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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542472

RESUMO

In recent years, the field of biology has witnessed a surge of interest in genomics research due to the advancements in biotechnology. Gene expression pattern analysis plays a crucial role in this research, as it enables us to understand the regulatory mechanism of gene expression and the associated biological processes. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) is an efficient method to analyze the gene expression patterns, for which accuracy relies on the standardized analysis of reference genes. However, numerous studies have shown that no reference gene is universal in all conditions, so screening a suitable reference gene under certain conditions is of great importance. Cinnamomum burmannii (C. burmannii) is rich in volatile components and has high medicinal and economic value. However, knowledge of the screening of reference genes for the gene expression analysis of C. burmannii is insufficient. Aiming at this problem, we evaluated and screened the reference genes in C. burmannii under different experimental conditions, including different abiotic stresses (Cold-treated, PEG-treated and Nacl-treated), different tissues, leaves at different developmental stages and different chemical types. In this study, different algorithms (∆Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the stability of the candidate reference genes, and RefFinder further merged the output data to screen out the optimum reference gene under various experimental conditions in C. burmannii. The results showed that the optimal reference gene number for gene standardization was 2 under different experimental conditions. RPL27|RPS15 was the most suitable combination under the Nacl-treated and PEG-treated samples. RPL27|APT was the optimum combination under the Cold-treated samples. The optimal combinations of other samples were EF1α|ACT7 for different tissues, eIF-5A|Gllα for different borneol clones in C. burmannii, RPS15|ACT7 for leaves at different developmental stages and RPS15|TATA for all samples. Additionally, two terpenoid synthesis-related genes (CbWRKY4 and CbDXS2) were standardized to verify the feasibility of the selected reference genes under different experimental conditions. This study will be helpful for the subsequent molecular genetic mechanism study of C. burmannii.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Cloreto de Sódio , Cinnamomum/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Padrões de Referência
2.
Molecules ; 29(6)2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542843

RESUMO

The genus Cinnamomum encompasses diverse species with various applications, particularly in traditional medicine and spice production. This study focuses on Cinnamomum burmanni, specifically on a high-D-borneol-content chemotype, known as the Meipian Tree, in Guangdong Province, South China. This research explores essential oil diversity, chemotypes, and chloroplast genomic diversity among 28 C. burmanni samples collected from botanical gardens. Essential oils were analyzed, and chemotypes classified using GC-MS and statistical methods. Plastome assembly and phylogenetic analysis were conducted to reveal genetic relationships. Results showed distinct chemotypes, including eucalyptol and borneol types, with notable variations in essential oil composition. The chloroplast genome exhibited conserved features, with phylogenetic analysis revealing three major clades. Borneol-rich individuals in clade II suggested a potential maternal inheritance pattern. However, phylogenetic signals revealed that the composition of essential oils is weakly correlated with plastome phylogeny. The study underscores the importance of botanical gardens in preserving genetic and chemical diversity, offering insights for sustainable resource utilization and selective breeding of high-yield mother plants of C. burmanni.


Assuntos
Canfanos , Cinnamomum , Lauraceae , Óleos Voláteis , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Cinnamomum/genética , Filogenia , Herança Materna
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474323

RESUMO

This work aimed to identify the chemical compounds of Cinnamomum burmannii leaf essential oil (CBLEO) and to unravel the antibacterial mechanism of CBLEO at the molecular level for developing antimicrobials. CBLEO had 37 volatile compounds with abundant borneol (28.40%) and showed good potential to control foodborne pathogens, of which Staphylococcus aureus had the greatest inhibition zone diameter (28.72 mm) with the lowest values of minimum inhibitory concentration (1.0 µg/mL) and bactericidal concentration (2.0 µg/mL). To unravel the antibacterial action of CBLEO on S. aureus, a dynamic exploration of antibacterial growth, material leakage, ROS formation, protein oxidation, cell morphology, and interaction with genome DNA was conducted on S. aureus exposed to CBLEO at different doses (1/2-2×MIC) and times (0-24 h), indicating that CBLEO acts as an inducer for ROS production and the oxidative stress of S. aureus. To highlight the antibacterial action of CBLEO on S. aureus at the molecular level, we performed a comparative association of ROS accumulation with some key virulence-related gene (sigB/agrA/sarA/icaA/cidA/rsbU) transcription, protease production, and biofilm formation in S. aureus subjected to CBLEO at different levels and times, revealing that CBLEO-induced oxidative stress caused transcript suppression of virulence regulators (RsbU and SigB) and its targeted genes, causing a protease level increase destined for the biofilm formation and growth inhibition of S. aureus, which may be a key bactericidal action. Our findings provide valuable information for studying the antibacterial mechanism of essential oil against pathogens.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Cinnamomum/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Virulência , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Estresse Oxidativo , Transcrição Gênica , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
4.
Food Chem ; 439: 138146, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100869

