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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8261, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589622

RESUMO

In view of the health concerns associated with high sugar intake, this study investigates methods to enhance sweetness perception in chocolate without increasing its sugar content. Using additive manufacturing, chocolate structures were created from masses with varying sugar and fat compositions, where hazelnut oil served as a partial cocoa butter replacement. The study found that while variations in sugar content minimally affected the physical properties of the chocolate masses, hazelnut oil significantly modified melting behavior and consumption time. Chocolate masses with higher hazelnut oil content but similar sugar content exhibited a 24% increase in sweetness perception, likely due to accelerated tastant (i.e., sucrose) release into saliva. Multiphase structures, designated as layered, cube-in-cube, and sandwich structures, exhibited less sensory differences compared to the homogeneous control. Nonetheless, structures with hazelnut oil-rich outer layers resulted in an 11% increase in sweetness perception, even without sugar gradients. This suggests that tastant release plays a more critical role than structural complexity in modifying sweetness perception. This research highlights the efficacy of simpler multiphase structures, such as sandwich designs, which offer sensory enhancements comparable to those of more complex designs but with reduced manufacturing effort, thus providing viable options for industrial-scale production.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Cacau/química , Sacarose , Carboidratos , Nutrientes
2.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613003

RESUMO

The ingestion of dietary cocoa flavanols acutely alters functions of the cerebral endothelium, but whether the effects of flavanols permeate beyond this to alter other brain functions remains unclear. Based on converging evidence, this work tested the hypothesis that cocoa flavanols would alter brain excitability in young healthy adults. In a randomised, cross-over, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design, transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticospinal and intracortical excitability before as well as 1 and 2 h post-ingestion of a beverage containing either high (695 mg flavanols, 150 mg (-)-epicatechin) or low levels (5 mg flavanols, 0 mg (-)-epicatechin) of cocoa flavanols. In addition to this acute intervention, the effects of a short-term chronic intervention where the same cocoa flavanol doses were ingested once a day for 5 consecutive days were also investigated. For both the acute and chronic interventions, the results revealed no robust alteration in corticospinal or intracortical excitability. One possibility is that cocoa flavanols yield no net effect on brain excitability, but predominantly alter functions of the cerebral endothelium in young healthy adults. Future studies should increase intervention durations to maximize the acute and chronic accumulation of flavanols in the brain, and further investigate if cocoa flavanols would be more effective at altering brain excitability in older adults and clinical populations than in younger adults.


Assuntos
Cacau , Catequina , Chocolate , Humanos , Idoso , Catequina/farmacologia , Alimentos , Encéfalo , Polifenóis
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297662, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38603675

RESUMO

The cocoa pod borer (CPB) Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae) is one of the major constraints for cocoa production in South East Asia. In addition to cultural and chemical control methods, autocidal control tactics such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) could be an efficient addition to the currently control strategy, however SIT implementation will depend on the population genetics of the targeted pest. The aim of the present work was to search for suitable microsatellite loci in the genome of CPB that is partially sequenced. Twelve microsatellites were initially selected and used to analyze moths collected from Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A quality control verification process was carried out and seven microsatellites found to be suitable and efficient to distinguish differences between CPB populations from different locations. The selected microsatellites were also tested against a closely related species, i.e. the lychee fruit borer Conopomorpha sinensis (LFB) from Vietnam and eight loci were found to be suitable. The availability of these novel microsatellite loci will provide useful tools for the analysis of the population genetics and gene flow of these pests, to select suitable CPB strains to implement the SIT.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Animais , Lepidópteros/genética , Mariposas/genética , Cacau/genética , Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
4.
Med Arch ; 78(2): 149-153, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566867

