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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131002, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500296

RESUMO

The effects of tempered procedures (well and under-tempered) on the crystalline behaves of cocoa butter were elaborated through detecting crystalline structure and compositions of crystals located at different positions of cocoa butter products in this study. The under-tempered products couldn't form crystalline structures as uniform as the well-tempered ones, whose internal contained more low saturated triacylglycerol and structurally unstable crystals. The low saturated triacylglycerol further created the diverse microstructure and thermal properties between center and outer part of cocoa butter products. During storage, the concentration differences drive migration of low saturated triacylglycerol from center to outer part of the product. Although this reduces the differences in triacylglycerol composition, it results in the polymorphism conversion between ß'-IV and ß-VI form and the fat bloom formation. This work indicates that the monitor for crystalline properties of different positions in cocoa butter products helps the chocolate industry to control formation of fat bloom.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Cristalização , Gorduras na Dieta/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 372: 131244, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628118

RESUMO

The present finding provides a new cocoa butter substitute in confectionary, which is derived from mango by-product (mango seed kernel). The study involves physicochemical characterization and the use of GCMS, FTIR, SEM, TGA, and NMR to prove that mango seed kernel derived fat is a good substitute for cocoa butter. Its texture, organoleptic properties and rancidity were also investigated. Its properties were similar to cocoa butter, with respect to palmitic, oleic, and stearic acids, and it had the ability to substitute 80 per cent of dark chocolate preparation for chocolate substitute. This recently developed cocoa substitute has the potential to address the global problem of cocoa butter scarcity, which is being exacerbated by rising population and improving economies.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Mangifera , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Sementes/química
3.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 163(20): 27, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767211

Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Humanos
4.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4901-4913, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636050

RESUMO

Eight different roast profiles for each of the three origins of cacao were prepared and made into unsweetened chocolate based upon an I-Optimal response-surface design for minimizing prediction variance. Quantitative chemical analysis of all chocolate treatments was performed with HPLC-DAD on six important bitter compounds (i.e., theobromine, caffeine, epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B2, and cyclo(Proline-Valine)). Least-squares linear modeling was then performed. Using derived linear models, response-surface contour plots were produced to show predicted changes in the six bitter compounds over the entire experimental region. Significant and large decreases in concentration of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 were observed as roasting progressed, whereas for catechin and cyclo(Proline-Valine), significant increases were observed. Small yet significant theobromine and caffeine concentration increases were also observed with roasting, likely due to moisture loss. Some significant differences were also found between the cacao origins for all bitter compound concentrations except for cyclo(Proline-Valine), suggesting the importance of a survey encompassing a greater number of cacao origins in the future to obtain a more complete picture of the variation in bitter compounds in cacao due to origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research describes how roasting can be used to alter the concentration of bitter and sometimes astringent chemicals for several origins of cacao, which may be used to improve the sensory characteristics of dark chocolate.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Cafeína , Chocolate/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Paladar
5.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(6): 5722-5741, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643023

RESUMO

Three-dimensional food printing (3DFP) uses additive manufacturing concepts to fabricate customized designed products with food ingredients in powder, liquid, dough, or paste presentations. In some cases, it uses additives, such as hydrocolloids, starch, enzymes, and antibrowning agents. Chocolate, cheese, sugar, and starch-based materials are among the most used ingredients for 3DFP, and there is a broad and growing interest in meat-, fruit-, vegetable-, insect-, and seaweed-based alternative raw materials. Here, we reviewed the most recent published information related to 3DFP for novel uses, including personalized nutrition and health-oriented applications, such as the use of 3D-printed food as a drug vehicle, and four-dimensional food printing (4DFP). We also reviewed the use of this technology in aesthetic food improvement, which is the most popular use of 3DFP recently. Finally, we provided a prospective and perspective view of this technology. We also reflected on its multidisciplinary character and identified aspects in which social and regulatory affairs must be addressed to fulfill the promises of 3DFP in human health improvement.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Impressão Tridimensional , Alimentos , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Amido
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641451