RESUMO

Active packaging made from biodegradable polymers and natural additives appears as an ecological alternative. In addition to having antioxidant activity and enhancing food preservation, it allows mitigating the negative impacts caused by improper disposal. This study pursued to produce biodegradable films based on a polymer blend PBAT/PLA (Ecovio®) using the flat extrusion method. The films were prepared with the incorporation of 5 wt% of powdered turmeric or cinnamon as natural additives. The films obtained, and those reprocessed twice, were characterized in terms of colorimetric, UV light transmittance, water contact angle, water vapor permeability, morphology, mechanical properties, and antioxidant activity. Cinnamon reduced the UV light transmittance and made a surface more hydrophobic. Reprocessing led to greater elongation and maximum load, associated with increased dispersion and distribution, as evidenced in the morphological analysis. The films developed have significant potential for applications in active food packaging, with emphasis on cinnamon-additivated films.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Embalagem de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Poliésteres/química , Curcuma , Pós , Antioxidantes/química , Polímeros/química , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química
5.
Molecules ; 28(22)2023 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005233

RESUMO

Antrodia cinnamomea is a valuable edible and medicinal mushroom with antitumor, hepatoprotective, and antiviral effects that play a role in intestinal flora regulation. Spore-inoculation submerged fermentation has become the most efficient and well-known artificial culture process for A. cinnamomea. In this study, a specific low-molecular compound named 1,8-cineole (cineole) from Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay was first reported to have remarkably promoted the asexual sporulation of A. cinnamomea in submerged fermentation (AcSmF). Then, RNA sequencing, real-time quantitative PCR, and a literature review were performed to predict the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying the cineole-promoted sporulation of AcSmF. The available evidence supports the hypothesis that after receiving the signal of cineole through cell receptors Wsc1 and Mid2, Pkc1 promoted the expression levels of rlm1 and wetA and facilitated their transfer to the cell wall integrity (CWI) signal pathway, and wetA in turn promoted the sporulation of AcSmF. Moreover, cineole changed the membrane functional state of the A. cinnamomea cell and thus activated the heat stress response by the CWI pathway. Then, heat shock protein 90 and its chaperone Cdc37 promoted the expression of stuA and brlA, thus promoting sporulation of AcSmF. In addition, cineole promoted the expression of areA, flbA, and flbD through the transcription factor NCP1 and inhibited the expression of pkaA through the ammonium permease of MEP, finally promoting the sporulation of AcSmF. This study may improve the efficiency of the inoculum (spores) preparation of AcSmF and thereby enhance the production benefits of A. cinnamomea.


Assuntos
Antrodia , Cinnamomum , Transcriptoma , Fermentação , Eucaliptol/farmacologia
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 134(11)2023 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935485

RESUMO

AIMS: Roots are key parts of plant material circulation and energy flow, creating two distinct niches for the plant microbiome, such as the rhizosphere and root endosphere, which interact to maintain plant growth and health. In this study, two niches of plant rhizosphere and root endosphere were selected to study the composition and differences of fungi communities in order to better understand how differences in the structure and function of plant fungi communities affect plant health. METHODS AND RESULTS: The community structure, diversity, and ecological function of fungi in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of Cinnamomum migao were studied using high-throughput sequencing techniques, traditional culture methods, and the FUNGuild database. The results of the analysis of alpha diversity showed that the diversity of rhizosphere fungal communities in C. migao was much higher than that of root endosphere communities. Some similarities and differences were noted between the two niche fungal communities, and some fungi had niche preferences. Functional prediction results demonstrated that fungi in the rhizosphere and root endosphere adopt multiple trophic modes, mostly saprophytic fungi. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a basis for an in-depth understanding of the structural variation, niche differentiation, and function of plant root-related fungal microbiota. We believe that it could provide guidance on the subsequent development of beneficial fungi.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Micobioma , Rizosfera , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Fungos/genética , China
7.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291763, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729154

