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1.
Br Dent J ; 236(3): 200-204, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332092

RESUMO

The progress of dentistry towards a profession allied to medicine and surgery was incremental, and a most important step in that process was the separation of the surgeons from the barbers in 1745. Hogarth's illustration of a dentally active barber has been discussed previously in the British Dental Journal. In this paper, his probable contribution to the campaign for separation led successfully by his friend, surgeon John Ranby FRS (1703-1773), through the dramatic and much analysed painting The death of the countess (1743), is analysed. In this paper, it is suggested that William Hogarth was not only aware of the tensions between the physicians, surgeons and barbers that had come to a head, but that he modified the first thoughts, seen in a sketch (now at the Ashmolean, Oxford), to incorporate in this painting, and the print made from it a conspicuous sub-scene, almost central in a composition where the dying countess would be expected to be the only subject, as a satirical comment on that internal conflict.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões Barbeiros , Medicina , Pinturas , Médicos , Humanos , Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , Amigos
3.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-381

RESUMO

Este año se conmemora el 450 aniversario de la batalla de Lepanto, más popular por la manquedad que produjo en Cervantes que por la trascendencia geopolítica que supuso la victoria de la alianza cristiana sobre las fuerzas otomanas en el Mediterráneo. ¿Cómo se organizó el dispositivo asistencial en una empresa tan compleja? ¿Quiénes atendían y con qué medios en un barco de guerra del Antiguo Régimen? En este círculo narrativo nos adentraremos en una de las dimensiones menos conocidas de las batallas navales: la vida cotidiana en las galeras al servicio de la corona, las enfermedades, las heridas y sus remedios, cuando los había. Hablaremos de galeotes, cómitres, barberotes y otras gentes de mar. Y también del más universal de los heridos, el manco de Lepanto. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , História , Enfermagem , História da Enfermagem , Cirurgiões , Cirurgiões Barbeiros , Enfermeiros
4.
NTM ; 31(4): 357-385, 2023 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175196

RESUMO

This paper presents and analyzes the practice journal of a barber-surgeon in the town of Münster, in Northern Germany, in which he recorded about 950 cases he treated between 1602 and 1614. Based on this source, it examines the clientele and the fees of a German barber-surgeon in the early seventeenth century, and looks at the injuries and complaints for which patients sought his treatment.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões Barbeiros , Cirurgia Geral , Humanos , Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , População Europeia , Honorários e Preços , Cirurgia Geral/história , Alemanha , Registros , História do Século XVII
7.
Rev. med. cine ; 17(2)6 May. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-228647

RESUMO

En la Inglaterra del siglo XI, un huérfano de 8 años llegará a ser el aprendiz de un cirujano-barbero. Aprende las habilidades básicas de este oficio (sacar dientes, hacer sangrías y pequeñas cirugías) pero no es suficiente. Así que decidirá llegar a ser un médico. Para ello, viajará a Oriente Medio donde se encuentra la más famosa escuela de Medicina. En Persia, logrará entrar como alumno en la madrasa de Ibn Sina (Avicena) donde recibirá una formación teórica y práctica de la medicina, así como de otras disciplinas para lograr ser un médico. (AU)


England, XI century, an 8-year-old orphan becomes a surgeon-barber apprentice. Learning basic skills of this trade (pulling teeth, bloodletting and minor surgeries) but this is not enough. So he decides to become a physician travelling to Middle East, where the most famous medical school of the world was. In Persia, he will be able to enroll as student at Ibn Sina´s madrasa (Avicenna) where he will receive theoretical and practical training in medicine as well as other disciplines to become a physician. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , História Medieval , Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , História da Medicina , Peste/história , Filmes Cinematográficos
8.
Int Orthop ; 45(7): 1891-1898, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860853