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) is a part of insoluble dietary fiber, and it could be recognized as a functional food ingredient in some types of confectionery products that lack dietary fiber. Unlike dark and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids rich in dietary fiber. In the present study, 5%, 10%, and 15% of white chocolate were substituted with RS in order to improve the nutritional value of enriched white chocolate. The influence of RS on rheological, textural, and thermal properties of the chocolate fat phase was firstly investigated, and then further influence on physical properties, dietary fiber content, and sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolates were investigated. The obtained results showed that enriched chocolates had increased content of total dietary fiber and reduced total fats and protein content in accordance with the added amount of RS. At the same time, RS increased viscosity and reduced the hardness and volume mean diameter in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amount. RS improved the nutritional composition of white chocolate by increasing the content of dietary fiber. At the same time, RS did not impair the color and sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolates.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chocolate/análise , Chocolate/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Amido Resistente/metabolismo , Reologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Viscosidade
7.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576994

RESUMO

In this study, dark chocolates (DCh) containing zinc lactate (ZnL) were enriched with extracts from elderberries (EFrE), elderflowers (EFlE), and chokeberries (ChFrE) to improve their functional properties. Both dried plant extracts and chocolates were analyzed for antioxidant capacity (AC) using four different analytical methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), while total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) assay. An increase in antioxidant properties of fortified chocolates was found, and the bioaccessibility of their antioxidants was evaluated. The highest AC and TPC were found in ChFrE and chocolate with chokeberries (DCh + ChFrE) before and after simulated in vitro digestion. Bioaccessibility studies indicated that during the simulated digestion the AC of all chocolates reduced significantly, whereas insignificant differences in TPC results were observed between chemical and physiological extracts. Moreover, the influence of plant extracts on physicochemical parameters such as moisture content (MC), fat content (FC), and viscosity of chocolates was estimated. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy with dispersive energy spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to analyze surface properties and differences in the chemical composition of chocolates without and with additives.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cacau/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Chocolate/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Simulação por Computador , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Photinia/química , Sambucus/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578786

RESUMO

Chocolate has a history of human consumption tracing back to 400 AD and is rich in polyphenols such as catechins, anthocyanidins, and pro anthocyanidins. As chocolate and cocoa product consumption, along with interest in them as functional foods, increases worldwide, there is a need to systematically and critically appraise the available clinical evidence on their health effects. A systematic search was conducted on electronic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) using a search strategy and keywords. Among the many health effects assessed on several outcomes (including skin, cardiovascular, anthropometric, cognitive, and quality of life), we found that compared to controls, chocolate or cocoa product consumption significantly improved lipid profiles (triglycerides), while the effects of chocolate on all other outcome parameters were not significantly different. In conclusion, low-to-moderate-quality evidence with short duration of research (majority 4-6 weeks) showed no significant difference between the effects of chocolate and control groups on parameters related to skin, blood pressure, lipid profile, cognitive function, anthropometry, blood glucose, and quality of life regardless of form, dose, and duration among healthy individuals. It was generally well accepted by study subjects, with gastrointestinal disturbances and unpalatability being the most reported concerns.


Assuntos
Cacau/química , Chocolate , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578795

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most popular and consumed beverages worldwide, and caffeine is its best-known component, present also in many other beverages (tea, soft drinks, energy drinks), foodstuffs (cocoa, chocolate, guarana), sport supplements and even medicines [...].


Assuntos
Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Café , Nível de Saúde , Bebidas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Chocolate , Bebidas Energéticas , Humanos , Chá
10.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 62(4): 119-124, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470940

RESUMO

A simultaneous determination method for caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in chocolate was developed. Three compounds were ultrasonically extracted twice (15 min at 50℃) in an acetonitrile-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was purified using Oasis HLB SPE cartridge, and the purified processed by LC-MS. The method exhibited recoveries of 97.4-100.2%, RSDs of repeatability of 1.0-2.8%, and RSDs of within-laboratory reproducibility of 2.0-7.9%. This method was simpler and more selective than existing methods, and was practical for caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline analysis in chocolate.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Teobromina , Cafeína , Cromatografia Líquida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Teofilina
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5018, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465789

