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1.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0280503, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724145

RESUMO

We present a new approach to modeling the future development of extreme temperatures globally and on the time-scale of several centuries by using non-stationary generalized extreme value distributions in combination with logistic functions. The statistical models we propose are applied to annual maxima of daily temperature data from fully coupled climate models spanning the years 1850 through 2300. They enable us to investigate how extremes will change depending on the geographic location not only in terms of the magnitude, but also in terms of the timing of the changes. We find that in general, changes in extremes are stronger and more rapid over land masses than over oceans. In addition, our statistical models allow for changes in the different parameters of the fitted generalized extreme value distributions (a location, a scale and a shape parameter) to take place independently and at varying time periods. Different statistical models are presented and the Bayesian Information Criterion is used for model selection. It turns out that in most regions, changes in mean and variance take place simultaneously while the shape parameter of the distribution is predicted to stay constant. In the Arctic region, however, a different picture emerges: There, climate variability is predicted to increase rather quickly in the second half of the twenty-first century, probably due to the melting of ice, whereas changes in the mean values take longer and come into effect later.


Assuntos
Clima , Modelos Estatísticos , Temperatura , Teorema de Bayes , Mudança Climática
2.
Am Nat ; 201(2): 302-314, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724464

RESUMO

AbstractOne of the most stunning patterns of the distribution of life on Earth is the latitudinal biodiversity gradient. In an influential article, Janzen (1967) predicted that tropical mountains are more effective migration barriers than temperate mountains of the same elevation, because annual temperature variation in the tropics is lower. A great deal of research has demonstrated that the mechanism envisioned by Janzen operates at broad latitudinal scales. However, the extent that the mechanism mediates biodiversity generally, and at smaller scales, is far less understood. We investigated whether climate overlap is associated with genetic similarity between populations within temperate regions using lizards in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California as a study system. By comparing genetic differentiation between high- and low-elevation populations, we found that in addition to the expected strong pattern of isolation by distance, high climate overlap was negatively associated with genetic differentiation, indicating that population pairs that inhabit climatically similar environments are less genetically differentiated. Moreover, while climate overlap between high- and low-elevation sites is predicted to increase from the equator to temperate regions, we find that in adjacent mountain ranges at the same latitude in temperate regions, climate overlap values can vary widely. This study suggests that in addition to the well-studied main effect of latitude on climate overlap and population differentiation, local climate factors within bioclimatic regions can also influence genetic differentiation between populations and do so by the same general mechanism that operates at larger geographic scales.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima , Temperatura , Deriva Genética , Clima Tropical
3.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 209, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life in-utero can have long-term influence on the mental health status of individuals in adulthood, such as depression. Age, gender, socio-economic status, education, and geography are demographic factors shown to be particularly vulnerable towards the development of depressive symptoms. In addition, climate risks on depression include sunlight, rain, and temperature. However, whether climate factors in early life have a long-term influence on depression related to demographic vulnerability remains unknown. Here, the present study explored the association between birth seasonality and adulthood depressive symptoms. METHODS: We employed data from the project of Chinese Labour-forces Dynamic Survey (CLDS) 2016, containing the epidemiological data of depressive symptoms with a probability proportional to size cluster and random cluster sampling method in 29 provinces of China. A final sample size of 16,185 participants was included. Birth seasonality included spring (March, April, and May), summer (June, July, and August), autumn (September, October, and November), and winter (December, January, and February). RESULTS: We found that born in Autumn peaked lowest rate of having depressive symptoms (16.8%) and born in Summer (vs. Autumn) had a significant higher ratio (OR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.02, 1.29) when controlling for demographic variables. In addition, demographic odds ratio of having depressive symptoms differed between people born in different seasons, particular for age and geography. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that birth seasonality influences the sensitive link of depressive symptoms with age and geography. It implicates early life climate environment may play a role in the development of adulthood depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Depressão/epidemiologia , Clima , Estações do Ano , Parto
5.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 427, 2023 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36702835

RESUMO

Climate teleconnections (CT) remotely influence weather conditions in many regions on Earth, entailing changes in primary drivers of fire activity such as vegetation biomass accumulation and moisture. We reveal significant relationships between the main global CTs and burned area that vary across and within continents and biomes according to both synchronous and lagged signals, and marked regional patterns. Overall, CTs modulate 52.9% of global burned area, the Tropical North Atlantic mode being the most relevant CT. Here, we summarized the CT-fire relationships into a set of six global CT domains that are discussed by continent, considering the underlying mechanisms relating weather patterns and vegetation types with burned area across the different world's biomes. Our findings highlight the regional CT-fire relationships worldwide, aiming to further support fire management and policy-making.


