Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.812.957
Filtrar
1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105258, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384945

RESUMO

The false dilemma or dichotomy is a logical fallacy that occurs when interlocuters accept the premises in an incompatibility statement as being jointly exhaustive (i.e., leaving no third option), whereas that is in fact not the case. Brisson et al. [Memory & Cognition (2018), Vol. 46, pp. 657-670] investigated this fallacy in an adult sample and discovered a content effect that influenced participants' performance. The current study aimed to elaborate on these findings by establishing whether similar patterns could be observed with children. A number of age-appropriate incompatibility premises were constructed. For every item, four different inferential problems were presented (Affirm First, Affirm Second, Deny First, and Deny Second) with three potential answers to choose from (X, not X, or uncertainty regarding X). A sample of 192 volunteer children, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, was collected. Statistical analysis showed no significant effect for participants' age but did reveal main effects for premise validity and the amount of available "third options" (possibilities outside of the presented dichotomy). These results are a clear replication of the general effects on adults found by Brisson et al. Affirm inferences were also easy for children, Deny inferences were difficult (even more so than for adults), and content had a profound effect on participants' performance. Whenever more third options could be generated, children were less likely to fall into the false dilemma fallacy. Our findings thus further support the idea that reasoning with incompatibilities is influenced by the same semantic retrieval processes that have been previously related to human conditional reasoning.


Assuntos
Lógica , Resolução de Problemas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Semântica , Incerteza
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105256, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384946

RESUMO

Evidence is mixed regarding whether and why bilingual children might be advantaged in the development of executive functions. Five preregistered hypotheses regarding sources of a bilingual advantage were tested with data from 102 Spanish-English bilingual children and 25 English monolingual children who were administered a test of executive attention, the flanker task, at 7, 8, and 9 years of age. Measures of the children's early and concurrent bilingual exposure and their concurrent English and Spanish skill were available from a larger longitudinal study in which these children participated. Tests of the preregistered hypotheses yielded null findings: The bilingual children's executive attention abilities were unrelated to their amount of early exposure to mixed input, to balance in their early dual language exposure, to balance in their concurrent exposure, to their degree of bilingualism, or to their combined Spanish + English vocabulary score. English vocabulary score was a positive significant correlate of executive attention among the bilingual children, but those bilingual children above the group median in English vocabulary did not outperform the monolingual children when the comparison was adjusted for nonverbal IQ. These findings suggest that a language learning ability may explain the association between bilingualism and executive function. Because the best statistical approach to testing for effects on differences is a matter of dispute, all analyses were conducted with both a difference score and a residual gain score as the outcome variable. The central findings, but not all findings, were the same with both approaches.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Atenção , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105255, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388641

RESUMO

Past research documents a bilingual advantage in the domain of executive functions (EFs). However, controversial debates have questioned the robustness of those behavioral differences. The current study aimed to better understand the underlying cognitive prerequisites in bilingual students as compared with monolingual students and focused on two processes: the role of verbal processes, on the one hand, and mental effort during task execution, on the other. The use of self-regulatory speech has been found to be related to performance in tasks requiring EFs. For bilinguals who have grown up with two language systems from an early age, those relations are not fully understood. Furthermore, results from neuroimaging studies have shown that bilinguals might exhibit less mental effort in EF tasks. We investigated both processes in German-speaking monolingual elementary school students (n = 33; Mage = 8.78 years) and German-Russian bilingual elementary school students (n = 34; Mage = 8.88 years) solving a planning task. Results showed that monolinguals were impaired by a verbal secondary task in comparison with a motor control condition, whereas bilinguals performed in both tasks at an equal level, indicating a differential role of self-regulatory speech in both language groups. Analyses of changes in pupil diameter revealed less mental effort during task execution for bilingual children as compared with monolingual children. The current study adds to the existing literature by supplying further evidence for cognitive differences between monolingual and bilingual children.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Criança , Cognição , Função Executiva , Humanos , Idioma , Federação Russa
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126708, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352521

