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1.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0295700, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457407

RESUMO

Mechanical overloading (OVL) resulting from the ablation of muscle agonists, a supra-physiological model of resistance training, reduces skeletal muscle fragility, i.e. the immediate maximal force drop following lengthening contractions, and increases maximal force production, in mdx mice, a murine model of Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we further analyzed these beneficial effects of OVL by determining whether they were blocked by cyclosporin, an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway, and whether there were also observed in the D2-mdx mice, a more severe murine DMD model. We found that cyclosporin did not block the beneficial effect of 1-month OVL on plantaris muscle fragility in mdx mice, nor did it limit the increases in maximal force and muscle weight (an index of hypertrophy). Fragility and maximal force were also ameliorated by OVL in the plantaris muscle of D2-mdx mice. In addition, OVL increased the expression of utrophin, cytoplamic γ-actin, MyoD, and p-Akt in the D2-mdx mice, proteins playing an important role in fragility, maximal force gain and muscle growth. In conclusion, OVL reduced fragility and increased maximal force in the more frequently used mild mdx model but also in D2-mdx mice, a severe model of DMD, closer to human physiopathology. Moreover, these beneficial effects of OVL did not seem to be related to the activation of the calcineurin pathway. Thus, this preclinical study suggests that resistance training could have a potential benefit in the improvement of the quality of life of DMD patients.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Treinamento Resistido , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ciclosporinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças
2.
Anal Chem ; 96(10): 4163-4170, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430121

RESUMO

Cyclosporin A (CycA) is a peptide secondary metabolite derived from fungi that plays a crucial role in transplantation surgery. Cyclic traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) revealed an N → O peptidyl shift in singly protonated CycA to isocyclosporin A (isoA), whereas no such isomerization was observed for doubly protonated and sodiated molecules. CycA and isoA were able to be separated by considering doubly protonated precursors using a specific ion fragment. In parallel, sodium ion stabilization facilitated the simultaneous separation and quantitation of singly charged cyclosporin isomers with the limit of detection and coefficient of determination of 1.3% and 0.9908 for CycA in isoA and 1.0% and 0.9830 for isoA in CycA, respectively. Finally, 1H-13C gHSQC NMR experiments permitted parallel recording of up to 11 cyclosporin conformers. The ratios were determined by integrating the volume of cross-peaks of the upfield resonating hydrogen in the diastereotopic methylene group of sarcosine-3.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina , Ciclosporinas , Peptídeos , Ciclosporina/química , Peptídeos/química , Íons , Isomerismo
3.
Complement Ther Med ; 80: 103017, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218549

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been shown to be effective in autoimmune rheumatic diseases, but harmful herb-drug interactions might be inherent. We aim to review the evidence regarding herb-drug interactions between immunosuppressive drugs used in autoimmune rheumatic diseases and CHM. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL from inception till 30 April 2023 using keywords that encompassed 'herb-drug interactions', 'herbs' and 'immunosuppressants'. Articles were included if they contained reports about interactions between immunosuppressive drugs used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases with CHM. Level of evidence for each pair of interaction was graded using the algorithm developed by Colalto. RESULTS: A total of 65 articles and 44 unique pairs of interactions were identified. HDIs were reported for cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, methotrexate, mycophenolic acid, glucocorticoids, sulfasalazine, tofacitinib and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Among these, cyclosporine (n = 27, 41.5%) and tacrolimus (n = 19, 29.2%) had the highest number of documented interactions. Hypericum perforatum had the highest level of evidence of interaction with cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Consumption reduced the bioavailability and therapeutic effects of the drugs. Schisandra sphenanthera had the highest level of evidence of interaction with tacrolimus and increased the bioavailability of the drug. Majority of the articles were animal studies. CONCLUSION: Overall level of evidence for the included studies were low, though interactions between cyclosporine, tacrolimus, Hypericum perforatum and Schisandra sphenanthera were the most and well-documented. Healthcare professionals should actively enquire about the concurrent use of CHM in patients, especially when drugs with a narrow therapeutic index are consumed.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Humanos , Tacrolimo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Óleos de Plantas
4.
J Dermatol ; 51(3): 391-402, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214545

