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1.
Elife ; 122024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743049

RESUMO

The circadian clock enables anticipation of the day/night cycle in animals ranging from cnidarians to mammals. Circadian rhythms are generated through a transcription-translation feedback loop (TTFL or pacemaker) with CLOCK as a conserved positive factor in animals. However, CLOCK's functional evolutionary origin and mechanism of action in basal animals are unknown. In the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis, pacemaker gene transcript levels, including NvClk (the Clock ortholog), appear arrhythmic under constant darkness, questioning the role of NvCLK. Utilizing CRISPR/Cas9, we generated a NvClk allele mutant (NvClkΔ), revealing circadian behavior loss under constant dark (DD) or light (LL), while maintaining a 24 hr rhythm under light-dark condition (LD). Transcriptomics analysis revealed distinct rhythmic genes in wild-type (WT) polypsunder LD compared to DD conditions. In LD, NvClkΔ/Δ polyps exhibited comparable numbers of rhythmic genes, but were reduced in DD. Furthermore, under LD, the NvClkΔ/Δ polyps showed alterations in temporal pacemaker gene expression, impacting their potential interactions. Additionally, differential expression of non-rhythmic genes associated with cell division and neuronal differentiation was observed. These findings revealed that a light-responsive pathway can partially compensate for circadian clock disruption, and that the Clock gene has evolved in cnidarians to synchronize rhythmic physiology and behavior with the diel rhythm of the earth's biosphere.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Ritmo Circadiano , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Anêmonas-do-Mar/genética , Anêmonas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Proteínas CLOCK/genética , Proteínas CLOCK/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Cnidários/fisiologia , Cnidários/genética
2.
Elife ; 132024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716806

RESUMO

Studies of the starlet sea anemone provide important insights into the early evolution of the circadian clock in animals.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos , Anêmonas-do-Mar , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cnidários/fisiologia , Anêmonas-do-Mar/fisiologia
3.
Pharmacol Res ; 203: 107173, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580186

RESUMO

Our recent multi-omics studies have revealed rich sources of novel bioactive proteins and polypeptides from marine organisms including cnidarians. In the present study, we initially conducted a transcriptomic analysis to review the composition profile of polypeptides from Zoanthus sociatus. Then, a newly discovered NPY-like polypeptide-ZoaNPY was selected for further in silico structural, binding and virtually pharmacological studies. To evaluate the pro-angiogenic effects of ZoaNPY, we employed an in vitro HUVECs model and an in vivo zebrafish model. Our results indicate that ZoaNPY, at 1-100 pmol, enhances cell survival, migration and tube formation in the endothelial cells. Besides, treatment with ZoaNPY could restore a chemically-induced vascular insufficiency in zebrafish embryos. Western blot results demonstrated the application of ZoaNPY could increase the phosphorylation of proteins related to angiogenesis signaling including PKC, PLC, FAK, Src, Akt, mTOR, MEK, and ERK1/2. Furthermore, through molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) verification, ZoaNPY was shown to directly and physically interact with NPY Y2 receptor. In view of this, all evidence showed that the pro-angiogenic effects of ZoaNPY involve the activation of NPY Y2 receptor, thereby activating the Akt/mTOR, PLC/PKC, ERK/MEK and Src- FAK-dependent signaling pathways. Furthermore, in an excision wound model, the treatment with ZoaNPY was shown to accelerate the wound healing process in mice. Our findings provide new insights into the discovery and development of novel pro-angiogenic drugs derived from NPY-like polypeptides in the future.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Peptídeos , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeo Y/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases da Família src/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra , Cnidários/química , Fosfoinositídeo Fosfolipase C/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfoinositídeo Fosfolipase C/metabolismo
4.
Genome Biol Evol ; 16(5)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38652806

RESUMO

Metazoan species depict a wide spectrum of regeneration ability which calls into question the evolutionary origins of the underlying processes. Since species with high regeneration ability are widely distributed throughout metazoans, there is a possibility that the metazoan ancestor had an underlying common molecular mechanism. Early metazoans like sponges possess high regenerative ability, but, due to the large differences they have with Cnidaria and Bilateria regarding symmetry and neuronal systems, it can be inferred that this regenerative ability is different. We hypothesized that the last common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria possessed remarkable regenerative ability which was lost during evolution. We separated Cnidaria and Bilateria into three classes possessing whole-body regenerating, high regenerative ability, and low regenerative ability. Using a multiway BLAST and gene phylogeny approach, we identified genes conserved in whole-body regenerating species and lost in low regenerative ability species and labeled them Cnidaria and Bilaterian regeneration genes. Through transcription factor analysis, we identified that Cnidaria and Bilaterian regeneration genes were associated with an overabundance of homeodomain regulatory elements. RNA interference of Cnidaria and Bilaterian regeneration genes resulted in loss of regeneration phenotype for HRJDa, HRJDb, DUF21, DISP3, and ARMR genes. We observed that DUF21 knockdown was highly lethal in the early stages of regeneration indicating a potential role in wound response. Also, HRJDa, HRJDb, DISP3, and ARMR knockdown showed loss of regeneration phenotype after second amputation. The results strongly correlate with their respective RNA-seq profiles. We propose that Cnidaria and Bilaterian regeneration genes play a major role in regeneration across highly regenerative Cnidaria and Bilateria.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Planárias , Regeneração , Animais , Regeneração/genética , Planárias/genética , Planárias/fisiologia , Cnidários/genética , Cnidários/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2958, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627374