RESUMO

Cinnamomum species have gained worldwide attention because of their economic benefits. Among them, C. verum (synonymous with C. zeylanicum Blume), commonly known as Ceylon Cinnamon or True Cinnamon is mainly produced in Sri Lanka. In addition, Sri Lanka is home to seven endemic wild cinnamon species, C. capparu-coronde, C. citriodorum, C. dubium, C. litseifolium, C. ovalifolium, C. rivulorum and C. sinharajaense. Proper identification and genetic characterization are fundamental for the conservation and commercialization of these species. While some species can be identified based on distinct morphological or chemical traits, others cannot be identified easily morphologically or chemically. The DNA barcoding using rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA regions could not also resolve the identification of Cinnamomum species in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we generated Illumina Hiseq data of about 20x coverage for each identified species and a C. verum sample (India) and assembled the chloroplast genome, nuclear ITS regions, and several mitochondrial genes, and conducted Skmer analysis. Chloroplast genomes of all eight species were assembled using a seed-based method.According to the Bayesian phylogenomic tree constructed with the complete chloroplast genomes, the C. verum (Sri Lanka) is sister to previously sequenced C. verum (NC_035236.1, KY635878.1), C. dubium and C. rivulorum. The C. verum sample from India is sister to C. litseifolium and C. ovalifolium. According to the ITS regions studied, C. verum (Sri Lanka) is sister to C. verum (NC_035236.1), C. dubium and C. rivulorum. Cinnamomum verum (India) shares an identical ITS region with C. ovalifolium, C. litseifolium, C. citriodorum, and C. capparu-coronde. According to the Skmer analysis C. verum (Sri Lanka) is sister to C. dubium and C. rivulorum, whereas C. verum (India) is sister to C. ovalifolium, and C. litseifolium. The chloroplast gene ycf1 was identified as a chloroplast barcode for the identification of Cinnamomum species. We identified an 18 bp indel region in the ycf1 gene, that could differentiate C. verum (India) and C. verum (Sri Lanka) samples tested.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genoma Mitocondrial , Cinnamomum/genética , Sri Lanka , Teorema de Bayes , Cinnamomum zeylanicum
8.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 22(6): 4516-4536, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37615998

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are a class of natural products that exhibit potent antimicrobial properties against a broad spectrum of bacteria. Inhibition diameters (IDs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) are the typical measures of antimicrobial activity for extracts and EOs obtained from Cinnamomum, Salvia, and Mentha species. This study used a meta-analytical regression analysis to investigate the correlation between ID and MIC measurements and the variability in antimicrobial susceptibility tests. By utilizing pooled ID models, this study revealed significant differences in foodborne pathogens' susceptibility to extracts, which were dependent on both the plant species and the methodology employed (p < .05). Cassia showed the highest efficacy against Salmonella spp., exhibiting a pooled ID of 26.24 mm, while cinnamon demonstrated the highest efficacy against Bacillus cereus, with a pooled ID of 23.35 mm. Mint extract showed the greatest efficacy against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, cinnamon extract demonstrated the lowest effect against Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, with a pooled ID of only 8.07 mm, whereas its EOs were the most effective against this bacterial strain. The study found that plant species influenced the MIC, while the methodology did not affect MIC measurements (p > .05). An inverse correlation between ID and MIC measurements was identified (p < .0001). These findings suggest that extracts and EOs obtained from Cinnamomum, Salvia, and Mentha spp. have the potential to inhibit bacterial growth. The study highlights the importance of considering various factors that may influence ID and MIC measurements when assessing the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Mentha , Óleos Voláteis , Salvia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(8): e202300666, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37533252