RESUMO

Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a potentially life-threatening skin disease. Although several medications are approved for treating GPP in Japan, there are limited data on real-world treatment patterns or drug survival (the number of prescribed days of treatment). This retrospective cohort study describes drug survival and treatment patterns of patients with newly diagnosed GPP (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision code L40.1), and ≥1 year of follow-up, using de-identified claims data (Medical Data Vision Co., Ltd.) from January 2016 to August 2021. Most (97.0%) of the 434 Japanese patients received first-line therapy of etretinate (26.4%), topical medications (14.7%), or cyclosporin (14.3%); 80.0% and 60.1% of patients received a second and third line of therapy (LOT), respectively. Use of etretinate (12.6%) and cyclosporin (5.9%) decreased in second-line therapies, whereas use of biologics (interleukin [IL]-17, 14.3%; IL-23 inhibitors, 7.6%) and topical medications (22.1%) increased or remained consistent. Approximately 50% of biologics were prescribed in combination with systemic medications or systemic corticosteroids. Median (range) time to next therapy (TTNT) was 2.8 (0.03-48.07) months for first-line therapy and 3.3 (0.03-52.97) months for all other LOTs. TTNT was longer for combination therapies (up to 16.5 months) compared with monotherapies (up to 7.5 months). Biologics exhibited longer drug survival with fewer treatment episodes compared with non-biologic systemic medications. Among frequently used therapies, the median (95% confidence interval) drug survival was 8.8 (5.8-11.8) months for etretinate, 4.3 (2.2-6.9) months for systemic corticosteroids, and 19.6 (16.1-26.7) months for secukinumab. Treatment patterns varied considerably, highlighting the need for treatment algorithms and effective, well-tolerated medications to support patients to help them remain on long-term therapy.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Ciclosporinas , Etretinato , Psoríase , Humanos , Etretinato/uso terapêutico , Japão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico
5.
J Cutan Med Surg ; 28(2): 141-145, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a complex chronic skin disease characterized by severe pruritic nodules. PN is often associated with mental health disorders and chronic medical comorbidities. Until recently, PN treatment has been challenging and difficult. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the demographic, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities associated with PN. Also, we aim to describe the effectiveness of systemic therapies, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, and narrow band ultraviolet (NB-UVB) in adult patients with PN. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of adult patients diagnosed with PN at Hamilton Health Science Center and/or McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, between 2015 and 2023. RESULTS: The study included 81 patients (57% female). The mean age was 52.8 years, and the mean age of PN diagnosis was 50 years. Reported symptoms included: itching (100%), dry skin (53%), pain (17%), and burning sensation (5%). Lower and upper extremities were the most common areas involved in 93% and 69%, respectively. Mental health disorders were present in 79% of patients, with depression (58%) and anxiety (52%) being the most common. Atopic dermatitis was the most common skin comorbidity noted. Treatments used included cyclosporine, and NB-UVB, and MTX, which resulted in significant improvement of pruritus in 38%, 35%, and 31% of patients, respectively, at week 16. CONCLUSIONS: PN is associated with increased risk of mental health disorders and other medical comorbidities. Cyclosporine, methotrexate, and NB-UVB therapy may be effective treatment options, however clinicians must consider the potential short- and long-term adverse effects of these treatments.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Prurigo , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prurigo/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Prurido/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico
6.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 38: 100789, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant and treatment-resistant human brain tumor. Rodent models have played an important role in understanding brain cancer biology and treatment. However, due to their small cranium and tumor volume mismatch, relative to human disease, they have been less useful for translational studies. Therefore, development of a consistent and simple large animal glioma xenograft model would have significant translational benefits. METHODS: Immunosuppression was induced in twelve standard Yucatan minipigs. 3 pigs received cyclosporine only, while 9 pigs received a combined regimen including cyclosporine (55 mg/kg q12 h), prednisone (25 mg, q24 h) and mycophenolate (500 mg q24 h). U87 cells (2 × 106) were stereotactically implanted into the left frontal cortex. The implanted brains were imaged by MRI for monitoring. In a separate study, tumors were grown in 5 additional pigs using the combined regimen, and pigs underwent tumor resection with intra-operative image updating to determine if the xenograft model could accurately capture the spatial tumor resection challenges seen in humans. RESULTS: Tumors were successfully implanted and grown in 11 pigs. One animal in cyclosporine only group failed to show clinical tumor growth. Clinical tumor growth, assessed by MRI, progressed slowly over the first 10 days, then rapidly over the next 10 days. The average tumor growth latency period was 20 days. Animals were monitored twice daily and detailed records were kept throughout the experimental period. Pigs were sacrificed humanely when the tumor reached 1 - 2 cm. Some pigs experienced decreased appetite and activity, however none required premature euthanasia. In the image updating study, all five pigs demonstrated brain shift after craniotomy, consistent with what is observed in humans. Intraoperative image updating was able to accurately capture and correct for this shift in all five pigs. CONCLUSION: This report demonstrates the development and use of a human intracranial glioma model in an immunosuppressed, but nongenetically modified pig. While the immunosuppression of the model may limit its utility in certain studies, the model does overcome several limitations of small animal or genetically modified models. For instance, we demonstrate use of this model for guiding surgical resection with intraoperative image-updating technologies. We further report use of a surrogate extracranial tumor that indicates growth of the intracranial tumor, allowing for relative growth assessment without radiological imaging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Ciclosporinas , Glioma , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Xenoenxertos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Porco Miniatura , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Terapia de Imunossupressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 413, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172159