RESUMO

Chocolate manufacture includes a complex tempering procedure to direct the crystallization of cocoa butter towards the formation of fat crystal networks with specific polymorphism, nano- and microstructure, melting behavior, surface gloss and mechanical properties. Here we investigate the effects of adding various minor non-triglyceride lipidic components to refined cocoa butter and chocolate on their physical properties. We discover that addition of saturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine to neutralized and bleached cocoa butter or molten and recrystallized commercial chocolate at 0.1% (w/w) levels, followed by rapid cooling to 20 °C in the absence of shear, accelerates crystallization, stabilizes the desirable Form V polymorph and induces the formation of chocolate with an optimal microstructure, surface gloss and mechanical strength. Final chocolate structure and properties are comparable to those of a commercial tempered chocolate. Minor lipidic component addition represents an effective way to engineer chocolate material properties at different length scales, thus simplifying the entire tempering process.


Assuntos
Chocolate/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Lipídeos/química , Cacau/química , Cristalização , Manipulação de Alimentos
12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1283-1288, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531338

RESUMO

Background: In recent literatures, much attention has been given to natural products for their health benefits. Aims: In this study, the objective was to measure the efficacy of the ginger-honey-chocolate mixture as the remineralization effect has been shown in the literature previously and to evaluate the individual contributions of this mixture; ginger, natural honey, bitter chocolate separately on remineralization of initial enamel caries lesion. Materials and Methods: All specimens were divided into eight groups as: Ginger (Arifoglu®, Turkey) in powder form, (n = 8); Ginger-Honey-Chocolate (n = 8); Natural honey (Balparmak Plateau Blossom Honey®, Turkey) (n = 9); Bitter chocolate (Nestlé®, Switzerland) (n = 8); MI Paste (GC, Japan) (n = 8); Paradontax (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Pronamel (Sensodyne, Glaxosmithklein, USA) (n = 9); Control (n = 9) groups. Samples were carried out five pH cycles along 7 days at 37°C for each group. During pH cycling, blocks were put in a demineralization (6 h) and a remineralization solution (18 h). The treatment consisted of 1 min. interaction of enamel surfaces with agent/deionized slurries (1:3 w/w) on a daily basis. The surface microhardness (SMH) was determined before and after pH cycling with a Digital Micro-Vickers Hardness Tester (Wilson Wolpert; Europe BV, 401 MVD, Netherlands). Mineral changes were determined by using FluoreCam® and recovery values were calculated as SMHR% and FΔ%, respectively. Results: All groups showed an enhanced remineralization. There was no significant difference in terms of FΔ% (F = 1.223, P = 0.304) and SMHR% (F = 0.709, P = 0.664) between all groups. Conclusion: The herbals (ginger, honey, and bitter chocolate) examined in this study gave promising results with a high remineralization potential.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Cárie Dentária , Gengibre , Mel , Cariostáticos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Remineralização Dentária , Cremes Dentais
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1137-1144, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483344

RESUMO

Background: Although previous studies have suggested cocoa products may promote cardiovascular health in the general population, no public data are available from patients receiving care in a national integrated health care system. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that regular chocolate consumption is associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) events among participants of the Million Veteran Program (MVP). Secondary analysis examined if the main hypothesis was observed among participants with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We analyzed data from MVP participants who completed the food frequency section of the MVP Lifestyle Survey and were free of CAD at the time of survey completion. CAD events during follow-up (International Statistical Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes 410-411 and 413-414, and Tenth Revision codes I20-I25 except I25.2) were assessed using electronic health records. We fitted a Cox proportional hazard model to estimate the RR of CAD. Results: Of 188,447 MVP enrollees with survey data, mean ± SD age was 64 ± 12.0 y and 90% were men. For regular chocolate (28.3 g/serving) consumption of <1 serving/mo, 1-3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2-4 servings/wk, and ≥5 servings/wk, crude incidence rates (per 1000 person-years) for fatal and nonfatal CAD events or coronary procedures were 20.2, 17.5, 16.7, 17.1, and 16.9, respectively, during a mean follow-up of 3.2 y. After adjusting for age, sex, race, and lifestyle factors, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (ref), 0.92 (0.87, 0.96), 0.88 (0.83, 0.93), 0.89 (0.84, 0.95), and 0.89 (0.84, 0.96), respectively (P for linear trend < 0.0001). In a secondary analysis of 47,265 diabetics, we did not observe a decreasing trend in CAD mortality among those who consumed ≥1 serving of chocolate a month compared with those who consumed <1 serving/mo. Conclusions: Regular chocolate consumption was associated with a lower risk of CAD among veterans, but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk in veterans with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Veteranos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110620, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507764