RESUMO

Cinnamomum species have applications in the pharmaceutical and fragrance industry for wide biological and pharmaceutical activities. The present study investigates the chemical composition of the essential oils extracted from two species of Cinnamomum namely C. tamala and C. camphora. Chemical analysis showed E-cinnamyl acetate (56.14 %), E-cinnamaldehyde (20.15 %), and linalool (11.77 %) contributed as the major compounds of the 95.22 % of C. tamala leaves essential oil found rich in phenylpropanoids (76.96 %). C. camphora essential oil accounting for 93.57 % of the total oil composition was rich in 1,8-cineole (55.84 %), sabinene (14.37 %), and α-terpineol (10.49 %) making the oil abundant in oxygenated monoterpenes (70.63 %). Furthermore, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity for both the essential oils was carried out using Ellman's colorimetric method. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential at highest studied concentration of 1 mg/mL was observed to be 46.12±1.52 % for C. tamala and 53.61±2.66 % for C. camphora compared to the standard drug physostigmine (97.53±0.63 %) at 100 ng/ml. These multiple natural aromatic and fragrant characteristics with distinct chemical compositions offered by Cinnamon species provide varied benefits in the development of formulations that could be advantageous for the flavor and fragrance industry.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum camphora , Cinnamomum , Óleos Voláteis , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Cinnamomum/química , Acetilcolinesterase , Óleos Voláteis/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(9): e202300652, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37531297

RESUMO

The leaf oil compositions of two Lauraceae and one Annonaceae plants cultivated in Vietnam were analysed by GC/MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis. The leaf oil of the first Lauraceae plant Cinnamomum melastomaceum contained 34 identified compounds, in which benzyl benzoate (38.5 %), linalool (19.9 %), (E)-caryophyllene (10.5 %), and α-terpineol (6.9 %) were the major compounds. The leaves of the second Lauraceae plant Neolitsea buisanensis gave an oil with the main compounds (E)-ß-ocimene (24.0 %), benzyl benzoate (15.8 %), bicyclogermacrene (14.9 %), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.3 %). The leaf oil of the Annonaceae plant Uvaria microcarpa consisted of the principal compounds (E)-caryophyllene (18.0 %), bicyclogermacrene (8.1 %), and δ-elemene (6.1 %). Two Lauraceae oil samples exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 and LD90 values of less than 50 µg/mL. The Annonaceae oil sample showed strong antimicrobial activity against the fungus Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 with the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) value of 32 µg/mL. In the docking approach, the major compounds (E)-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, and benzyl benzoate interacted with the mosquito odorant-binding protein 3OGN, whereas (E)-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, and δ-elemene also potentially interacted with the 4ZA5 protein of fungus A. niger.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anti-Infecciosos , Cinnamomum , Inseticidas , Lauraceae , Óleos Voláteis , Uvaria , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Vietnã , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Inseticidas/química , Larva , Folhas de Planta/química
11.
Molecules ; 28(9)2023 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37175069

RESUMO

Cinnamomum plants are rich in natural essential oils, which are widely used as materials in the fragrance, insecticidal, antibacterial agent, pharmaceutical, and food industries; however, few studies have investigated the essential oil components of Cinnamomum bodinieri. Therefore, this study investigated the diversity of essential oils from the leaves of 885 individual C. bodinieri plants across 32 populations in five provinces. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation, and then qualitative and quantitative analyses of the compounds were performed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 87 chemical constituents were identified in the essential oils, including 33 monoterpenes, 48 sesquiterpenes, and six other compounds. The average oil yield was 0.75%, and individual oil yields ranged from 0.01% to 4.28%. A total of 16 chemotypes were classified according to variations in the essential oil chemical constituents of C. bodinieri, among which the camphor-type, citral-type, and eucalyptol-type were dominant. Moreover, the borneol-type, cymol-type, elemol-type, methylisoeugenol-type, and selina-6-en-4-ol-type were reported in C. bodinieri for the first time. The yield and principal components of the essential oils were mainly affected by altitude, temperature, and sunshine duration, among which altitude had the most significant effect; thus, low-altitude areas are more suitable for the synthesis and accumulation of essential oils. Based on the different characteristics of the essential oils in the leaves of C. bodinieri, several excellent populations and individuals were identified in this study. Moreover, the findings provide a foundation for breeding superior varieties and studying essential oil biosynthesis mechanisms in the future.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Óleos Voláteis , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Cinnamomum/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Monoterpenos/química , Folhas de Planta/química
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(23): 9175-9186, 2023 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37252901