RESUMO

We aimed to summarize the cancer risk among patients with indication of group I pharmaceuticals as stated in monographs presented by the International Agency for Research on Cancer working groups. Following the PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed database. Pharmaceuticals with few studies on cancer risk were identified in systematic reviews; those with two or more studies were subjected to meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, a random-effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Heterogeneity across studies was presented using the Higgins I square value from Cochran's Q test. Among the 12 group I pharmaceuticals selected, three involved a single study [etoposide, thiotepa, and mustargen + oncovin + procarbazine + prednisone (MOPP)], seven had two or more studies [busulfan, cyclosporine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, methoxsalen + ultraviolet (UV) radiation therapy, melphalan, and chlorambucil], and two did not have any studies [etoposide + bleomycin + cisplatin and treosulfan]. Cyclosporine and azathioprine reported increased skin cancer risk (SRR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.07-1.62; SRR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.93) compared to non-use. Cyclophosphamide increased bladder and hematologic cancer risk (SRR = 2.87, 95% CI 1.32-6.23; SRR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.65-3.58). Busulfan increased hematologic cancer risk (SRR = 6.71, 95% CI 2.49-18.08); melphalan was associated with hematologic cancer (SRR = 4.43, 95% CI 1.30-15.15). In the systematic review, methoxsalen + UV and MOPP were associated with an increased risk of skin and lung cancer, respectively. Our results can enhance persistent surveillance of group I pharmaceutical use, establish novel clinical strategies for patients with indications, and provide evidence for re-categorizing current group I pharmaceuticals into other groups.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Etoposídeo , Metoxaleno , Azatioprina , Melfalan , Bussulfano , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ciclofosfamida , Preparações Farmacêuticas
8.
Eur J Intern Med ; 119: 71-77, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37573220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an alternative to conventional antagonist of vitamin-K (AVK). However, immune suppressive drugs (ISDs) may interfere with DOACs pharmacokinetic. AIM OF THIS STUDY: evaluate safety and efficacy profile of DOACs compared to AVK in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) treated with ISDs. METHODS: a multi-center study from 4 Italian University hospitals enrolling consecutive KTRs on DOACs or AVK was carried out. Sixty-six patients on DOACs were compared with fifty patients on AVK with similar clinical features. Serial evaluation of renal function and serum levels of ISDs during 18 months follow-up (FU) was performed. RESULTS: Mean age of DOACs patients was 67±9 and mean eGFR was 58,3± 30,4mL/min/1.73m2. ISDs included tacrolimus (n=47, 71%), cyclosporin (n=13, 20%), everolimus (n=10, 7%) and sirolimus (n=4, 6%). After 14 days of DOACs therapy initiation there was a slight increase of serum levels of tacrolimus (+0.19±0.67 p=0.80) and cyclosporine (+0.12±0.25 p=0.94) not statistically significant. Levels of Tacrolimus and cyclosporin were stable at serial evaluation during 18-months follow-up. There were no thromboembolic events among patients treated with DOACs or AVK and no differences in term of major bleeding (6% vs 4% p=0.69), at long-term follow-up. There was no difference in term of eGFR decline from start therapy to 18 months FU between DOACs vs AVK therapy (-3.9±1 vs -3.8±2 p=0.82). CONCLUSION: DOACs have similar safety and efficacy than AVK among KTRs treated with ISDs. However, careful evaluation of potential drug interaction and ISDs serum levels is needed.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ciclosporinas , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Vitamina K , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 62(12): 1444-1450, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044071