Assuntos
Clima , Incêndios , Ecossistema , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Biomassa , Mudança Climática
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 35, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593354

RESUMO

Study of the frequency and magnitude of climate extremes as the world warms is of utmost importance, especially separating the influence of natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Record-breaking temperature and precipitation events have been studied using event-attribution techniques. Here, we provide spatial and temporal observation-based analyses of the role of natural and anthropogenic factors, using state-of-the-art time series methods. We show that the risk from extreme temperature and rainfall events has severely increased for most regions worldwide. In some areas the probabilities of occurrence of extreme temperatures and precipitation have increased at least fivefold and twofold, respectively. Anthropogenic forcing has been the main driver of such increases and its effects amplify those of natural forcing. We also identify risk hotspots defined as regions for which increased risk of extreme events and high exposure in terms of either high Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or large population are both present. For the year 2018, increased anthropogenic forcings are mostly responsible for increased risk to extreme temperature/precipitation affecting 94%/72% of global population and 97%/76% of global GDP relative to the baseline period 1961-1990.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Temperatura , Temperatura Alta , Probabilidade
7.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 121, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624102

RESUMO

Vegetation change can alter surface energy balance and subsequently affect the local climate. This biophysical impact has been well studied for forestation cases, but the sign and magnitude for persistent earth greening remain controversial. Based on long-term remote sensing observations, we quantify the unidirectional impact of vegetation greening on radiometric surface temperature over 2001-2018. Here, we show a global negative temperature response with large spatial and seasonal variability. Snow cover, vegetation greenness, and shortwave radiation are the major driving factors of the temperature sensitivity by regulating the relative dominance of radiative and non-radiative processes. Combined with the observed greening trend, we find a global cooling of -0.018 K/decade, which slows down 4.6 ± 3.2% of the global warming. Regionally, this cooling effect can offset 39.4 ± 13.9% and 19.0 ± 8.2% of the corresponding warming in India and China. These results highlight the necessity of considering this vegetation-related biophysical climate effect when informing local climate adaptation strategies.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Clima , Temperatura , China , Índia , Ecossistema
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 340, 2023 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36611056

RESUMO

Amid its massive increase in energy demand, Southeast Asia has pledged to increase its use of renewable energy by up to 23% by 2025. Geospatial technology approaches that integrate statistical data, spatial models, earth observation satellite data, and climate modeling can be used to conduct strategic analyses for understanding the potential and efficiency of renewable energy development. This study aims to create the first spatial model of its kind in Southeast Asia to develop multi-renewable energy from solar, wind, and hydropower, further broken down into residential and agricultural areas. The novelty of this study is the development of a new priority model for renewable energy development resulting from the integration of area suitability analysis and the estimation of the amount of potential energy. Areas with high potential power estimations for the combination of the three types of energy are mostly located in northern Southeast Asia. Areas close to the equator, have a lower potential than the northern countries, except for southern regions. Solar photovoltaic (PV) plant construction is the most area-intensive type of energy generation among the considered energy sources, requiring 143,901,600 ha (61.71%), followed by wind (39,618,300 ha; 16.98%); a combination of solar PV and wind (37,302,500 ha; 16%); hydro (7,665,200 ha; 3.28%); a combination of hydro and solar PV (3,792,500 ha; 1.62%); and a combination of hydro and wind (582,700 ha; 0.25%). This study is timely and important because it will inform policies and regional strategies for transitioning to renewable energy, with consideration of the different characteristics present in Southeast Asia.


Assuntos
Energia Solar , Vento , Energia Renovável , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Clima , Tecnologia
10.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 160(2): 60-65, enero 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-214920

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: Es frecuente que los pacientes con fibromialgia refieran que ciertas estaciones del año agravan sus síntomas. Como objetivo primario se determinó la asociación entre síntomas claves de la fibromialgia y estación del año. Como objetivo secundario se determinó la existencia de diferencias en función de los niveles de ansiedad o depresión.Material y métodoMuestra de conveniencia formada por 471 participantes con fibromialgia evaluados antes de iniciar un tratamiento multidisciplinar. Se recogieron datos demográficos y meteorológicos y se evaluaron, mediante instrumentos estandarizados, la intensidad del dolor, la funcionalidad, la fatiga, la rigidez, la calidad del sueño, así como la ansiedad y la depresión.ResultadosLos diferentes grupos estacionales fueron homogéneos en edad, género, nivel educativo, estado marital y situación laboral. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en intensidad del dolor (F=1,334; p=0,265), funcionalidad (F=0,402; p=0,669), fatiga (F=0,714; p=0,490), rigidez (F=0,299; p=0,741), ansiedad (F=0,376; p=0,687), depresión (F=0,608; p=0,545), distrés psicológico (F=0,261; p=0,770), duración del sueño (F=1,507; p=0,223) o el índice de problemas de sueño (F=0,343; p=0,710).ConclusionesNo se han encontrado diferencias en la intensidad de los síntomas de la fibromialgia ni en los porcentajes de gravedad entre las distintas estaciones del año. La ansiedad ha sido más prevalente que la depresión, posiblemente debido a las propias características de la muestra, con mayoría de pacientes con perfil disfuncional. (AU)