RESUMO

The underlying mechanisms of Cinnamomum kanehirae-stimulated growth and metabolism of Antrodia camphorata remain unknown. Herein, we first observed that the methanol extract of C. kanehirae trunk (MECK) (2 g/L) showed a potent stimulatory effect on A. camphorata triterpenoids production (115.6 mg/L). Second, MECK treatment considerably increased the category and abundance of many secondary metabolites in the mycelia. We identified 93 terpenoids (8 newly formed and 49 upregulated) in the MECK-treated mycelia, wherein 21 terpenoids were the same as those in the fruiting bodies. Third, 42 out of the 93 terpenoids were annotated in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, mainly involving monoterpenoids and diterpenoids syntheses. Finally, 27 monoterpenes and 16 sesquiterpenes were detected in the MECK, and the two terpenoids with the highest abundance (linalool and α-pinene) were selected for verification and found to considerably increase the terpenoids production of A. camphorata and demonstrate the regulation of mRNA expression levels of nine key genes in the mevalonate pathway via RT-qPCR. This study is beneficial for elucidating the terpenoids synthesis mechanism in A. camphorata.


Assuntos
Antrodia , Cinnamomum , Triterpenos , Fermentação , Terpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Antrodia/metabolismo
13.
Phytochemistry ; 212: 113728, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37211335

RESUMO

Cinnamigones A-C, three undescribed highly oxidized guaiane-type sesquiterpenes were isolated from the fruits of Cinnamomum migao. Cinnamigone A (1), structurally artemisinin-like, is a natural 1,2,4-trioxane caged endoperoxide with an unprecedented tetracyclic 6/6/7/5 ring system. Compounds 2-3 are classic guaiane sesquiterpene featuring different epoxy units. Guaiol (4) is considered to be the precursor of 1-3 in the biosynthesis pathway hypothesis. The planar structures and configurations of cinnamigones A-C were elucidated by spectral analysis, HRESIMS, X-ray crystallography and ECD calculations. Evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of 1-3 on N-methyl-ᴅaspartate (NMDA) toxicity was demonstrated that compounds 1-2 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Sesquiterpenos , Estrutura Molecular , N-Metilaspartato , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia
14.
J Basic Microbiol ; 63(8): 915-929, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37026422

RESUMO

Cinnamomum tamala (bay leaf) is widely used for culinary and medicinal purposes in South Asia. A leaf blight/spot disease was first discovered on nearly 90% of C. tamala plants with a mean severity of 48% to 74.4% in Gazipur and Bogura, Bangladesh, in 2019. The present study identified and characterized the causal organism and formulated the optimum growth conditions and effective fungicides for the chemical control of the pathogen. The characteristic symptoms on the infected leaves appeared circular to oval reddish-brown spots with raised margins and often developed in tear-stain patterns. Severe infection of C. tamala sapling resulted in dieback symptoms with leaf defoliation. A fungus with floccose, dense, white colonies with well-differentiated acervuli was isolated from the infected leaves. Combined cultural, morphological, and molecular characteristics identified the pathogen as Colletotrichum siamense. Inculcating healthy leaves and 1-year-old saplings of C. tamala with a conidial suspension of the fungus reproduced the same symptoms observed in the bay leaf orchard. The highest mycelial growth was recorded on V-8 Juice Agar media, while the maximum radial mycelial growth and level of sporulation of the fungus were significantly higher in incubation temperature 30°C. Fungicide trials showed that carbendazim 50 WP, azoxystrobin, mancozeb, and trifloxystrobin, either singly or in combination, successfully reduced fungal mycelial growth in vitro. Therefore, disease management strategies should be opted to halt the further spread of this issue. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the incidence of Colletotrichum leaf blight on C. tamala in Bangladesh and even in the world.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Colletotrichum , Fungicidas Industriais , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Ásia Meridional
15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 71(5): 374-379, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37121688