RESUMO

The level and distribution of 16 USEPA Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in aquaculture farmed fish (Mugil cephalus and Oreochromis mossambicus) and shellfish (Corbicula fluminea Formosa and Meretrix lusoria) were determined in Taiwan and then assessed cancer and non-cancer risks for those consuming these kinds of seafood. Results indicated that C. fluminea Formosa accumulated the highest average concentration of total PAHs (43.0 ± 11.3 ng/g wet weight) while M. lusoria contained the lowest concentration (20.0 ± 5.8 ng/g) among all species. The low-molecular-weight PAHs were dominant for both fish and shellfish, which consistent with other studies. Notably, parts of high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in shellfish whereas that was little in fish. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of all PAHs were smaller than 1 and the incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) for Benzo[a]pyrene were below 1 × 10-5, suggesting that PAHs in the collected seafood could pose a low hazard to residents. Although the results indicated that the studied seafood is safe for human consumption, children and seniors post relatively higher risks, suggesting that it needs to continue monitoring and control the PAHs concentration in seafood and the associated environments.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Aquicultura , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Lagoas , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Taiwan
5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105253, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419664

RESUMO

Operational momentum (OM) refers to the behavioral tendency to overestimate or underestimate the results of addition or subtraction, respectively. The cognitive mechanism of the OM effect and how it is related to the development of symbolic math abilities are not well understood. The current study examined whether individual differences in the OM effect are related to symbolic arithmetic abilities, number line estimation performance, and the space-magnitude association effect in young children. In this study, first-grade elementary school children manifested the OM effect during approximate addition and subtraction. Individual differences in the OM effect were not correlated with number line estimation error. Interestingly, children who showed a greater degree of the OM effect performed not worse, but better on the symbolic arithmetic task. In addition, the OM effect was correlated with the space-magnitude association (size congruity) effect measured with the Numerical Stroop task. More specifically, the OM bias was correlated with the ability to inhibit interference from competing information on the incongruent trials of the Numerical Stroop task. Our results suggest that the inaccuracy of numerical magnitude representations is not the source of the OM effect. Given that children with better math ability showed a greater OM bias, a stronger OM effect may reflect better intuition in arithmetic operations. Altogether, we carefully interpret these findings as suggesting that a greater OM effect reflects superior intuition or fundamental knowledge of arithmetic operations and a more adult-like maturation of the reorienting component of the attentional system.


Assuntos
Atenção , Individualidade , Adulto , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Matemática , Movimento (Física)
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105257, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425400

RESUMO

Mind wandering is a ubiquitous experience during adulthood and has received significant scholarly attention in recent years. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the phenomenon in children. Building on recent work, the current study examined the frequency and validity of children's reports of mind wandering while completing a minimalistic task previously unused in past child research-the Metronome Response Task (MRT) [Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance (2013), Vol. 39, pp. 1-5]. Furthermore, the current study examined how parent reports of executive dysfunction in daily life relate to children's reports of mind wandering and behavioral performance in the MRT. A total of 81 children aged 7-9 years completed the MRT, the demands of which simply involved pressing a key on a computer keyboard in concert with the unwavering tones of a metronome. Sporadic experience-sampling probes gauged whether children were on-task or mind wandering. Parents also reported on their children's day-to-day difficulties with executive functioning across several domains. A series of multilevel models revealed that children reported being on-task more frequently then mind wandering and that children were more variable and less synchronous in their keypresses preceding reports of mind wandering than preceding reports of being on task. In addition, parent-reported difficulties with behavioral regulation predicted higher rates of mind wandering, whereas both behavioral dysregulation and metacognitive difficulties predicted lower MRT performance. These findings suggest that children are able to reliably report on their experiences of mind wandering in boredom-inducing contexts and advance our understanding of the factors underlying children's experience of mind wandering under real-world conditions.


Assuntos
Atenção , Metacognição , Adulto , Criança , Função Executiva , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105272, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438109

RESUMO

Previous studies in spatial reorientation have found that young children rely mainly on geometric shapes for reorientation and sometimes ignore features in the environment. Theoretical interpretations of children's reorientation performance are usually attributed to children's spatial representation of their surrounding environments. The geometric module theory states that featural information is represented separately from geometric shape in young children's reorientation, whereas the adaptive combination model depicts an integral representation. Reorientation tasks, however, require the recognition of a specific location, and thus how the whole environment is represented remains unknown. The current study, using a model selection task, explored young children's representation of the whole surrounding environment. A total of 75 children aged 3-5 years participated in the study. In each trial, children observed a large enclosure and were then asked to choose the corresponding model from two small models. The geometric shapes of the enclosure (rectangle vs. rhombus) and the types of distractors (shape distraction vs. feature position distraction) varied. Results showed that all three age groups performed above the chance level in the shape distraction conditions. Children had more difficulty with the feature position distraction conditions than with the shape distraction conditions. When the distractor shared the feature but at an inappropriate position, children's performance was significantly poorer, especially in the rhombic enclosure. The results provide evidence that young children may represent featural cues separately from geometric shapes.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção Espacial , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
8.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105210, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450462