RESUMO

PURPOSE: From the eleventh to the thirteenth century, three major events marked surgery in France: the appearance of an epidemic linked to ergotism which led to numerous amputations, the emergence of barber surgeons for civilian practice, and the organization of war surgery for the First Crusade. MATERIAL AND METHODS: If a certain separation between medicine and surgery had appeared at the beginning of the Middle Ages, it would have been from 1215 (at the time of the Lateran Council) that the real separation between medicine and surgery was made. Before this date, the surgery was done by the clergy (monks) who had some experience of surgical practice. After the Council de Lateran, the barbers will take charge of the surgery. RESULTS: In the Middle Ages, the first cause of amputation was linked to poisoning by ergot of rye, intoxication due to the ingestion of contaminated bread. Due to ergotamine-related vasoconstriction, many patients will die with a frequency ranging from 10 to 20% in times of starvation. For survivors, gangrenes will lead to amputations made at the beginning by monks, then by the barber surgeons after 1215. With the name of barber surgeon, barbers are initially responsible for small surgical procedures, then for amputations given the epidemics linked to ergotism which led to numerous amputations. By this practice, they will acquire the knowledge of anatomy and the knowledge of the surgery. Apart from this civilian practice of surgery carried out by barber surgeons, the military practice of surgery will appear with the conquests of England and the start of the crusades which will require a more professional organization of surgery. CONCLUSION: After 1371, as only barbers surgeons had some surgical practice, their knowledge surpassed knowledge of the university. This supremacy of the barber surgeon over the surgeons of the university will be demonstrated by Ambroise Paré.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões Barbeiros , Cirurgia Geral , Cirurgiões , Amputação Cirúrgica , França/epidemiologia , História do Século XVI , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guerra
9.
Rev. esp. investig. quir ; 24(3): 119-126, 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-219258

RESUMO

La historia del perfil del cirujano como profesional de la medicina no se puede decir que data del principio de los tiempos como quizá pueda afirmarse de la del médico. El cirujano como tal se empezó a diferenciarse por esta actividad en la edad media por lotanto su historia data menos de 1000 años. Esta profesión nace con la realización de actividades consideradas quirúrgicas fundamentalmente al actuar sobre las dolencias con las manos o con instrumentos por parte de unos profesionales que se dedicaban a otras actividades como la barbería y que no tenían en general estudios médicos. Con el tiempo, el perfil del cirujano se fue acreditando en especial en el siglo XIX con la fundación de los Reales Colegios de Cirujanos en el mundo occidental, incluida España, hasta llegar al siglo XX al que se le ha reconocido y denominado como el siglo de los cirujanos. En siglo XXI se han empezado a desarrollar los denominados procedimientos terapéuticos y han sido desarrollados por la casi totalidad de especialidades, por lo que la figura del cirujano con el perfil de siglos anteriores se puede decir que esta en declive y algunos pensamos que puede llegar hasta su desaparición por lo menos con el perfil que ha tenido hasta casi el momento actual. (AU)


The history of the surgeon’s profile as a medical professional cannot be said to date from the beginning of time as perhaps that of the doctor can be said. The surgeon as such began to differentiate himself by this activity in the Middle Ages, therefore his history dates back less than 1000 years. This profession was born with the performance of activities considered surgical, fundamentally when acting on ailments with the hands or with instruments by professionals who were engaged in other activities such as barbershop and who generally did not have medical studies. Over time, the surgeon’s profile was credited especially in the 19th century with the founding of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons in the Western world, including Spain, until the 20th century, which has been recognized and referred to as the 20th century. of surgeons. In the 21st century, the so-called therapeutic procedures have begun tobe developed and have been developed by almost all specialties, so that the figure of the surgeon with the profile of previous centuries can be said to be in decline and some of us think that it may go as far as his disappearance at least with the profile that he has had until almost the present moment. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , Cirurgiões/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Espanha
12.
Mil Med ; 184(1-2): 14-21, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137595

RESUMO

Barber-surgeons have existed as a medical profession in multiple countries for centuries. This article outlines the exciting history of the barber-surgeons in Finland, focusing on a time frame covering over 600 years, from the Middle Ages until the last barber-surgeon in Finland finished his practice during the Second World War. The barber-surgeons were the first healthcare professionals who focused on the healthcare of soldiers during times of both peace and war. They were able to treat wounds, conduct minor and even major surgeries and perform amputations. The development of the profession and the education and skills of the barber-surgeons are summed up and illuminated. New genealogical sources are also reviewed to profile the barber-surgeons as men, married and of multinational origin. This review summarizes the history of the profession, who the barber-surgeons in Finland were and where they came from. It concludes by noting that the barber-surgeons had a remarkable impact on the development of the professions of surgeons and physicians as well as on the development of occupational healthcare as a whole. However, these impacts are not sufficiently appreciated today.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Amputação Cirúrgica/métodos , Finlândia , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História Medieval , Humanos , Próteses e Implantes/história
13.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 17(2): 195-212, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390441