RESUMO

Screening for bioactivity related to anti-infective, anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and anti-viral activity, led us to identify active compounds from a methanol extract of Litsea japonica (Thub.) Juss. and the hot water extract of bark of Cinnamomum sieboldii Meisn (also known as Karaki or Okinawa cinnamon). The two main components in these extracts were identified as the catechin trimers (+)-cinnamtannin B1 and pavetannin B5. Moreover, these extracts exhibited anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) activity. The structures of these catechin trimers were previously determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Pavetanin B5 has never been reported to be isolated as a pure form and has been obtained as a mixture with another component. Although other groups have reported the putative structure of pavetannin B5, preparation of the methylated derivative of pavetannin B5 in this study allowed us to obtain the pure form for the first time as the undecamethyl derivative and confirm its exact structure. Commercially available (+)-cinnamtannin B1 and aesculitannin B (C2'-epimer of cinnamtannin B1) both of which contained pavetannin B5 as a minor component, and C. sieboldii bark extract (approx. 5/2 mixture of (+)-cinnamtannin B1/pavetannin B5) were assessed for anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Both C. sieboldii bark extract and commercially available aesculitannin B showed viral growth inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Catequina , Cinnamomum , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Catequina/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Extratos Vegetais/química
16.
Molecules ; 28(4)2023 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36838961

RESUMO

Cinnamomum japonicum (CJ) is widely distributed in Asian countries like Korea, China, and Japan. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that it exhibits various biological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, most studies have confirmed the efficacy of its water extract but not that of its other extracts. Therefore, in this study, Cinnamomum japonicum Siebold branches (CJB: 70% EtOH extract) were separated using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (CJB3), butanol, and water. Then, their antioxidative activities and phenolic contents were measured. Results revealed that the antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of CJB3 were higher than those of the other extracts. Further, the inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effect of CJB3 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and LPS-activated macrophages, respectively, was determined. CJB3 suppressed oxidative stress in LPS-activated cells and dose-dependently decreased LPS-stimulated ROS production. CJB3 reduced oxidative stress and reversed the glutathione decrease in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory and reducing effect of CJB3 on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase protein and messenger RNA levels, respectively, was investigated. CJB3 inhibited LPS-induced cytokine production and p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Overall, the study results suggest that CJB3 may exert its anti-inflammatory effects via the suppression of p38, JNK, and c-Jun activation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Óxido Nítrico , Extratos Vegetais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cinnamomum/química
17.
Molecules ; 28(3)2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36770639

RESUMO

Cinnamomum camphora is a traditional aromatic plant used to produce linalool and borneol flavors in southern China; however, its leaves also contain many other unutilized essential oils. Herein, we report geographic relationships for the yield and compositional diversity of C. camphora essential oils. The essential oils of 974 individual trees from 35 populations in 13 provinces were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection, respectively. Oil yields ranged from 0.01% to 3.46%, with a significantly positive correlation with latitude and a significantly negative correlation with longitude. In total, 41 compounds were identified, including 15 monoterpenoids, 24 sesquiterpenoids, and two phenylpropanoids. Essential oil compositions varied significantly among individuals and could be categorized into various chemotypes. The six main chemotypes were eucalyptol, nerolidol, camphor, linalool, selina, and mixed types. The other 17 individual plants were chemotypically rare and exhibited high levels of methyl isoeugenol, methyl eugenol, δ-selinene, or borneol. Eucalyptol-type plants had the highest average oil yield of 1.64%, followed in decreasing order by linalool-, camphor-, mixed-, selina-, and nerolidol-type plants. In addition, the five main compounds exhibited a clear geographic gradient. Eucalyptol and linalool showed a significantly positive correlation with latitude, while selina-6-en-4-ol was significantly and negatively correlated with latitude. trans-Nerolidol and selina-6-en-4-ol showed significantly positive correlations with longitude, whereas camphor was significantly and negatively correlated with longitude. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that environmental factors could strong effect the oil yield and essential oil profile of C. camphora.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum camphora , Cinnamomum , Óleos Voláteis , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Eucaliptol/análise , Cânfora/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química
18.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677749