RESUMO

Understanding fractions and decimals requires not only understanding each notation separately, or within-notation knowledge, but also understanding relations between notations, or cross-notation knowledge. Multiple notations pose a challenge for learners but could also present an opportunity, in that cross-notation knowledge could help learners to achieve a better understanding of rational numbers than could easily be achieved from within-notation knowledge alone. This hypothesis was tested by reanalyzing three published datasets involving fourth- to eighth-grade children from the United States and Finland. All datasets included measures of rational number arithmetic, within-notation magnitude knowledge (e.g., accuracy in comparing fractions vs. fractions and decimals vs. decimals), and cross-notation magnitude knowledge (e.g., accuracy in comparing fractions vs. decimals). Consistent with the hypothesis, cross-notation magnitude knowledge predicted fraction and decimal arithmetic when controlling for within-notation magnitude knowledge. Furthermore, relations between within-notation magnitude knowledge and arithmetic were not notation specific; fraction magnitude knowledge did not predict fraction arithmetic more than decimal arithmetic, and decimal magnitude knowledge did not predict decimal arithmetic more than fraction arithmetic. Implications of the findings for assessing rational number knowledge and learning and teaching about rational numbers are discussed.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem , Criança , Finlândia , Humanos , Matemática , Estados Unidos
9.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105259, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481344

RESUMO

Children under 6 years of age have difficulty recognizing a familiar face across changes in appearance and telling the face apart from similar-looking people. Understanding the process by which newly encountered faces become familiar can provide insights into these difficulties. Exposure to the ways in which a person varies in appearance is one mechanism by which adults and older children (≥6 years) learn new faces. We provide the first investigation of whether this mechanism for face learning functions in younger children. Children aged 4 and 5 years were read two storybooks featuring an unfamiliar character. Participants viewed six images of the character in one story and one image of the character in the other story. After each story, children were asked to identify novel images of the character that were intermixed with images of a similar-looking distractor. Like older children, 4- and 5-year-olds were more sensitive to identity in the 6-image condition, but they also adapted a less conservative criterion. Young children identified more images of the character after viewing six images versus one image. However, many also incorrectly identified more images of the distractor after viewing six images versus one image, an effect not previously found for older children and adults. These results suggest that this mechanism for face learning is not fully refined before 6 years of age.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Resolução de Problemas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
10.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105275, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487975

RESUMO

Preschool-aged children can learn from fictional, pretend, and imaginative activities. However, many studies showing this learning involve children as physically passive while consuming fictional narratives rather than as actively, physically engaged. Physical engagement may add to cognitive processes already at play when watching narratives, making children more likely to retain or understand information. Children's natural pretend involves physical movement, role play, and embodiment. To test learning from embodied pretense, we conducted two studies in which we experimentally manipulated whether children were physically passive while consuming narratives or physically actively engaged with them through embodied pretend play using puppets or costumes. In Study 1, children were shown/engaged in television-based narratives, all of which contained fantastical content. In Study 2, children were shown/engaged in lab-created stories, some of which contained fantastical elements. We measured children's learning and perceptions of realism. In Study 1, neither perception of fictionality nor embodiment immediately affected learning, although older preschoolers learned more than younger preschoolers. In Study 2, neither perception nor presence of fantastical content affected learning, but embodiment did. Children learned more from both embodied conditions compared with the physically passive condition. We also included 2-week follow-up tests of recall and found that although children retained very little, embodiment still affected retention in both studies. Overall, children did not use realism judgments to differentiate learning. These findings show the complexity of different elements involved in children's learning from pretense and the need to understand what elements affect learning from fantastical and embodied pretend play and stories.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Jogos e Brinquedos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Imaginação , Julgamento , Televisão
11.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113708, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619591