Background and objective: Fibromyalgia patients often report that certain seasons aggravate their symptoms. The main objective was to determinate the association between key symptoms of fibromyalgia and the season of the year. A secondary objective was to determinate the existence of differences based on levels of anxiety or depression.Material and methodConvenience sample made up of 471 participants with fibromyalgia evaluated before starting multidisciplinary treatment. Demographic and meteorological data were collected. Clinical data were assessed with standardized instruments of pain intensity, functionality, fatigue, stiffness, sleep quality, anxiety and depression.ResultsThe different groups of participants were homogeneous for age, gender, educational level, marital status and employment situation. No significant differences were found in pain intensity (F=1.334; P=.265), functionality (F=.402; P=.669), fatigue (F=.714; P=.490), stiffness (F=.299; P=.741), anxiety (F=.376; P=.687), depression (F=.608; P=.545), psychological distress (F=.261; P=.770), sleep quantity (F=1.507; P=.223) or sleep disturbances (F=.343; P=.710).ConclusionsNo differences were found in the intensity of fibromyalgia symptoms, nor in the percentages of severity among the different seasons of the year. Anxiety was more prevalent than depression, possibly due to the characteristics of the sample itself, with the majority of patients with a dysfunctional profile. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fibromialgia , Estações do Ano , Clima , Depressão , Ansiedade
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2211903120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623180

RESUMO

Long-term data allow ecologists to assess trajectories of population abundance. Without this context, it is impossible to know whether a taxon is thriving or declining to extinction. For parasites of wildlife, there are few long-term data-a gap that creates an impediment to managing parasite biodiversity and infectious threats in a changing world. We produced a century-scale time series of metazoan parasite abundance and used it to test whether parasitism is changing in Puget Sound, United States, and, if so, why. We performed parasitological dissection of fluid-preserved specimens held in natural history collections for eight fish species collected between 1880 and 2019. We found that parasite taxa using three or more obligately required host species-a group that comprised 52% of the parasite taxa we detected-declined in abundance at a rate of 10.9% per decade, whereas no change in abundance was detected for parasites using one or two obligately required host species. We tested several potential mechanisms for the decline in 3+-host parasites and found that parasite abundance was negatively correlated with sea surface temperature, diminishing at a rate of 38% for every 1 °C increase. Although the temperature effect was strong, it did not explain all variability in parasite burden, suggesting that other factors may also have contributed to the long-term declines we observed. These data document one century of climate-associated parasite decline in Puget Sound-a massive loss of biodiversity, undetected until now.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Animais , Clima , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Peixes , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2212105120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623184

RESUMO

Windthrow, or the uprooting of trees by extreme wind gusts, is a natural forest disturbance that creates microhabitats, turns over soil, alters hydrology, and removes carbon from the above-ground carbon stock. Long recurrence intervals between extreme wind events, however, make direct observations of windthrow rare, challenging our understanding of this important disturbance process. To overcome this difficulty, we present an approach that uses the geomorphic record of hillslope topographic roughness as a proxy for the occurrence of windthrow. The approach produces a probability function of the number of annual windthrow events for a maximum wind speed, allowing us to explore how windthrow or tree strengths may change due to shifting wind climates. Slight changes to extreme wind speeds may drive comparatively large changes in windthrow production rates or force trees to respond and change the distribution. We also highlight that topographic roughness has the potential to serve as an important archive of extreme wind speeds.