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the feasibility of sirolimus as an alternative graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in patients with kidney injury after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods: Retrospective case series study. Medical records of 11 patients in Peking University People's Hospital from 1 August 2008 to 31 October 2022, who received sirolimus instead of cyclosporine to prevent GVHD, due to renal insufficiency after allo-HSCT, were analyzed retrospectively. Incidence of GVHD, infection, and transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA), as well as renal function, were evaluated. Results: Among the 11 patients who received sirolimus, 6 were treated with haploidentical donor HSCT, and 5 were treated using matched sibling donor HSCT. The median (range) time of sirolimus administration was 30 (7-167) days after allo-HSCT, and the median (range) sirolimus course duration was 52 (9-120) days. During sirolimus treatment, 1 case did not undergo combined treatment with other prophylactic drugs, 3 cases received combined mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and 1 case underwent combined CD25 monoclonal antibody treatment, while 6 cases had combined therapy with both MMF and CD25 monoclonal antibody. Of the 11 patients, 2 developed Grade Ⅲ acute GVHD, 1 developed severe pneumonia and died, and 1 developed TA-TMA, while nine patients had normal or improved renal function. Median (range) follow-up time was 130 (54-819) days. Non-relapse mortality was observed in 1 patient. Relapse mortality was also observed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Sirolimus-based alternative GVHD prophylaxis is a potentially viable option for patients undergoing allo-HSCT who cannot tolerate cyclosporine, but its efficacy and safety require further optimization and verification in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Microangiopatias Trombóticas , Humanos , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/complicações , Rim/fisiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(50): e36628, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38115262