RESUMO

Estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (17α-E2), 17ß-estradiol (17ß-E2), and estriol (E3) are persistent in livestock manure and present serious pollution concerns because they can trigger endocrine disruption at part-per-trillion levels. This study conducted a global analysis of estrogen occurrence in manure using all literature data over the past 20 years. Besides, predicted environmental concentration (PEC) in soil and water was estimated using fate models, and risk/harm quotient (RQ/HQ) methods were applied to screen risks on children as well as on sensitive aquatic and soil species. The estradiol equivalent values ranged from 6.6 to 4.78 × 104 ng/g and 12.4 to 9.46 × 104 ng/L in the solid and liquid fraction. The estrogenic potency ranking in both fractions were 17ß-E2> E1>17α-E2>E3. RQs of measured environmental concentration in the liquid fraction pose medium (E3) to high risk (E1, 17α-E2 & 17ß-E2) to fish but are lower than risks posed by xenoestrogens. However, the RQ of PECs on both soil organisms and aquatic species were insignificant (RQ < 0.01), and HQs of contaminated water and soil ingestion were within acceptable limits. Nevertheless, meticulous toxicity studies are still required to confirm (or deny) the findings because endocrine disruption potency from mixtures of these classes of compounds cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Esterco , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estradiol/toxicidade , Estrogênios/análise , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Estrona/análise , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMO

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Nitritos , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Dietética , Humanos , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitritos/análise , República da Coreia
13.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 53(1): 12-23, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424101

RESUMO

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent behavioral, cognitive, neurodevelopmental pediatric disorder. Clinical evaluations, symptom surveys, and neuropsychological assessments are some of the ADHD assessment methods, which are time-consuming processes and have a certain degree of uncertainty. This research investigates an efficient computer-aided technological solution for detecting ADHD from the acquired electroencephalography (EEG) signals based on different nonlinear entropy estimators and an artificial neural network classifier. Features extracted through fuzzy entropy, log energy entropy, permutation entropy, SURE entropy, and Shannon entropy are analyzed for effective discrimination of ADHD subjects from the control group. The experimented results confirm that the proposed techniques can effectively detect and classify ADHD subjects. The permutation entropy gives the highest classification accuracy of 99.82%, sensitivity of 98.21%, and specificity of 98.82%. Also, the potency of different entropy estimators derived from the t-test reflects that the Shannon entropy has a higher P-value (>.001); therefore, it has a limited scope than other entropy estimators for ADHD diagnosis. Furthermore, the considerable variance found from potential features obtained in the frontal polar (FP) and frontal (F) lobes using different entropy estimators under the eyes-closed condition shows that the signals received in these lobes will have more significance in distinguishing ADHD from normal subjects.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Entropia , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
14.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 359-366, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159483

RESUMO

Air pollution is worldwide a major public health problem and affects large part of the population. Air pollution does not only harm the respiratory tract system but also the other organs of the body. The damage may result directly from the pollutants toxicity, because the pollutant enters into the organs through a direct route or indirectly through systemic inflammation. There is accumulating evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution not only affects the human lung and the cardiovascular system, but also has negative effects on allergic diseases. In this regard, it has been shown that exposure increases the risk of allergies and eczema in children and adults. However, the mechanism how ambient air pollution affects the skin is not well investigated up to now and needs further research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hipersensibilidade , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Pulmão , Fatores de Risco
15.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 21-27, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165634

RESUMO

The prevalences of allergic diseases, asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and lately food allergy have been increasing over the last decades. It has been suggested that the prevalence of allergic diseases has reached a plateau in high income countries, while it is still on the rise in low and middle income countries. Generally, allergic diseases more often set on in childhood than in adulthood and affected children contribute more to the rise in allergic disease prevalence than affected adults. Epidemiological evidence suggests that not all atopic dermatitis and asthma cases are attributable to atopic sensitization. Indeed, mainly genetic association studies have prompted the unravelling of barrier dysfunction as a mainstay in the patho-mechanisms leading to atopic dermatitis and to asthma with atopic sensitization secondary to this dysfunction. Epidemiological research on risk and protective factors for allergic disease, acting against the background of genetic susceptibility, has produced an enormous body of evidence. Prominent observations are the 'sibling effect' and the 'farm effect' which gave rise to the 'hygiene hypothesis' and later the 'biodiversity hypothesis'. Future epidemiological research is required to evaluate and refine these hypotheses in light of the paradigm shift from atopic sensitization to barrier dysfunction with ever increasing options for environmental characterization, currently, e.g., 'omics'-techniques in microbiology and metabolism, and with ever increasing options for phenotyping of allergic techniques, including, e.g., high-resolution time series of symptoms using, e.g., sensing technologies.