RESUMO

Horchata, a herbal infusion drink from Ecuador containing a mixture of medicinal plants, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, and antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity of each of the plants contained in the horchata mixture has not been fully evaluated. Thus, in this study, we analysed the antibacterial activity of 21 plants used in horchata, collected from the Ecuadorian Andes region, against bacterial strains of clinical importance. The methanolic extract of Cinnamomum sp. showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 250 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), while Pelargonium odoratissimum exhibited a MIC value of 500 µg/mL towards S. aureus ATCC25923. The high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) analyses identified in Cinnamomum sp. epicatechin tannins, cinnamaldehyde, and prehelminthosporol molecules, whereas in P. odoratissimum, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin tannins, some flavonoids, and gallic acid and derivatives were identified. Finally, Cinnamomum sp. and P. odoratissimum showed partial inhibition of biofilm formation of S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA. Overall, our findings revealed which of the plants used in horchata are responsible for the antibacterial activity attributed to this herbal drink and exhibit the potential for Cinnamomum sp. and P. odoratissimum secondary metabolites to be explored as scaffolds in drug development.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Pelargonium , Staphylococcus aureus , Cinnamomum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Taninos
19.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2023. 60 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1428671

RESUMO

Os microrganismos resistentes a diferentes classes de agentes antimicrobianos têm se tornado cada vez mais comuns e atualmente são denominados como multirresistentes. Nos hospitais, tais microrganismos apresentam maior perigo, pois são causadores de infecções nosocomiais e a higienização bucal deficiente dos pacientes internados pode tornar a cavidade bucal um sítio para proliferação desses microrganismos multirresistentes. Diante do exposto, novos compostos com ação antimicrobiana precisam ser estudados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar quimicamente o extrato hidroalcóolico de própolis verde de Baccharis dracunculifolia e de Cinnamomum verum (canela) que foram obtidos a partir da extração da matériaprima, analisar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme dos extratos isolados e combinados contra quatro cepas clínicas multirresistentes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter baumannii e verificar a citotoxicidade dos produtos vegetais in vitro em linhagem celular de queratinócitos humanos (HaCat). Para tanto, os extratos vegetais foram preparados a partir da matéria-prima da canela em casca e da própolis bruta. Em seguida, foram caracterizados quimicamente por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC-DAD) para identificação dos principais compostos e a análise do teor de sólidos solúveis dos extratos vegetais também foi realizada. Para avaliação antimicrobiana, foram performados o teste de microdiluição em caldo de acordo com a Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) e a análise de Checkerboard, para avaliar o efeito combinado dos extratos. A atividade antibiofilme dos extratos combinados foi realizada por meio do teste de MTT, no qual diferentes tempos de contato (5 e 30 min) e diferentes modalidades (inibição na formação do biofilme bacteriano e erradicação do biofilme bacteriano já formado) foram testadas. Para ação citotóxica, as células foram cultivadas em meio DMEM e semeadas na placa de 96 poços. Após aderência inicial, aplicou-se os extratos em diferentes concentrações baseadas nas análises microbiológicas para avaliação da viabilidade celular por meio do teste de MTT. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey, ou Kruskal-Wallis e Dunn, considerando um nível de significância de 5%. Os compostos identificados no extrato de própolis verde de B. dracunculifolia foram ácido clorogênico, derivado do ácido cinâmico e apigenina. O aldeído cinâmico foi o principal composto identificado no extrato de C. verum. Os extratos vegetais apresentaram ação bactericida sobre todas as cepas analisadas e, quando combinados, os extratos atuaram de modo aditivo e algumas combinações sinérgicas foram encontradas. O protocolo de inibição da formação do biofilme promoveu percentuais de redução superiores quando comparado ao protocolo de erradicação. Valores expressivos de 83,86% (p < 0,05) de inibição da formação de biofilme de uma cepa clínica de A. baumannii e 89,31% (p < 0,05) de inibição em uma cepa clínica de P. aeruginosa foram encontrados com a aplicação dos extratos combinados. A atuação dos produtos vegetais foi estatisticamente semelhante a atuação da clorexidina 0,12%. Em conclusão, os extratos de própolis verde e canela na forma isolada ou combinada apresentaram ação antimicrobiana e antibiofilme sobre cepas clínicas de A. baumannii e P. aeruginosa multirresistentes. Dessa forma, os produtos vegetais são promissores agentes antissépticos para futuras formulações odontológicas. (AU)