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) poses a diagnostic challenge, often requiring a systematic evaluation to uncover its elusive cause. This case study delves into the presentation of a 42-year-old Chinese male with persistent fever, muscle pain, and a perplexing rash. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient's symptoms included a prolonged fever, chills, muscle pain, and throat discomfort, with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Initial diagnoses of upper respiratory infection and unspecified infection were followed by antibiotic treatments, yet the fever persisted, accompanied by an exacerbating rash. DIAGNOSIS: Extensive diagnostic investigations, including laboratory tests, imaging studies, and skin dermoscopy, provided valuable insights. The patient exhibited elevated inflammatory markers, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and lung nodules. Differential diagnoses included adult-onset Still disease and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: The patient received a series of antibiotic treatments, which initially had limited success. Upon considering an autoimmune etiology, corticosteroids were introduced, followed by cyclosporine. The patient exhibited a positive response to this immunosuppressive therapy. OUTCOMES: Treatment adjustments were made, and the patient responded positively to a combination of corticosteroids and cyclosporine. His fever subsided, and laboratory markers normalized. One month after discharge, the patient showed continued improvement. CONCLUSION: FUO cases often demand a multidisciplinary approach, considering rare and uncommon diseases. This case underscores the importance of thorough evaluation, collaboration between specialties, and vigilant monitoring of treatment responses. The patient's unique presentation emphasizes the need to consider drug-induced reactions, even when symptoms deviate from typical disease patterns, highlighting the complexities in diagnosing and managing FUO.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Exantema , Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/diagnóstico , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/etiologia , Mialgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Corticosteroides , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Exantema/diagnóstico
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013719, 2023 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37870096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease leading to nonscarring hair loss on the scalp or body. There are different treatments including immunosuppressants, hair growth stimulants, and contact immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of the treatments for alopecia areata (AA), alopecia totalis (AT), and alopecia universalis (AU) in children and adults. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Skin Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and WHO ICTRP were searched up to July 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated classical immunosuppressants, biologics, small molecule inhibitors, contact immunotherapy, hair growth stimulants, and other therapies in paediatric and adult populations with AA. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard procedures expected by Cochrane including assessment of risks of bias using RoB2 and the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. The primary outcomes were short-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% (between 12 and 26 weeks of follow-up), and incidence of serious adverse events. The secondary outcomes were long-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% (greater than 26 weeks of follow-up) and health-related quality of life. We could not perform a network meta-analysis as very few trials compared the same treatments. We presented direct comparisons and made a narrative description of the findings. MAIN RESULTS: We included 63 studies that tested 47 different treatments in 4817 randomised participants. All trials used a parallel-group design except one that used a cross-over design. The mean sample size was 78 participants. All trials recruited outpatients from dermatology clinics. Participants were between 2 and 74 years old. The trials included patients with AA (n = 25), AT (n = 1), AU (n = 1), mixed cases (n = 31), and unclear types of alopecia (n = 4). Thirty-three out of 63 studies (52.3%) reported the proportion of participants achieving short-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% (between 12 and 26 weeks). Forty-seven studies (74.6%) reported serious adverse events and only one study (1.5%) reported health-related quality of life. Five studies (7.9%) reported the proportion of participants with long-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% (greater than 26 weeks). Amongst the variety of interventions found, we prioritised some groups of interventions for their relevance to clinical practice: systemic therapies (classical immunosuppressants, biologics, and small molecule inhibitors), and local therapies (intralesional corticosteroids, topical small molecule inhibitors, contact immunotherapy, hair growth stimulants and cryotherapy). Considering only the prioritised interventions, 14 studies from 12 comparisons reported short-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% and 22 studies from 10 comparisons reported serious adverse events (18 reported zero events and 4 reported at least one). One study (1 comparison) reported quality of life, and two studies (1 comparison) reported long-term hair regrowth ≥ 75%. For the main outcome of short-term hair regrowth ≥ 75%, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of oral prednisolone or cyclosporine versus placebo (RR 4.68, 95% CI 0.57 to 38.27; 79 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence), intralesional betamethasone or triamcinolone versus placebo (RR 13.84, 95% CI 0.87 to 219.76; 231 participants; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence), oral ruxolitinib versus oral tofacitinib (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.52; 80 participants; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence), diphencyprone or squaric acid dibutil ester versus placebo (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.71; 99 participants; 1 study; very-low-certainty evidence), diphencyprone or squaric acid dibutyl ester versus topical minoxidil (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.71; 99 participants; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence), diphencyprone plus topical minoxidil versus diphencyprone (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.13 to 3.44; 30 participants; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence), topical minoxidil 1% and 2% versus placebo (RR 2.31, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.96; 202 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence) and cryotherapy versus fractional CO2 laser (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.86; 80 participants; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence suggests oral betamethasone may increase short-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% compared to prednisolone or azathioprine (RR 1.67, 95% CI 0.96 to 2.88; 80 participants; 2 studies; low-certainty evidence). There may be little to no difference between subcutaneous dupilumab and placebo in short-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% (RR 3.59, 95% CI 0.19 to 66.22; 60 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence) as well as between topical ruxolitinib and placebo (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 100.89; 78 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). However, baricitinib results in an increase in short-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% when compared to placebo (RR 7.54, 95% CI 3.90 to 14.58; 1200 participants; 2 studies; high-certainty evidence). For the incidence of serious adverse events, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of topical ruxolitinib versus placebo (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.94; 78 participants; 1 study; very low-certainty evidence). Baricitinib and apremilast may result in little to no difference in the incidence of serious adverse events versus placebo (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.60 to 3.60; 1224 participants; 3 studies; low-certainty evidence). The same result is observed for subcutaneous dupilumab compared to placebo (RR 1.54, 95% CI 0.07 to 36.11; 60 participants; 1 study; low-certainty evidence). For health-related quality of life, the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of oral cyclosporine compared to placebo (MD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07; very low-certainty evidence). Baricitinib results in an increase in long-term hair regrowth ≥ 75% compared to placebo (RR 8.49, 95% CI 4.70 to 15.34; 1200 participants; 2 studies; high-certainty evidence). Regarding the risk of bias, the most relevant issues were the lack of details about randomisation and allocation concealment, the limited efforts to keep patients and assessors unaware of the assigned intervention, and losses to follow-up. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found that treatment with baricitinib results in an increase in short- and long-term hair regrowth compared to placebo. Although we found inconclusive results for the risk of serious adverse effects with baricitinib, the reported small incidence of serious adverse events in the baricitinib arm should be balanced with the expected benefits. We also found that the impact of other treatments on hair regrowth is very uncertain. Evidence for health-related quality of life is still scant.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas , Produtos Biológicos , Ciclosporinas , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Alopecia em Áreas/tratamento farmacológico , Minoxidil/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona , Betametasona
12.
Cell Signal ; 112: 110915, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37838312