RESUMO

Background: Dark chocolate and carrot juice may positively decline the pain. However, there is a lack evidence the impact of combination dark chocolate and carrot juice on labor pain during stage 1 of birth delivery among primigravida. Objective: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of dark chocolate and carrot juice on perceived labor pain during stage 1 of birth delivery among primigravida. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with participants who received dark chocolate (n=30), carrot juice (n=30), and control group (n=30). Pain level was assessed by using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) before the intervention and at 30 hours after intervention. The Chi-square and one-way analysis of variance tests and general equational model were used. Results: Data were collected and analyzed before and after 60 minutes of intervention. Our results showed a significant interaction between the group and time, with both groups independently ameliorating labor pain. Conclusion: Dark chocolate and carrot juice therapies independently lowered pain labor in primigravida mothers, making them a viable treatment for advanced pain labor.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Daucus carota , Dor do Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Dor do Parto/terapia
5.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2024: 1406858, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38505371

RESUMO

Chocolate products on the market are generally in the form of chocolate bars as snacks made from cocoa powder. Fat and powder are separated first through a pressing process to obtain the cocoa powder. Cocoa powder loses most of its fat content during processing. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the effect of steaming time on the cocoa bean content of fatty acids, free fatty acids, proximate levels, and antioxidant activity of snack bar products made from steamed cocoa beans. Seven steaming time intervals for cocoa beans were studied. The results showed that a longer steaming time affects the fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and proximate in cocoa beans. Steaming time treatment at 45 minutes increased oleic acid, palmitic acid, and antioxidant activity. In addition, reducing free fatty acids represents a quality improvement that meets international Codex Alimentarius standards, offering a competitive advantage in the market. The food industry can adopt this steaming technique to develop snack bars and new products that are healthier and more sustainable by using steaming as an effective processing method in maintaining and increasing the nutritional value of products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Antioxidantes , Ácidos Graxos , Lanches
6.
Food Microbiol ; 120: 104490, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431333

RESUMO

Sporeforming bacteria are a concern in some food raw materials, such as cocoa powder. Samples (n = 618) were collected on two farms and at several stages during cocoa powder manufacture in three commercial processing lines to determine the impact of each stage on bacterial spore populations. Mesophilic aerobic, mesophilic anaerobic, thermophilic aerobic, and Bacillus cereus spore populations were enumerated in all the samples. Genetic diversity in B. cereus strains (n = 110) isolated from the samples was examined by M13 sequence-based PCR typing, partial sequencing of the panC gene, and the presence/absence of ces and cspA genes. The counts of different groups of sporeforming bacteria varied amongst farms and processing lines. For example, the counts of mesophilic aerobic spore-forming (MAS) populations of cocoa bean fermentation were lower than 1 log spore/g in Farm 1 but higher than 4 log spore/g in Farm 2. B. cereus isolated from cocoa powder was also recovered from cocoa beans, nibs, and samples after roasting, refining, and pressing, which indicated that B. cereus spores persist throughout cocoa processing. Phylogenetic group IV was the most frequent (73%), along with processing. Strains from phylogenetic group III (14 %) did not show the ces gene's presence.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus , Chocolate , Bacillus cereus/genética , Filogenia , Anaerobiose , Esporos Bacterianos/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
7.
J Food Sci ; 89(4): 1917-1943, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488746

RESUMO

Fine flavor cocoa (FFC) is known for its unique flavor and aroma characteristics, which vary by region. However, a comprehensive overview of the common sensory attributes used to describe FFC beans and chocolate is lacking. Therefore, a systematic review was conducted to analyze existing literature and identify the most commonly used sensory attributes to describe FFC beans and chocolate. A systematic search of the Web of Science and Scopus databases was conducted in May 2023, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to ensure transparency and reproducibility. This review summarizes the origins of cocoa and explores their unique flavor profiles, encompassing caramel, fruity, floral, malty, nutty, and spicy notes. Although some origins may exhibit similar unique flavors, they are often described using more specific terms. Another main finding is that although differences in sensory attributes are anticipated at each production stage, discrepancies also arise between liquor and chocolate. Interestingly, fine chocolate as the final product does not consistently retain the distinctive flavors found in the liquor. These findings emphasize the need for precise descriptors in sensory evaluation to capture flavor profiles of each origin. As such, the exploration of attributes from bean to bar holds the potential to empower FFC farmers and chocolate producers to effectively maintain quality control.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fermentação , Frutas
8.
Appetite ; 197: 107288, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467193