Assuntos
Florestas , Vento , Clima , Carbono
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2119409120, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36623190

RESUMO

Climate-sensitive infectious diseases are an issue of growing concern due to global warming and the related increase in the incidence of extreme weather and climate events. Diarrhea, which is strongly associated with climatic factors, remains among the leading causes of child death globally, disproportionately affecting populations in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We use survey data for 51 LMICs between 2000 and 2019 in combination with gridded climate data to estimate the association between precipitation shocks and reported symptoms of diarrheal illness in young children. We account for differences in exposure risk by climate type and explore the modifying role of various social factors. We find that droughts are positively associated with diarrhea in the tropical savanna regions, particularly during the dry season and dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons. In the humid subtropical regions, we find that heavy precipitation events are associated with increased risk of diarrhea during the dry season and the transition from dry-to-wet season. Our analysis of effect modifiers highlights certain social vulnerabilities that exacerbate these associations in the two climate zones and present opportunities for public health intervention. For example, we show that stool disposal practices, child feeding practices, and immunizing against the rotavirus modify the association between drought and diarrhea in the tropical savanna regions. In the humid subtropical regions, household's source of water and water disinfection practices modify the association between heavy precipitation and diarrhea. The evidence of effect modification varies depending on the type and duration of the precipitation shock.


Assuntos
Clima , Diarreia , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Saúde Pública , Água
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36613174

RESUMO

The establishment of the "two-oriented society" pilot zone is China's effort to explore an economic-environmental synergistic growth approach, and it is an important basis on which to solve the dilemma between economic development and environmental protection in less developed countries. By constructing an inter-provincial panel dataset and taking the "two-oriented society" pilot area as a policy intervention event, a quasi-natural experiment was conducted to evaluate the observed differences in economic growth and pollutant emissions using counterfactual estimation. The results show that, during the policy intervention period, the emission of solid waste in Hubei and Hunan provinces was significantly reduced, and the level of haze particles in Hunan province was also remarkably suppressed; however, the environmental emission problems such as water pollution were not improved in comparison to the national level. At the same time, the economic growth rate of Hubei and Hunan provinces was clearly better than the counterfactual control group after the policy pilot, showing the economic promotion effect of the construction of the "two-oriented society" pilot zone. We conclude that the establishment of the "two-oriented society" provides a reference for a successful path to sustainable growth, and there is no absolute contradiction between economic growth and environmental friendliness.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , China , Clima
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(2): e2215882120, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595666

RESUMO

Holocene climate in the high tropical Andes was characterized by both gradual and abrupt changes, which disrupted the hydrological cycle and impacted landscapes and societies. High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are essential to contextualize archaeological data and to evaluate the sociopolitical response of ancient societies to environmental variability. Middle-to-Late Holocene water levels in Lake Titicaca were reevaluated through a transfer function model based on measurements of organic carbon stable isotopes, combined with high-resolution profiles of other geochemical variables and paleoshoreline indicators. Our reconstruction indicates that following a prolonged low stand during the Middle Holocene (4000 to 2400 BCE), lake level rose rapidly ~15 m by 1800 BCE, and then increased another 3 to 6 m in a series of steps, attaining the highest values after ~1600 CE. The largest lake-level increases coincided with major sociopolitical changes reported by archaeologists. In particular, at the end of the Formative Period (500 CE), a major lake-level rise inundated large shoreline areas and forced populations to migrate to higher elevation, likely contributing to the emergence of the Tiwanaku culture.


Assuntos
Clima , Lagos , Lagos/química , Água
16.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 271, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650124

RESUMO

Black carbon emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass has a net warming effect in the atmosphere and reduces the albedo when deposited on ice and snow; accurate knowledge of past emissions is essential to quantify and model associated global climate forcing. Although bottom-up inventories provide historical Black Carbon emission estimates that are widely used in Earth System Models, they are poorly constrained by observations prior to the late 20th century. Here we use an objective inversion technique based on detailed atmospheric transport and deposition modeling to reconstruct 1850 to 2000 emissions from thirteen Northern Hemisphere ice-core records. We find substantial discrepancies between reconstructed Black Carbon emissions and existing bottom-up inventories which do not fully capture the complex spatial-temporal emission patterns. Our findings imply changes to existing historical Black Carbon radiative forcing estimates are necessary, with potential implications for observation-constrained climate sensitivity.


Assuntos
Clima , Combustíveis Fósseis , Atmosfera , Fuligem/análise , Carbono
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 308, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652033

RESUMO

This study was carried out to identify relationships between site index (dominant height at a reference age) and ecological variables of trembling poplar forests in Türkiye. Samples were collected from 78 plots differing in elevation, aspect, inclination, slope position, and site class. Physiographic factors of the sample plots were recorded, soil samples were collected from different predefined layers from soil pits, and bedrock samples were collected for identification. From three trees at the stand top height, the tree closest to the arithmetic mean height was felled, and its height and age were determined. Physical and chemical characteristics of the soil samples were analysed. Relationships of the soil properties, physiographic factors, and climate with site index were assessed with correlation, stepwise regression, and regression tree methods. Significant relationships were found between site index at 30 years and elevation from the physiographic factors; the maximum temperature and the number of snowy days of the coldest month from the climate characteristics; fine earth, silt, and pH from the percentage values of soil properties at different depths; and fine earth, silt, and clay from the soil characteristics aggregated on pedon level. The height growth of trembling poplar was 11.8% according to stepwise regression analysis and 18% according to the regression tree method. The models obtained in the current study might help evaluate the potential of sites regarding the growth of trembling poplar.