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons. The sporadic ALS (sALS) is a multigenic disorder and the complex mechanisms underlying its onset are still not fully delineated. Despite the recent scientific advancements, certain aspects of ALS pathogenic targets need to be yet clarified. The aim of the presented study is to identify potential genetic biomarkers and drug targets for sALS, by analysing gene expression profiles, presented in the publicly available GSE68605 dataset, of motor neurons cells obtained from sALS patients. We used different computational approaches including differential expression analysis, protein network mapping, candidate protein biomarker (CPB) identification, elucidation of the role of functional modules, and molecular docking analysis. The resultant top ten up- and downregulated genes were further used to construct protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). The PPIN analysis resulted in identifying four CPBs (namely RIOK2, AKT1, CTNNB1, and TNF) that commonly overlapped with one another in network parameters (degree, bottleneck and maximum neighbourhood component). The RIOK2 protein emerged as a potential mediator of top five functional modules that are associated with RNA binding, lipoprotein particle receptor binding in pre-ribosome, and interferon, cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis revealed that cyclosporine exhibited the highest binding affinity (-8.6 kJ/mol) with RIOK2, and surpassed the FDA-approved ALS drugs, such as riluzole and edaravone. This suggested that cyclosporine may serve as a promising candidate for targeting RIOK2 downregulation observed in sALS patients. In order to validate our computational results, it is suggested that in vitro and in vivo studies may be conducted in future to provide a more detailed understanding of ALS diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica , Ciclosporinas , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/genética , Esclerose Lateral Amiotrófica/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas , Biologia Computacional , Biomarcadores , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico
13.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 70(11): e30608, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37548491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Letermovir (LTV), an antiviral with exclusive activity against Cytomegalovirus (CMV), is approved for prophylaxis of CMV infection and disease in adult hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) patients. The use of LTV in the pediatric HCT population is off-label, and has limited literature to support its use. PROCEDURE: This was a single-center, retrospective, matched (1:1 LTV:non-LTV) cohort study of allogeneic HCT recipients transplanted at Children's Hospital Colorado from 2015 to 2022. The primary endpoint was clinically significant CMV DNAemia (defined as a CMV viral load >1000 copies/mL or any CMV DNAemia leading to preemptive treatment) through 6 months post transplant. Secondary outcomes included time to clinically significant CMV DNAemia, drug adverse effects, and dose adjustments of concomitant cyclosporine and voriconazole (known drug interactions). RESULTS: We compared 41 patients who received LTV prophylaxis to 41 patients who received no CMV prophylaxis. There was less clinically significant CMV DNAemia through D+180 in the LTV group (9.8% vs. 17.0%, p = .33). Overall, LTV was well tolerated, and 87.8% of patients experienced no adverse effects related to the drug. There was no observed pattern in LTV effect on cyclosporine serum concentrations, but LTV was associated with decreased voriconazole trough levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, the use of LTV prophylaxis in pediatric stem cell patients was associated with reduced clinically significant CMV DNAemia through D+180.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Citomegalovirus , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Voriconazol , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/etiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Ciclosporinas/farmacologia , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico , Transplantados
14.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 408(1): 308, 2023 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37578661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thromboembolic complications remain a significant concern in postoperative patients, particularly those who have undergone liver transplantation. Warfarin has been the standard oral anticoagulant. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have several advantages over warfarin, including rapid onset of action and standardized dose guidelines. We aimed to assess the safety of rivaroxaban in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients. METHODS: This study was a single-center, retrospective descriptive analysis of LDLT recipients who received rivaroxaban between December 2020 and April 2022. A total of 27 recipients received rivaroxaban postoperatively. Liver function tests, immunosuppression levels, serum creatinine, and INR were recorded before the initiation of rivaroxaban and then on post-therapy days 1, 7, 14, 28, 90, and 180. RESULTS: Among the 27 recipients receiving rivaroxaban postoperatively, portal venous thrombosis was the most prevalent indication for anticoagulation (44.4%), followed by Budd-Chiari syndrome (29.6%). Nine patients had a twofold increase in either ALT or AST values, two of whom were treated for biliary strictures and the others for rejection. Eighteen patients were given tacrolimus, and eight were on cyclosporine, with one patient switched from tacrolimus to cyclosporine due to insufficient therapeutic levels. There were no incidents of bleeding or re-thrombosis during the 180-day follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Rivaroxaban may be a safe and effective alternative in LDLT recipients with no significant adverse incidents. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings and determine this population's optimal dose and duration of rivaroxaban therapy.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Transplante de Fígado , Humanos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Doadores Vivos , Tacrolimo , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos
15.
Transplant Proc ; 55(7): 1681-1687, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate or severe renal dysfunction (MSRD) is a frequent complication after heart transplantation. Strategies to delay progression and improve outcomes, such as renoprotective medications and timely referral to nephrology, remain important in providing care to heart transplant recipients with MSRD. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are chronic renal dysfunction's prevalence, risk factors, and optimal clinical management strategies in heart transplant recipients? DESIGN: This single-center, cross-sectional study examined patients who received a heart transplant from January 1, 2000, to June 30, 2011, and followed until December 31, 2011. Moderate or severe renal dysfunction was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. RESULTS: The prevalence of MSRD among 195 heart transplant recipients was 60%. Variables associated with MSRD were female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 4.82; 95% CI, 1.72-13.54), greater age (OR: 1.10 per year; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14), time since transplant (OR: 1.0004 per year; 95% CI, 1.0001-1.0007), and mTOR inhibitor use (OR: 2.89; 95% CI, 1.24-6.71). Tacrolimus use (OR: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.71) and cyclosporine use (OR: 0.21; 95% CI, 0.05-0.80) were associated with patients without MSRD. Among patients with MSRD, 19.6% were referred to a nephrologist. Median eGFR remained stable at approximately 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 for 3 years after the study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that female sex, older age at transplant, and time since transplant are associated with MSRD in heart transplant recipients. Tacrolimus and cyclosporine use seemed renoprotective, but lower usage and increased mTOR inhibitor use may more likely indicate existing treatment patterns for patients with MSRD.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Transplante de Coração , Nefropatias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Tacrolimo , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR
17.
Biomolecules ; 13(6)2023 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37371517