RESUMO

Marine animals equipped with sensors provide vital information for understanding their ecophysiology and collect oceanographic data on climate change and for resource management. Existing methods for attaching sensors to marine animals mostly rely on invasive physical anchors, suction cups, and rigid glues. These methods can suffer from limitations, particularly for adhering to soft fragile marine species such as squid and jellyfish, including slow complex operations, unreliable fixation, tissue trauma, and behavior changes of the animals. However, soft fragile marine species constitute a significant portion of ocean biomass (>38.3 teragrams of carbon) and global commercial fisheries. Here we introduce a soft hydrogel-based bioadhesive interface for marine sensors that can provide rapid (time <22 s), robust (interfacial toughness >160 J m-2), and non-invasive adhesion on various marine animals. Reliable and rapid adhesion enables large-scale, multi-animal sensor deployments to study biomechanics, collective behaviors, interspecific interactions, and concurrent multi-species activity. These findings provide a promising method to expand a burgeoning research field of marine bio-sensing from large marine mammals and fishes to small, soft, and fragile marine animals.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Ecossistema , Animais , Biomassa , Peixes/fisiologia , Oceanografia , Pesqueiros , Mamíferos
6.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 158: 37-53, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38661136

RESUMO

A need exists for additional methods to examine cnidaria at the cellular level to aid our understanding of health, anatomy, and physiology of this important group of organisms. This need is particularly acute given that disease is emerging as a major factor in declines of ecologically important functional groups such as corals. Here we describe a simple method to process cnidarian cells for microscopic examination using the model organism Exaiptasia. We show that this organism has at least 18 cell types or structures that can be readily distinguished based on defined morphological features. Some of these cells can be related back to anatomic features of the animal both at the light microscope and ultrastructural level. The cnidome of Exaiptasia may be more complex than what is currently understood. Moreover, cnidarian cells, including some types of cnidocytes, phagocytize cells other than endosymbionts. Finally, our findings shed light on morphologic complexity of cell-associated microbial aggregates and their intimate intracellular associations. The tools described here could be useful for other cnidaria.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Animais , Citologia
7.
Parasitol Int ; 101: 102890, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522781

RESUMO

We examined gelatinous zooplankton from off eastern Australia for lepocreadiid trematode metacercariae. From 221 specimens of 17 species of cnidarian medusae and 218 specimens of four species of ctenophores, infections were found in seven cnidarian and two ctenophore species. Metacercariae were distinguished using cox1 mtDNA, ITS2 rDNA and morphology. We identified three species of Prodistomum Linton, 1910 [P. keyam Bray & Cribb, 1996, P. orientale (Layman, 1930), and Prodistomum Type 3], two species of Opechona Looss, 1907 [O. kahawai Bray & Cribb, 2003 and O. cf. olssoni], and Cephalolepidapedon saba Yamaguti, 1970. Two species were found in cnidarians and ctenophores, three only in cnidarians, and one only in a ctenophore. Three Australian fishes were identified as definitive hosts; four species were collected from Scomber australasicus and one each from Arripis trutta and Monodactylus argenteus. Transmission of trematodes to these fishes by ingestion of gelatinous zooplankton is plausible given their mid-water feeding habits, although such predation is rarely reported. Combined morphological and molecular analyses of adult trematodes identified two cox1 types for C. saba, three cox1 types and species of Opechona, and six cox1 types and five species of Prodistomum of which only two are identified to species. All three genera are widely distributed geographically and have unresolved taxonomic issues. Levels of distinction between the recognised species varied dramatically for morphology, the three molecular markers, and host distribution. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA data extends previous findings that species of Opechona and Prodistomum do not form monophyletic clades.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Zooplâncton , Animais , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Austrália , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Japão , Cnidários/classificação , Peixes/parasitologia , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , População do Leste Asiático
8.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 37, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mass occurrence of scyphozoan jellyfish severely affects marine ecosystems and coastal economies, and the study of blooming jellyfish population dynamics has emerged in response. However, traditional ecological survey methods required for such research have difficulties in detecting cryptic life stages and surveying population dynamics owing to high spatiotemporal variations in their occurrence. The environmental DNA (eDNA) technique is an effective tool for overcoming these limitations. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the biodiversity and spatial distribution characteristics of blooming jellyfish in the Bohai Sea of China using an eDNA metabarcoding approach, which covered the surface, middle, and bottom seawater layers, and sediments. Six jellyfish taxa were identified, of which Aurelia coerulea, Nemopilema nomurai, and Cyanea nozakii were the most dominant. These three blooming jellyfish presented a marked vertical distribution pattern in the offshore regions. A. coerulea was mainly distributed in the surface layer, whereas C. nozakii and N. nomurai showed a upper-middle and middle-bottom aggregation, respectively. Horizontally, A. coerulea and C. nozakii were more abundant in the inshore regions, whereas N. nomurai was mainly distributed offshore. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a strong correlation between the eDNA of the three dominant blooming jellyfish species and temperature, salinity, and nutrients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the applicability of the eDNA approach to both biodiverstiy evaluation of blooming jellyfish and investigating their spatial distribution, and it can be used as a supplementary tool to traditional survey methods.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Venenos de Cnidários , DNA Ambiental , Cifozoários , Animais , Ecossistema , DNA Ambiental/genética , Cifozoários/genética , Biodiversidade
9.
Biomol Concepts ; 15(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502542