RESUMO

Market actors have a role to play in enabling sustainable food transitions. One challenge for these actors is how to promote plant-based foods in ways that appeal to a growing number of consumers. Here we test how different plant-based related labels affect consumer appraisals of a range of foods (cookies, sausages, cheese, chocolate, pasta). In two studies (pre-registered; NUSA = 1148, NGermany = 491), we examined the effects of a 'vegetarian', 'vegan', or 'plant-based' label (compared to no label) on five attributes (healthy, tasty, ethical, pure, environmentally friendly) related to the products. We also measured self-reported likelihood to purchase the products. Overall, the results indicated that the 'plant-based' label was slightly more appealing to participants than the 'vegetarian' and 'vegan' labels. However, contrary to our expectations, neither consumers' information-seeking tendencies nor their pre-existing attitudes toward plant-based foods influenced (i.e., moderated) the effects of the labels. Anticipated taste was a strong and consistent predictor of purchase likelihood for all labeled products, but the ethical and pure attributes also accounted for unique variance in this outcome variable. Taken together, our findings and discussion provide insights into the role of labels and label terminology on consumer appraisals of plant-based foods.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Humanos , Veganos , Dieta Vegana , Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor
9.
Food Res Int ; 182: 114147, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519177

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of independent variables such as alkaline (NaOH) salt concentration (3.0-6.0 g/100 mL), alkalization temperature (60-90 °C), and time (20-40 min) on cocoa powder (low-fat) properties were investigated by using Central Composite Design. The physicochemical and color properties of samples, powder characteristics, volatile component profile, total polyphenol content (TPC), as well as antioxidant activity potentials using different methods (DPPH and ABTS) were determined. Significant models were identified for the effects on major alkalization indicators (L*, a*/b*, pH), as well as TPC and antioxidant activity potential (DPPH), which are the main motivators for the preference and consumption of cocoa products (p < 0.05). The established model was validated, and their predicted values were found to be very close to real results. It was determined that the alkali concentration had a more significant effect on dependent variables, especially on alkalization indicators, compared to the other independent variables. Furthermore, strong correlations were determined between TPC and antioxidant activity potential and color properties (L*, a*, b*, and a*/b*). Optimum concentration, temperature and time were found to be 5.3 %, 84 °C and 35.7 min for maximizing a*/b* value. The establishment of such models lead to optimizing process conditions of alkalization with minimum effort and labor force for obtaining cocoa powder with desired quality depending on the usage purpose.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Cacau/química , Polifenóis/química , Alimentos
10.
Food Res Int ; 179: 113971, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342525

RESUMO

Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and a combination of Cabernet Sauvignon with blueberry extract (CS + B), were spray dried (using maltodextrin DE10, 13.5% w/w as a carrier) to obtain two types of phenolic-rich powders. The addition of blueberry to CS increased phenolic compounds content by 16%. Eight chocolate formulations were obtained by modifying concentrations of cocoa solids, cocoa butter, and sugar. Six of the samples were added with 10% w/w of phenolic-rich powder, while two of them remained as powder-free controls. The anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol profiles of chocolates were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS and HPLC-MS, respectively. In addition, the sensory dynamic profile of samples was assessed by Temporal Dominance of Sensations with a consumer panel. Results showed that the addition of phenolic-rich powders produced a significant increase in the anthocyanin composition obtaining the highest anthocyanin content in the white chocolate added with CS + B powder. On the other hand, adding 10% of CS powder to dark chocolate (55% cocoa pellets) did not result in a significant increase in phenolic compounds. The addition of phenolic-rich powders to chocolates influenced visual color, texture, and taste, leading to new products with distinctive characteristics and increasing the possibility of using phenolic-rich powders as innovative and healthy ingredients.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Cacau , Chocolate , Extratos Vegetais , Vinho , Chocolate/análise , Pós , Antocianinas , Fenóis/análise
11.
Food Res Int ; 179: 114016, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342537