RESUMO

Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) block the fusion of diverse enveloped viruses, likely through increasing the cell membrane's rigidity. Previous studies have reported that the antiviral activity of the IFITM family member, IFITM3, is antagonized by cell pretreatment with rapamycin derivatives and cyclosporines A and H (CsA and CsH) that promote the degradation of IFITM3. Here, we show that CsA and CsH potently enhance virus fusion with IFITM1- and IFITM3-expressing cells by inducing their rapid relocalization from the plasma membrane and endosomes, respectively, towards the Golgi. This relocalization is not associated with a significant degradation of IFITMs. Although prolonged exposure to CsA induces IFITM3 degradation in cells expressing low endogenous levels of this protein, its levels remain largely unchanged in interferon-treated cells or cells ectopically expressing IFITM3. Importantly, the CsA-mediated redistribution of IFITMs to the Golgi occurs on a much shorter time scale than degradation and thus likely represents the primary mechanism of enhancement of virus entry. We further show that rapamycin also induces IFITM relocalization toward the Golgi, albeit less efficiently than cyclosporines. Our findings highlight the importance of regulation of IFITM trafficking for its antiviral activity and reveal a novel mechanism of the cyclosporine-mediated modulation of cell susceptibility to enveloped virus infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Ciclosporinas , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/metabolismo , Interferons , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Sirolimo
18.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 46(8): 353-359, 2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37264515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein is a potential obstacle to cancer treatment. This phase 1 trial determined the safety of paclitaxel with valspodar, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: Patients were treated with single-agent paclitaxel Q3W 175 mg/m 2 (or 135 mg/m 2 if heavily pretreated) as a 3-hour infusion. If their disease was stable (SD) or progressive (PD), paclitaxel at 30% (52.5 mg/m 2 ), 40% (70 mg/m 2 ), or 50% (87.5 mg/m 2 ) of 175 mg/m 2 (full dose) was administered with valspodar 5 mg/kg orally 4 times daily for 12 doses. Pharmacokinetic sampling (PK) for paclitaxel and valspodar was performed during single-agent and combination therapy. RESULTS: Sixteen patients had SD/PD after one cycle of paclitaxel and then received paclitaxel at 30% (n=3), 40% (n=3), and 50% (n=10) with valspodar. Hematologic adverse events (AEs) including myelosuppression at paclitaxel 40% were comparable to those of full-dose paclitaxel. Non-hematologic AEs consisted of reversible hepatic (hyperbilirubinemia and transaminitis) and neurologic AEs (ataxia and paresthesias). Eleven patients experienced SD with a median of 12.7 weeks (range, 5.4 to 36.0), 4 patients progressed, and 1 was inevaluable. Reduced dose paclitaxel with valspodar resulted in lower plasma peak concentrations of paclitaxel; otherwise, concentrations were similar to single-agent paclitaxel. CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel at 70 mg/m 2 was administered safely with valspodar. Limited efficacy in hematologic and solid tumors resulted in discontinuation of its clinical development and other transporter inhibitors. Recently, the development of ATP-binding cassette transporter inhibitors has been reconsidered to mitigate resistance to antibody-drug conjugates.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Neoplasias , Humanos , Paclitaxel , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Ciclosporinas/efeitos adversos , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos
19.
Hematology ; 28(1): 2208010, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37133319