RESUMO

The Order of St. Augustine (Ordo Eremitarum Sancti Augustini) was the first religious community in Rijeka. The monastery of St. Jerome, founded by the noble families of Devin and Walsee, existed from the 14th century till 1788, when it was dissolved by Joseph II. Unfortunately, the past of the Augustine Monastery of St. Jerome is mostly unknown. On the basis of largely unexplored sources in Croatia and overseas, the author reveals several facts about the relation between Rijeka's Augustinian community and medicine. The paper includes an important piece of information concerning the existence of a hospital on the lo-cation of Andrejscica in Rijeka, founded in the 15th century, which has so far been unknown. Augustinian's sources (16th and 18th century) show the presence of several shaver-surgeon (barbitonsorius) and other various relevant topics for the history of medicine in Rijeka - pharmacopola, aromatarius etc.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Hospitais Religiosos/história , Monges/história , Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , Croácia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos
14.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 10(3): 632-639, jul.-set. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-906184

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever, analiticamente, e comentar as práticas de cuidado do barbeiro-sangrador, na diáspora Brasil imperial, como elementos para a construção dos saberes no campo da saúde. Método: Pesquisa na abordagem da história cultural com ênfase na trajetória dos povos negros. Descrição e análise realizaram-se no livro "História Geral da Medicina Brasileira", relacionando-o com as obras de Debret, sobre os cuidados exercidos por negros. Resultados: Foram encontradas descrições do ofício do barbeiro-sangrador, quando relatado na execução do cuidado, mais o instrumental que utilizava e qual era sua posição diante da sociedade. Por Debret localizaram-se três aquarelas de práticas dos barbeiro-sangradores. Conclusão: Revelou-se a existência de um legado cultural afrodescendente no âmbito do cuidado, mesmo diante da querela do saber popular e científico. Porém, o saber popular esteve e está presente na prática e quiçá nas dobras dos cuidados prestados atualmente


Objetivo: Describir analíticamente y hacer comentarios sobre las prácticas de atención barbero-sangrador en Brasil en la diáspora imperial, como elementos para la construcción del conocimiento en el campo de la salud. Método: Investigación con el enfoque en la historia cultural y la historia de la población negra. La descripción y análisis del libro "Historia General de Medicina de Brasil", relacionándola con las obras de Debret, en el cuidado ejercido por los negros. Resultados: Se encontraron las descripciones de artesanía del barbeiro, cuando se dio la implementación de la atención, más el instrumental que utilizaba y cuál era su posición en la sociedad. Además las acuarelas de Debret. Conclusión: Se demostró la ascendencia africana de la existencia del legado cultural en el cuidado, incluso en el conocimiento popular y científico. Sin embargo, el conocimiento popular en la práctica, están tal vez en los pliegues del cuidado actual


Objective: The study's goal has been to analytically describe the barber-bleeder care practices over the Brazilian imperial diaspora period, and also to provide insight about the topic aiming to produce elements for the knowledge building process in the health field. Methods: It is a research on the cultural history approach and the trajectory of black people. The description and analysis were made in the book "Historia Geral da Medicina Brasileira" (Brazilian Medicine General History) by relating it to Debret's work on the care done by the black people. Results: Descriptions of the barber-bleeder work have been found when reported in the care execution, plus the used tools and what was its position before the society. By Debret, three aquarelles were located about the barber-bleeders practices. Conclusion: It was revealed the existence of an African descendant cultural legacy in the care scope, even in the face of the quarrel of popular and scientific knowledge. Nonetheless, popular knowledge has been present, and still does, in the modern care practice


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , População Negra/história , Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , História do Século XIX , História da Medicina
16.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 36(1): 100-106, Junio 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-998835

RESUMO

Los barberos a través del tiempo, han dejado una estela para muchos, poco apreciada. El presente relato intenta dar un poco más de lustre a su nombre, observándolo sucintamente desde varias facetas: tocador de guitarra y cantador, navegante, artesano; intentando romper la creencia de que fueron personas incultas y sin conocimientos. También se realizará un acercamiento hacia los barberos que laboraron en nuestra Cuenca de los Andes desde el siglo XVI hasta su extinción en el siglo XX.