Assuntos
Populus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Solo/química , Clima
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36679678

RESUMO

The light intensity and color temperature of natural light periodically change and promote the circadian entrainment of the human body. In addition, the color temperature cycle of natural light that is unique to each region is formed by its location and geographic and environmental factors, affecting the health of its residents. Research on lighting and construction to provide the color temperature of real-time natural light has continued to provide the beneficial effect of natural indoor lighting. However, lighting technology that provides the real-time color temperature of natural light could not be realized since it is challenging to select a color temperature cycle zone due to abrupt color temperature changes at sunrise and sunset. Such drastic shifts cause an irregular measurement of color temperature over time due to general weather or atmospheric conditions. In a previous study, a method of generating a color temperature cycle using deep learning was introduced, but the performance at the beginning and end of the color temperature cycle was unreliable. Therefore, this study proposes generating a real-time natural light color temperature cycle for the circadian lighting service. The characteristics of the daily color temperature cycle were analyzed based on the measured natural light characteristics database, and a data set for learning was established. To improve the color temperature cycle generation performance, a deep learning (TadGAN) model was implemented by searching for the lowest point of the color temperature at the start and end points of the color temperature cycle and applying the boot and ending datasets to these points. The color temperature cycle zone was accurately detected in real-time in the experiment, and the generation performance of the color temperature cycle was maintained at the beginning and end of the color temperature cycle. The mean absolute error decreased by about 67%, confirming the generation of a more accurate real-time color temperature cycle.


Assuntos
Luz , Iluminação , Humanos , Temperatura , Temperatura Corporal , Clima , Ritmo Circadiano , Cor
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2211223120, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689649

RESUMO

The acute decline in global biodiversity includes not only the loss of rare species, but also the rapid collapse of common species across many different taxa. The loss of pollinating insects is of particular concern because of the ecological and economic values these species provide. The western bumble bee (Bombus occidentalis) was once common in western North America, but this species has become increasingly rare through much of its range. To understand potential mechanisms driving these declines, we used Bayesian occupancy models to investigate the effects of climate and land cover from 1998 to 2020, pesticide use from 2008 to 2014, and projected expected occupancy under three future scenarios. Using 14,457 surveys across 2.8 million km2 in the western United States, we found strong negative relationships between increasing temperature and drought on occupancy and identified neonicotinoids as the pesticides of greatest negative influence across our study region. The mean predicted occupancy declined by 57% from 1998 to 2020, ranging from 15 to 83% declines across 16 ecoregions. Even under the most optimistic scenario, we found continued declines in nearly half of the ecoregions by the 2050s and mean declines of 93% under the most severe scenario across all ecoregions. This assessment underscores the tenuous future of B. occidentalis and demonstrates the scale of stressors likely contributing to rapid loss of related pollinator species throughout the globe. Scaled-up, international species-monitoring schemes and improved integration of data from formal surveys and community science will substantively improve the understanding of stressors and bumble bee population trends.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biodiversidade , Insetos , Clima
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2214655120, 2023 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36689658

RESUMO

In parallel with pronounced cooling in the oceans, vast areas of the continents experienced enhanced aridification and restructuring of vegetation and animal communities during the Late Miocene. Debate continues over whether pCO2-induced global cooling was the primary driver of this climate and ecosystem upheaval on land. Here we present an 8 to 5 Ma land surface temperatures (LST) record from East Asia derived from paleosol carbonate clumped isotopes and integrated with climate model simulations. The LST cooled by ~7 °C between 7.5 and 5.7 Ma, followed by rapid warming across the Miocene-Pliocene transition (5.5 to 5 Ma). These changes occurred synchronously with variations in alkenone and Mg/Ca-based sea surface temperatures and with hydroclimate and ecosystem shifts in East Asia, highlighting a global climate forcing mechanism. Our modeling experiments additionally demonstrate that pCO2-forced cooling would have altered moisture transfer and pathways and driven extensive aridification in East Asia. We, thus, conclude that the East Asian hydroclimate and ecosystem shift was primarily controlled by pCO2-forced global cooling between 8 and 5 Ma.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Ecossistema , Animais , Clima , Temperatura
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