entre las personas latinos que entre los blancos no latinos. La iniciación de la profilaxis previa a la exposición (PrEP) sigue siendo baja entre los hombres latinos. La mayoría de los estudios sobre el VIH ven a las comunidades latinos como un grupo monolítico, ignorando la diversidad racial y sexual. Este análisis examina los resultados relacionados con la PrEP, incluida la elegibilidad, la primera prescripción y la segunda prescripción según la raza y la identidad sexual en una muestra de hombres latinos cisgénero (n = 8.271) que buscaron servicios de una gran red de servicios de salud en Chicago 2012­2019. Se utilizó la regresión logística para calcular las razones de momios ajustadas. Los participantes que solo eran latinos tenían menores probabilidades de ser elegibles para PrEP y de recibir la primera prescripción en comparación con los participantes de blancos-latinos. No se detectaron otras diferencias significativas por raza. Si bien los participantes bisexuales tenían probabilidades equivalentes de ser elegibles para PrEP, tenían probabilidades más bajas de recibir la primera prescripción de PrEP en comparación con los participantes homosexuales. Los participantes heterosexuales también tenían menores probabilidades de ser elegibles y de iniciarse en la PrEP. Las investigaciones futuras deben abordar los factores únicos que dan forma a los resultados relacionados con la PrEP entre las diversas poblaciones latinos.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Chicago/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Pain Physician ; 25(1): 87-93, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is well established that the experience of chronic pain significantly differs among ethnic-racial groups. There is mixed evidence to suggest that societal influences may contribute to pain prevalence among cultural groups and their treatment response. One possible explanation for differences in pain experience are the differences in socioeconomic status among patients with chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is any difference in pain scores or treatment responses among patients with different socioeconomic status. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Outpatient pain clinic. METHODS: After approval from the Advocate Healthcare Institutional Review Board, we included 1,149 patients treated for different chronic pain conditions who were followed for at least 12 months. Patients were stratified into quartiles determined by median income according to ZIP code. RESULTS: Of the sampled patients, 207 patients lived in ZIP codes with median incomes > $51,294; 515 in ZIP codes with median incomes between $40,083 and $51,294; 332 in ZIP  codes with median incomes between $30,625 and $40,083; and 95 in ZIP codes with median incomes < $30,625. Groups differed in age (P = 0.047), race (P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.019), utilization of opioid medications (P = 0.011), morphine milligram equivalents (MME) on first visit (P = 0.036), and utilization of membrane stabilizers such as gabapentin (P = 0.019). There were no significant differences among groups in terms of gender (P = 0.531), type of pain experienced (P = 0.679), or time since pain onset (P = 0.174). Groups were treated similarly, with no statistically significant differences in the proportions of patients who had taken various nonopioid medications throughout their treatment course other than membrane stabilizers, the number of patients who received interventional pain management procedures, or MME at last visit. Average pretreatment numeric rating scale pain scores were not significantly different among quartiles (P = 0.079), posttreatment pain scores (P = 0.767), and subjective percent improvement (P = 0.434). LIMITATIONS: This is a single center study and may have limitations in extrapolating to the general population. CONCLUSION: The results of our study show that there are no differences in pain perception or treatment responses in patients from different socioeconomic statuses despite differences among groups in age, BMI, race, utilization of opioid medications, and MME at first visit. Patients at this pain practice appear to have been treated with similar modalities regardless of socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Manejo da Dor , Chicago , Dor Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e052933, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify contributing factors associated with rapid spikes and declines in Chicago youth homicide from 2009 to 2018. SETTING: City of Chicago, Illinois, US 2009-2018. PARTICIPANTS: Homicide count data come from the National Violent Death Reporting System. The study included information on 2271 homicide decedents between the ages of 15 and 24 who died between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2018. Of these decedents, 92.9% were male; 79.1% were non-Hispanic black; and 94.9% died from a firearm injury. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (A) Temporal shifts in monthly homicide rates and (B) temporal associations between social, environmental and economic conditions/events and fluctuations in homicides. RESULTS: We found statistically significant shifts in homicide rates over time: a 77% rise in monthly youth homicide rates per 100 000 persons from 2015 to 2016 (4.3 vs 7.5); dropping back to pre-2015 rates (4.3) by mid-2017. There was a temporal co-occurrence between the rapid rise in youth homicides and absence of a state budget. Conversely, we found a temporal co-occurrence of the sharp decline in homicides with the reinstatement of a state budget. Adjusting for seasonality, we found death rates were greater in the months without a budget compared with months with a budget (1.48, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.70). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that state funding may be a potential protective factor against youth homicide.


Assuntos
Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Adolescente , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Chicago/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Estados Unidos , Violência , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 61(3): 266-269, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35001640

RESUMO

While discussing obesity with pediatric patients and their families can be difficult, it is an essential step toward appropriate weight management. There is paucity of data regarding language preferences when discussing obesity in this population. In this pilot qualitative study, we interviewed 8 parents of patients diagnosed with obesity to identify language and communication preferences for discussing their child's weight. Interviews were analyzed for emerging themes. Important trends appeared revealing that parents prefer neutral, medical terms discussed at well-child checks or obesity-specific visits. Providers should frame lifestyle changes as positive for all patients and set achievable goals with the help of visual aids. Our analysis uncovered several important communication strategies that can better equip providers to discuss obesity with their pediatric patients. This research may serve as a foundation for larger studies into the topic.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Família , Adulto , Chicago , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...