Barbers over time, have left a trail which is little appreciated. The present account tries to enhance its name, observing it briefly from several aspects: guitar player and singer, navigator and craftsman; trying to break the belief that they were uncultured and uneducated people. There will also be an approach to the barbers who worked in our city "Cuenca de los Andes" from the sixteenth century until its extinction in the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Barbearia , Cirurgiões Barbeiros , História da Medicina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Menores , Ocupações em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional
18.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 72(1): 51-66, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168271

RESUMO

We now know that cataract couching involves depressing an occluded crystalline lens to the bottom of the vitreous chamber, but from the time of Galen until the seventeenth-century cataracts were thought to be separate concretions arising between the crystalline lens and the pupil. From Antiquity through the Renaissance, the combination of visual theory in which the crystalline humor is the author of vision, and surgical experience­that couching cataracts restored some degree of sight­resulted in anatomists depicting a large space between the crystalline lens and the pupil. In the Renaissance, oculists­surgical specialists with little higher education or connections to learned surgery or medicine­overwhelmingly performed eye surgeries. This article examines how the experience and knowledge of oculists, of barber-surgeons, and of learned surgeons influenced one another on questions of anatomy, visual theory, and surgical experience. By analyzing the writings of the oculist George Bartisch (c. 1535­1607), the barber-surgeon Ambroise Paré (1510­1590), and the learned surgeon Hieronymus Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533­1619), we see that the oculists' understanding of the eye­an eye constructed out of the probing, tactile experience of eye surgery­slowly lost currency among the learned toward the beginning of the seventeenth century.


Assuntos
Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , Extração de Catarata/história , Extração de Catarata/métodos , Catarata/história , Catarata/fisiopatologia , Olho/citologia , Oftalmologia/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História Medieval , Humanos
19.
Dynamis (Granada) ; 36(1): 143-166, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-151090

RESUMO

Para conocer las enfermedades y su tratamiento médico desde la perspectiva del enfermo en la sociedad española del Barroco, la literatura de creación, en particular la novela picaresca, es una valiosa fuente que nos ofrece una representación de las ideas sobre la medicina y la enfermedad difundidas entre la población y difícilmente accesibles desde otras fuentes. Vida y hechos de Estebanillo González (1646), en tanto que relato narrado en primera persona, permite conocer tres aspectos diferentes del mundo médico en Europa durante la Guerra de los Treinta Años: Estebanillo ejerce diversos oficios médicos, comparece en la narración como paciente y comenta prácticas relacionadas con la salud y la enfermedad, proporcionando material de gran utilidad para analizar cómo se representan los diferentes ámbitos de la medicina en esta obra literaria (AU)


In order to know about diseases and their medical treatment from the perspective of the patient in Baroque Spanish society, creative literature, especially the picaresque novel, is a valuable source that offers a representation of ideas on medicine and disease that were widespread among the population and difficult to access from other sources. The first-person narrative in the Vida y hechos de Estebanillo González (1646) offers knowledge on three different aspects of the medical world in Europe during the Thirty Years’ War: Estebanillo practises various medical professions, appears in the story as a patient and comments on health practices and disease, providing highly useful material to analyze how different fields of medicine are represented in this literary work (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XVII , Cirurgiões Barbeiros/história , Charlatanismo/história , Pacientes/história , Diversidade Cultural , Doença/história , História da Medicina , Literatura Medieval/história , Medicina na Literatura , Médicos/história
20.
In. Pimenta, Tânia Salgado; Gomes, Flávio. Escravidão, doenças e práticas de cura no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Outras Letras, c2016. p.[248]-272, il.
Monografia em Português | HISA - História da Saúde | ID: his-37024

RESUMO

Em nosso estudo, focamos no cotidiano dos barbeiros-sangradores que ofereciam seus serviços nas lojas, já que os anúncios presentes no Almanak Laemmert (nossa fonte básica) correspondem a estes sujeitos. Temos que chamar atenção, contudo, para o fato de existirem outros tantos barbeiros-sangradores que atuavam de forma ambulante na cidade e, estes de mais difícil acesso, provavelmente eram os de condição socioeconômica mais baixa, pois nem tinham um lugar fixo para a sua atividade. Dentro destas características, apontadas por viajantes e registros oficiais da época, podemos traçar um perfil socioeconômico genérico de um barbeiro-sangrador que exercia sua atividade no Rio de Janeiro da primeira metade do século XIX. Ele era provavelmente negro ou mulato, escravo ou forro, nascido na África, ou de uma segunda geração de escravos vindos da África e que, além de praticar a sangria, utilizava os seus instrumentos de corte para aparar cabelos e fazer barbas. (AU)


Assuntos
Sangria , Cirurgiões Barbeiros , História do Século XIX , Brasil
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