RESUMO

Chocolate is a worldwide consumed food. This study investigated the fortification of sugar-free white chocolate with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG microcapsule co-encapsulated with beet residue extract. The chocolates were evaluated for moisture, water activity, texture, color properties, melting, physicochemical, and probiotic stability during storage. Furthermore, the survival of L. rhamnosus GG and the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds were investigated under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Regarding the characterization of probiotic microcapsules, the encapsulation efficiency of L. rhamnosus GG was > 89 % while the encapsulation efficiency of phenolic compounds was > 62 %. Chocolates containing probiotic microcapsules were less hard and resistant to breakage. All chocolates had a similar melting behavior (endothermic peaks between 32.80 and 34.40 °C). After 120 days of storage at 4 °C, probiotic populations > 6.77 log CFU/g were detected in chocolate samples. This result demonstrates the potential of this matrix to carry L. rhamnosus GG cells. Regarding the resistance of probiotic strains during gastric simulation, the co-encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG with beet extract contributed to high counts during gastrointestinal transit, reaching the colon (48 h) with viable cell counts equal to 11.80 log CFU/g. Finally, one of our main findings was that probiotics used phenolic compounds as a substrate source, which may be an observed prebiotic effect.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Chocolate , Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus , Cápsulas , Extratos Vegetais
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 185: 114499, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309685

RESUMO

Food products simultaneously containing both food contaminants and emulsifiers are common in baked products, coffee and chocolate. Little is known regarding how food contaminants and emulsifiers interact and alter toxicity. Recent studies have shown that while emulsifiers themselves have little toxicity, they could cause changes in the gut microenvironment and lead to issues such as increased uptake of allergens. This study examined toxic effect of two common process contaminants acrylamide (AA) and benzo [a]pyrene (BAP) combined with food emulsifiers polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (TW) or glycerol monostearate (G). In liver cell line HepG2 and gastrointestinal cell lines HIEC6 and Caco-2, toxicities of AA and BAP were increased by TW but not by G as indicated by decrease in IC50 values. Addition of TW also exacerbated gene expression changes caused by AA or BAP. Cellular uptake and cell membrane permeability were enhanced by TW but not by G, but tight junction proteins of Caco-2 monolayer was impacted by both emulsifiers. These results suggested that TW could increase toxicity of AA and BAP through increasing cell permeability thus chemical uptake and potentially through other interactions. The study is to draw the attention of regulators on the potential synergistic interaction of co-occurring chemicals in food.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Alimentos , Humanos , Células CACO-2 , Café , Transporte Biológico , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Benzo(a)pireno
13.
Food Res Int ; 178: 113986, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309886

RESUMO

This study is a bibliometric analysis and literature review on the use of oleogels (OGs), hydrogels (HGs) and hybrid gels (HYGs) in chocolate, compounds and spreads with the aim of reducing the saturated fat in these products. The articles were selected by analyzing titles, keywords and abstracts in the Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar databases. Supplementary documents were obtained from government sources, including patent registrations. The theoretical and practical aspects were critically analyzed, highlighting the main points of agreement and disagreement between the authors. The results revealed a lack of regulations and official guidelines that widely allow the use of OGs, HGs and HYGs in chocolate confectionery products. The type and characteristics of raw materials affect the properties of products. Replacing cocoa butter (CB) with OGs, HGs or HYGs also affects texture, melting point and behavior, and nutritional aspects. These substitutions can result in products with better sensory acceptance and health benefits, such as reducing saturated fat and promoting cardiovascular health. However, it is important to find the ideal combination and proportions of components to obtain the desired properties in the final products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Chocolate/análise , Hidrogéis , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos
14.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 109(1): 116203, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422664

RESUMO

Haemophilus influenzae is an important pathogen able to cause various forms of respiratory and invasive disease. To provide high sensitivity for detection, culture media must inhibit growth of residential flora from the respiratory tract. This study aimed to identify and compare the diagnostic and economic advantages of using bacitracin containing selective agar (SEL) or oleandomycin disk supplemented chocolate agar (CHOC). Growth and semi-quantitative abundance of H. influenzae and growth suppression of residential flora was prospectively assessed in a 28-week period. H. influenzae was identified in 164 (5 %) of all included samples: CHOC and SEL, CHOC only, and SEL only were positive in 95, 24, and 45 cases. Diagnostic superiority of SEL was primarily attributable to the results of throat swabs. However, on average, € 200 had to be spent for the detection of each additional isolate that was recovered only because of additional incubation on SEL.