RESUMO

Chocolates paired with nuts are highly marketed products, however, there is a lack of scientific research and limited understanding of consumer sentiment towards the combination of these food products. The main objective of this research was to determine the consumers' response towards pairing five different chocolates (dark origin, milk, Gold, white fruity, and white vanilla) and three different nuts (hazelnut, almond, and pistachio) for the creation of pairing guidelines within Barry Callebaut's range. TimeSens© software was applied to assess the dynamic interaction of flavors through temporal dominance of sensations (TDS). It was observed that each type of chocolate presents different interactions of dominant flavors depending on the nut and its applications. Furthermore, variables such as liking, balance, and check-all-that-apply (CATA) were analyzed to create pairing guidelines related to different responses on the predominant flavor of each of the chocolates. These case studies determined that the liking of the different pairs was influenced by the dominant flavors of each of the chocolates and the balance found in the match. From the predominant flavors, it was concluded that respondents preferred chocolates with sweet and dairy attributes such as: milky, creamy, buttery. Salty and vanilla flavors also made good pairs as they accentuate the nut flavor. On the contrary, chocolates with intense bitter, roasted, cocoa, and sour flavors did not create the best combinations with the nuts, as these are contrasting or strong flavors that consumers are usually unfamiliar with when combined with nuts. To complement this study, further analysis can be developed using other types of chocolates, nuts, and applications, and then comparing the dominant flavors of the chocolates with distinctive nuts to assess the consumers' response towards the combinations.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Nozes , Percepção , Paladar
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371907

RESUMO

The effect of coffee and cocoa on oxidative damage to macromolecules has been investigated in several studies, often with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate the effect of one-month consumption of different doses of coffee or cocoa-based products containing coffee on markers of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in young healthy volunteers. Twenty-one volunteers were randomly assigned into a three-arm, crossover, randomized trial. Subjects were assigned to consume one of the three following treatments: one cup of espresso coffee/day (1C), three cups of espresso coffee/day (3C), and one cup of espresso coffee plus two cocoa-based products containing coffee (PC) twice per day for 1 month. At the end of each treatment, blood samples were collected for the analysis of endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage and DNA oxidation catabolites, while urines were used for the analysis of oxylipins. On the whole, four DNA catabolites (cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), 8-OH-2'-deoxy-guanosine, 8-OH-guanine, and 8-NO2-cGMP) were detected in plasma samples following the one-month intervention. No significant modulation of DNA and lipid damage markers was documented among groups, apart from an effect of time for DNA strand breaks and some markers of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, the consumption of coffee and cocoa-based confectionery containing coffee was apparently not able to affect oxidative stress markers. More studies are encouraged to better explain the findings obtained and to understand the impact of different dosages of these products on specific target groups.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Chocolate , Café , Dano ao DNA , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/sangue , Chocolate/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Café/efeitos adversos , Ensaio Cometa , Estudos Cross-Over , GMP Cíclico/análogos & derivados , GMP Cíclico/sangue , Feminino , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110561, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399538

RESUMO

Nucleation and crystal growth of edible fats at the nanoscale have received little attention due to analytical limitations. A key factor to modify the properties of edible fats is nanostructure understanding. Progress within the last years will be presented, including analytical techniques used to investigate fat crystallization. Cocoa butter has been the subject of several works due to its properties and its high impact on chocolate manufacturing. Moreover, this vegetable fat has been used as the solid lipid component in nano delivery systems. Since nanoplatelet is the smallest unit in crystalline fats, and the nanoscale is influenced by supersaturation, temperature, shear fields, and surfactants, nanostructure engineering is possible. On its part, cocoa butter has been included in innovative delivery systems along the last years. This review will highlight main results and challenges on these topics.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Nanoestruturas , Gorduras na Dieta , Gorduras
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 11432-11441, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419273