Assuntos
Asma , Dermatite Atópica , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
16.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102482, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673233

RESUMO

Dirofilaria spp. nematodes are accidental parasites of humans causing mild to serious, superficial or visceral infections. Superficial dirofilariosis is rather common in Europe and is typically manifested as subcutaneous form. Herein we report 46 new cases of human dirofilariosis (19 patients with subcutaneous, 18 patients with ocular, 4 patients wih genital, 2 patients with submucosal, 2 patients with pulmonary and 1 patient with intramuscular form of infection) that were recorded from the beginning of 2015 to May 2021 on the Balkan Peninsula with a goal to update the prevalence of this parasitosis and point out potential problems in diagnosis and treatment. Besides, given the high possibility of misinterpretation as tumor, our second aim was to encourage the inclusion of this pathogen in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous nodules. Although quite common forms, subcutaneous and ocular dirofilariosis can be very often misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to the absence of specific clinical manifestations. Therefore, raising awareness of clinicians about this zoonosis is needed as well as closer collaboration between physicians and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose , Zoonoses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Península Balcânica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sérvia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
17.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 122-135, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710802

RESUMO

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a distinct disease entity of unknown etiology primarily affecting children and adolescents. It is an autoinflammatory process that typically affects multiple bones with a waxing and waning course. About one third of the patients diagnosed with CRMO have spinal involvement which can lead to long term morbidity. The clinical presentation and imaging features of CRMO involving the spine are nonspecific and can mimic other disease processes like infection or malignancy. Since imaging plays a very important role in the diagnosis and management of CRMO, we intend to highlight various imaging patterns of spinal CRMO alongside its clinical features and briefly discuss its imitators, management and outcomes.


Assuntos
Osteomielite , Imagem Corporal Total , Adolescente , Criança , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiologistas , Recidiva
18.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 33(1): 113-134, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801136

RESUMO

This review describes the clinical presentations and treatment options for commonly recognized epilepsy syndromes in the pediatric age group, based on the 2017 International League Against Epilepsy classification. Structural epilepsies that are amenable to surgical intervention are discussed. Lastly, emerging technologies are reviewed that are expanding our knowledge of underlying epilepsy pathologies and will guide future syndromic classification systems including genetic testing and tissue repositories.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Síndromes Epilépticas , Criança , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos
19.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 33(1): 17-23, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801138

RESUMO

Achondroplasia is the most common of skeletal dysplasias and is caused by a defect in endochondral bone formation. In addition to skeletal deformities, patients with achondroplasia possess significant abnormalities of the axial skeleton, including small skull base with a narrowed foramen magnum and small vertebral bodies with shortened pedicles. Consequently, patients with achondroplasia are at risk of several severe neurologic conditions, such as cervicomedullary compression, spinal stenosis, and hydrocephalus, which frequently require the attention of a neurosurgeon. This article provides an updated review on the neurosurgical evaluation and care of children with Achondroplasia.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia , Hidrocefalia , Estenose Espinal , Acondroplasia/cirurgia , Criança , Constrição Patológica , Forame Magno , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Lactente
20.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 33(1): 25-35, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801139

RESUMO

Much of the current medical discussion for within centers for skeletal dysplasia and specifically patients with achondroplasia focuses on infancy and early childhood. Most neurosurgical concerns arise due to a defect in the endochondral ossification, resulting on early fusion of the synchondrosis. As patients age, the neurosurgical focus shifts from primarily cranial to spinal concerns. Often pediatric neurosurgeons may continue to follow their patients with skeletal dysplasia. However, general adult neurosurgeons and orthopedic surgeons may see these graduated adults in their practice. This article provides a review of the common neurosurgical concerns for patients with achondroplasia.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia , Forame Magno , Acondroplasia/cirurgia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Constrição Patológica , Humanos , Lactente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...