Microorganisms resistant to different classes of antimicrobial agents have become increasingly common and are currently called multidrug resistant. In hospitals, such microorganisms are more dangerous, as they cause nosocomial infections and poor oral hygiene in hospitalized patients can make the oral cavity a site for the proliferation of these multiresistant microorganisms. Given the above, new compounds with antimicrobial action need to be studied. The objective of this study was to chemically evaluate the hydroalcoholic extract of green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia and Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) that were obtained from the extraction of the raw material, to analyze the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the isolated and combined extracts against four clinical strains multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii and verify the cytotoxicity of plant products in vitro in human keratinocyte cell lineage (HaCat). For this purpose, plant extracts were prepared from raw cinnamon bark and raw propolis. Then, they were chemically characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) to identify the main compounds and the analysis of the soluble solids content of the plant extracts was also performed. For antimicrobial evaluation, the broth microdilution test according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the Checkerboard analysis were performed to evaluate the combined effect of the extracts. The antibiofilm activity of the combined extracts was performed using the MTT test, in which different contact times (5 and 30 min) and different modalities (inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation and eradication of already formed bacterial biofilms) were tested. For cytotoxic action, cells were cultured in DMEM medium and seeded in the 96-well plate. After initial adhesion, the extracts were applied at different concentrations based on microbiological analyzes to assess cell viability through the MTT test. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test, or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn, considering a significance level of 5%. The compounds identified in the green propolis extract of B. dracunculifolia were chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid derivative and apigenin. Cinnamic aldehyde was the main compound identified in the C. verum extract. The plant extracts showed bactericidal action on all strains analyzed and, when combined, the extracts acted additively and some synergistic combinations were found. The biofilm formation inhibition protocol promoted higher reduction percentages when compared to the eradication protocol. Significant values of 83.86% (p < 0.05) inhibition of biofilm formation in a clinical strain of A. baumannii and 89.31% (p < 0.05) inhibition in a clinical strain of P. aeruginosa were found with the application of the combined extracts. The performance of plant products was statistically similar to the performance of 0.12% chlorhexidine. In conclusion, extracts of green propolis and cinnamon, in isolated or combined form, showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm action on multiresistant clinical strains of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Thus, plant products are promising antiseptic agents for future dental formulations. (AU)


Assuntos
Própole , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Biofilmes , Cinnamomum , Acinetobacter baumannii
20.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364159

RESUMO

Cinnamomum verum (Lauraceae), also known as "true cinnamon" or "Ceylon cinnamon" has been widely used in traditional folk medicine and cuisine for a long time. The systematics of C. verum presents some difficulties due to genetic variation and morphological similarity between other Cinnamomum species. The present work aimed to find chemical and molecular markers of C. verum samples from the Amazon region of Brazil. The leaf EOs and the genetic material (DNA) were extracted from samples cultivated and commercial samples. The chemical composition of the essential oils from samples of C. verum cultivated (Cve1-Cve5) and commercial (Cve6-c-Cv9-c) was grouped by multivariate statistical analysis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The major compounds were rich in benzenoids and phenylpropanoids, such as eugenol (0.7-91.0%), benzyl benzoate (0.28-76.51%), (E)-cinnamyl acetate (0.36-32.1%), and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.0-19.73%). DNA barcodes were developed for phylogenetic analysis using the chloroplastic regions of the matK and rbcL genes, and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer. The psbA-trnH sequences provided greater diversity of nucleotides, and matK confirmed the identity of C. verum. The combination of DNA barcode and volatile profile was found to be an important tool for the discrimination of C. verum varieties and to examine the authenticity of industrial sources.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/química , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Filogenia , Cinnamomum/genética , Cinnamomum/química , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/química , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico
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