RESUMO

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) can be life-threatening, if hemoglobin (Hb) levels continue to decline after established treatments with glucocorticoids, rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis. Impaired regulatory T cells (Treg) are proposed to alleviate AIHA development through decreased binding of CTLA-4 to antigen-presenting cells. Abatacept is a fusion protein with a CTLA-4 domain and is approved for use in rheumatoid arthritis. It mimics the immunosuppressive CTLA-4 effect of Treg. Thus, application of abatacept in refractory AIHA might be reasonable. A 54-year-old woman with known AIHA was admitted to our clinic due to therapy-refractory hemoglobin decrease to 4.0 g/dl. Previously, multiple courses of glucocorticoids, rituximab, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and a splenectomy failed to stop or stabilize hemoglobin levels and hemolysis. A new immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine was initiated and erythropoiesis was stimulated with darbepoetin alfa. Again, therapy failed even though we tried to support immunosuppressive therapy by reducing the amount of pathogenic antibody through plasmapheresis. We stopped the treatment with cyclosporine and applied abatacept instead. After seven days hemoglobin stabilized at 4.3 g/dl and no further red blood cells transfusions were necessary. About one month later hemolysis aggravated again and azathioprine was added to the ongoing abatacept treatment. Finally, the combination of abatacept and azathioprine led to a long-lasting increase of the Hb level above 11 g/dl six months later. Abatacept can be applied to overcome therapy refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia but should be combined with an additional immunosuppressive medication such as azathioprine.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune , Ciclosporinas , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/etiologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Hemólise , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobinas/análise
20.
Eye (Lond) ; 37(17): 3666-3674, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37221362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Halting and reversing glaucoma therapy-related ocular surface disease (GTR-OSD) will improve the success of long-term medical therapy, impacting millions of patients worldwide. METHODS: A single-centre, masked, prospective, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 41 well-controlled open-angle glaucoma subjects with moderate to severe GTR-OSD on preserved latanoprost and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC) therapy was conducted. Subjects were randomized to preservative-free (PF) tafluprost and DTFC with either placebo or cyclosporine 0.1% drops for 6 months and were then crossed over to the opposite therapy. Oxford score of ocular staining was the primary outcome; osmolarity, matrix-metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) testing, tear film break-up time (TFBUT), meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), punctum evaluation, adverse events and diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) comprised secondary outcomes. RESULTS: GTR-OSD findings improved with PF therapy. At 6 months the triple PF with placebo group showed improvement compared to baseline in mean Oxford score (mean difference [MD]:-3.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]:-4.74 to -2.77; p < 0.001), osmolarity (MD:-21.93; 95%CI:-27.61 to -16.24 mOsm/l; p < 0.001), punctum stenosis (p = 0.008) and conjunctival hyperaemia (p < 0.001). Similar improvements occurred in the cyclosporine enhanced period, which also provided greater improvement in MMP-9 positivity (24 vs 66%; p < 0.001) and TFBUT (p = 0.022). The cyclosporine group was superior vs placebo in mean Oxford score (MD:-0.78; 95%CI:-1.40 to -0.15); p < 0.001), itchiness and objective adverse events (p = 0.034). Cyclosporine elicited more stinging vs placebo (63 vs 24%; p < 0.001). Both PF regimens reduced mean diurnal IOP more than preserved therapy (14.7 vs 15.9 mmHg; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Changing from preserved to PF glaucoma medications improves ocular surface health and IOP control. Topical cyclosporine 0.1% further reverses GTR-OSD.


Assuntos
Ciclosporinas , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Glaucoma , Hipertensão Ocular , Humanos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Timolol/uso terapêutico , Timolol/efeitos adversos , Pressão Intraocular , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ciclosporinas/uso terapêutico
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