Assuntos
Bacitracina , Chocolate , Humanos , Ágar , Bacitracina/farmacologia , Haemophilus influenzae , Oleandomicina , Meios de Cultura
15.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 44(2): 161-167, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some reports point to dietary caffeine intake as a cause of increased plasma clozapine concentrations in certain patients. METHODS: We compared clozapine dose and plasma clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine (norclozapine) concentrations in male and female smokers and nonsmokers in relation to reported (i) coffee (caffeine) and (ii) chocolate (caffeine and theobromine) intake in samples submitted for clozapine therapeutic drug monitoring, 1993-2017. RESULTS: There was information on coffee ingestion for 16,558 samples (8833 patients) from males and 5886 samples (3433 patients) from females and on chocolate ingestion for 12,616 samples (7568 patients) from males and 4677 samples (2939 patients) from females. When smoking was considered, there was no discernible effect of either coffee or chocolate ingestion either on the median dose of clozapine or on the median plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in men and in women. However, cigarette smoking was associated with higher coffee and chocolate consumption. Although male nonsmokers who reported drinking 3 or more cups of coffee daily had significantly higher median plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations than those who drank less coffee, they were also prescribed a significantly higher clozapine dose. There was no clear effect of coffee ingestion on plasma clozapine and norclozapine in female nonsmokers. IMPLICATIONS: Inhibition of clozapine metabolism by caffeine at the doses of caffeine normally encountered in those treated with clozapine is unlikely even in male nonsmokers. Measurement of plasma caffeine in an appropriate sample should be considered in any future investigation into a presumed clozapine-caffeine interaction.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Clozapina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Café , Cafeína
16.
Food Microbiol ; 119: 104429, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225038

RESUMO

Previous metagenomic analyses have suggested that lactobacilli present potential for Quorum Sensing (QS) in cocoa fermentation, and in the present research, laboratory scale fermentations were carried out to monitor the expression of luxS, a universal marker of QS. For that, 96 h-fermentations were studied, as follows: F0 (non inoculated control), F1 (inoculated with yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria), F2 (inoculated with yeasts and acetic acid bacteria), F3 (inoculated with yeasts only). The parameters evaluated were: plate counting, quantification of key enzymes and analysis of volatile organic compounds associated with key sensory descriptors, using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Furthermore, QS was estimated by the quantification of the expression of luxS genes by Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR. The results demonstrated that microbial succession occurred in pilot scale fermentations, but no statistical differences for microbial enumeration and α-diversity index were observed among experiments and control. Moreover, it was not possible to make conclusive correlations of enzymatic profile and fermenting microbiota, likely due to the intrinsic activity of plant hydrolases. Regarding to the expression of luxS genes, in Lactiplantibacillus plantarum they were active along the fermentation, but for Limosilactobacillus fermentum, luxS was expressed only at early and middle phases. Correlation analysis of luxS expression and production of volatile metabolites evidenced a possible negative association of Lp. Plantarum with fermentation quality. In conclusion, these data corroborate former shotgun metagenomic analysis by demonstrating the expression of luxS by lactobacilli in pilot scale cocoa fermentation and evidence Lp. Plantarum is the main lactic acid bacteria related to its expression.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Fermentação , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Cacau/microbiologia , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica
17.
Food Res Int ; 177: 113849, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225124

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic profile of microorganisms and metabolites in Hainan Trinitario cocoa during a six-day spontaneous box fermentation process. Shotgun metagenomic and metabolomic approaches were employed for this investigation. The potential metabolic functions of microorganisms in cocoa fermentation were revealed through a joint analysis of microbes, functional genes, and metabolites. During the anaerobic fermentation phase, Hanseniaspora emerged as the most prevalent yeast genus, implicated in pectin decomposition and potentially involved in glycolysis and starch and sucrose metabolism. Tatumella, possessing potential for pyruvate kinase, and Fructobacillus with a preference for fructose, constituted the primary bacteria during the pre-turning fermentation stage. Upon the introduction of oxygen into the fermentation mass, acetic acid bacteria ascended to dominant within the microflora. The exponential proliferation of Acetobacter resulted in a decline in taxonomic richness and abundance. Moreover, the identification of novel species within the Komagataeibacter genus suggests that Hainan cocoa may serve as a valuable reservoir for the discovery of unique cocoa fermentation bacteria. The KEGG annotation of metabolites and enzymes also highlighted the significant involvement of phenylalanine metabolism in cocoa fermentation. This research will offer a new perspective for the selection of starter strains and the formulation of mixed starter cultures.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Microbiota , Fermentação , Bactérias , Cacau/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 968, 2024 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38200066