RESUMO

Fat-free chocolate milk formulations containing skim milk, cocoa powder, and sugar were thermally treated and then processed using high-pressure jet (HPJ) technology from 125 to 500 MPa. The rheological properties and stability of HPJ-treated chocolate milks were compared with controls (no HPJ processing) prepared both with and without added κ-carrageenan. As expected, carrageenan-free chocolate milk exhibited immediate phase separation of the cocoa powder, whereas formulations containing κ-carrageenan were stable for 14 d. An increased stability was observed with increasing HPJ processing pressure, with a maximum observed when chocolate milk was processed at 500 MPa. The apparent viscosity at 50 s-1 of HPJ-processed samples increased from ~3 mPa·s to ~9 mPa·s with increasing pressure, and shear-thinning behavior (n < 0.9) was observed for samples processed at HPJ pressures ≥250 MPa. We suggest that HPJ-induced structural changes in casein micelles and new casein-cocoa interactions increased cocoa stability in the chocolate milk. Because casein seemed to be the major component enhancing cocoa stability in HPJ-treated samples, a second study was conducted to determine the effect of additional micellar casein (1, 2, or 4%) and HPJ processing (0-500 MPa) on the stability of fat-free chocolate milk. Formulations with 4% micellar casein processed at 375 and 500 MPa showed no phase separation over a 14-d storage period at 4°C. The addition of micellar casein together with HPJ processing at 500 MPa resulted in a higher apparent viscosity (~17 mPa·s at 50s-1) and more pronounced shear-thinning behavior (n ≤ 0.81) compared with that without added micellar casein. The use of HPJ technology to improve the dispersion stability of cocoa provides the industry with a processing alternative to produce clean-label, yet stable, chocolate milk.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Animais , Caseínas , Leite , Viscosidade
19.
Food Microbiol ; 100: 103871, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416968

RESUMO

Between November 2018 and May 2019, Canada experienced a nationwide salmonellosis outbreak linked to the presence of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis in frozen profiteroles. Analysis of the implicated food products revealed low levels of Salmonella ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 MPN/100g. Water activity and pH of the food samples ranged from 0.9479 to 0.9867 and 4.6-6.8 respectively indicating conditions conducive to bacterial growth. Higher levels of the hygiene indicators Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were associated with Salmonella positive samples compared to Salmonella negative samples. Investigation of the relationship between storage conditions, temperature, and pathogen levels during thawing revealed that the profiteroles reached temperatures permissive to pathogen growth (≥5 °C) much sooner than pathogen growth was observed and that the composition of the food matrix can influence bacterial levels upon thawing. Collectively these data can be used to inform guidance to minimize the risk of infection from the consumption of contaminated cream-filled frozen desserts.


Assuntos
Chocolate/microbiologia , Alimentos Congelados/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Canadá/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(14): 18564-18585, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329196

RESUMO

Few studies with mixed results have examined the association between chocolate consumption and mortality. We aimed to examine this association in a US population. A population-based cohort of 91891 participants aged 55 to 74 years was identified. Chocolate consumption was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate risk estimates. After an average follow-up of 13.5 years, 19586 all-cause deaths were documented. Compared with no regular chocolate consumption, the maximally adjusted hazard ratios of all-cause mortality were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.94], 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.90), 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.93) for >0-0.5 servings/week, >0.5-1 serving/week, >1-2 servings/week, and >2 servings/week, respectively (Ptrend = 0.009). A somewhat stronger inverse association was observed for mortality from cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. A nonlinear dose-response pattern was found for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (all Pnonlinearity < 0.01), with the lowest risk observed at chocolate consumption of 0.7 servings/week and 0.6 servings/week, respectively. The favorable associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were found to be more pronounced in never smokers than in current or former smokers (all Pinteraction < 0.05). In conclusion, chocolate consumption confers reduced risks of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease in this US population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/mortalidade , Cacau , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Chocolate , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Preparações de Plantas , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias , Fitoterapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
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