RESUMO

Previous intervention studies have shown some benefits of dark chocolate for the cardiovascular system, but it has not been established whether dark chocolate intake is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). To investigate the causality between dark chocolate intake and the risk of CVDs, a Mendelian randomization (MR) study was conducted. We obtained summary-level data on dark chocolate intake and CVDs from publicly available genome-wide association studies. In this MR study, the main approach was to use a fixed-effect model with inverse variance weighted (IVW) and evaluate the robustness of the results via sensitivity analysis. We found that dark chocolate intake was significantly associated with the reduction of the risk of essential hypertension (EH) (OR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.88; p = 1.06 × 10-3), as well as with the suggestive association to the reduced risk of venous thromboembolism (OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.50-0.96; p = 2.81 × 10-2). However, no association was found between dark chocolate intake and the other ten CVDs. Our study provides evidence for a causality between dark chocolate intake and a reduced risk of EH, which has important implications for the prevention of EH in the population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Chocolate , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Hipertensão Essencial
19.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257166

RESUMO

The loss of functional beta-cell mass in diabetes is directly linked to the development of diabetic complications. Although dietary flavonoids have demonstrated antidiabetic properties, their potential effects on pancreatic beta-cell preservation and their synergistic benefits with antidiabetic drugs remain underexplored. We have developed a potential functional food enriched in flavonoids by combining cocoa powder and carob flour (CCB), which has shown antidiabetic effects. Here, we investigated the ability of the CCB, alone or in combination with metformin, to preserve pancreatic beta cells in an established diabetic context and their potential synergistic effect. Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) were fed a CCB-rich diet or a control diet, with or without metformin, for 12 weeks. Markers of pancreatic oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as relative beta-cell mass and beta-cell apoptosis, were analyzed. Results demonstrated that CCB feeding counteracted pancreatic oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant defense and reducing reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the CCB suppressed islet inflammation by preventing macrophage infiltration into islets and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with the inactivation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB). As a result, the CCB supplementation prevented beta-cell apoptosis and the loss of beta cells in ZDF diabetic animals. The observed additive effect when combining the CCB with metformin underscores its potential as an adjuvant therapy to delay the progression of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Galactanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Mananas , Metformina , Gomas Vegetais , Ratos , Animais , Metformina/farmacologia , Ratos Zucker , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Alimento Funcional , Inflamação
20.
Food Chem ; 441: 138338, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194794

RESUMO

This study focuses on the characterisation and incorporation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOP) from Luanda (Angola) and its extract (MOE) in fortified chocolate mousse. Dark green (DG) leaves presented superior nutritional values compared to other leaves. DG contained a higher concentration of mineral salts (10 ± 1 mg/100 g of dry leaves), phenolic compounds (267 ± 4 mg GAE/g), vitamins (1.9 ± 0.2 mg/g of dry extract) and strong antioxidant capacity (IC50, 115 ± 8 µg/mL). Therefore, DG leaves were used to fortify the chocolate mousse. The leaves were prepared in three samples: control, 2 % MOP (w/w) and 2 % MOE (v/v). Textural and rheological analysis of chocolate mousse samples revealed a pseudoplastic profile for all samples, with decreased texture attributes and viscosity due to the incorporation. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that MOP and MOE samples presented 93 % and 88 % resemblance to the original product regarding general acceptance, respectively.


Assuntos
Chocolate , Moringa oleifera , Extratos Vegetais , Pós , Folhas de Planta , Vitaminas
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