RESUMO

Opsins play a key role in the ability to sense light both in image-forming vision and in non-visual photoreception (NVP). These modalities, in most animal phyla, share the photoreceptor protein: an opsin-based protein binding a light-sensitive chromophore by a lysine (Lys) residue. So far, visual and non-visual opsins have been discovered throughout the Metazoa phyla, including the photoresponsive Hydra, an eyeless cnidarian considered the evolutionary sister species to bilaterians. To verify whether light influences and modulates opsin gene expression in Hydra, we utilized four expression sequence tags, similar to two classic opsins (SW rhodopsin and SW blue-sensitive opsin) and two non-visual opsins (melanopsin and peropsin), in investigating the expression patterns during both diurnal and circadian time, by means of a quantitative RT-PCR. The expression levels of all four genes fluctuated along the light hours of diurnal cycle with respect to the darkness one and, in constant dark condition of the circadian cycle, they increased. The monophasic behavior in the L12:D12 cycle turned into a triphasic expression profile during the continuous darkness condition. Consequently, while the diurnal opsin-like expression revealed a close dependence on light hours, the highest transcript levels were found in darkness, leading us to novel hypothesis that in Hydra, an "internal" biological rhythm autonomously supplies the opsins expression during the circadian time. In conclusion, in Hydra, both diurnal and circadian rhythms apparently regulate the expression of the so-called visual and non-visual opsins, as already demonstrated in higher invertebrate and vertebrate species. Our data confirm that Hydra is a suitable model for studying ancestral precursor of both visual and NVP, providing useful hints on the evolution of visual and photosensory systems.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Animais , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas/química , Opsinas/metabolismo , Cnidários/genética , Cnidários/metabolismo , Hydra/genética , Hydra/metabolismo , Filogenia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171275, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428599

RESUMO

With mounting global concerns about jellyfish outbreaks, monitoring their occurrence remains challenging. Tapping into the wealth of digital data that internet users share online, which includes reports of jellyfish sightings, may provide an alternative or complement to more conventional expert-based or citizen science monitoring. Here, we explore digital footprints as a data source to monitor jellyfish outbreaks along the Israeli Mediterranean coast. We compiled jellyfish sighting data for the period 2011-2022 from multiple platforms, including leading social media platforms, searches in the Google search engine, and Wikipedia page views. Employing time series analysis, cross-correlation, and various evaluation metrics for presence/absence data, we compared weekly data from three sources: digital footprints, citizen science, and traditional expert-based field monitoring. Consistent seasonal patterns emerge across datasets, with notable correlations, particularly in jellyfish abundance. The cross-correlation between digital footprint and citizen science data exceeds >0.7, with Twitter and Instagram showing the highest correlation. Citizen science data often precedes digital footprints by up to one week. Correlation with traditional, expert-based field monitoring is limited as a result of limited data availability. Digital footprints demonstrate substantial agreement with the other data sources regarding jellyfish presence/absence and major outbreaks, especially for data from Wikipedia, Twitter, and Instagram. Overall, we highlight digital footprint data as a reliable, cost-effective tool for passive monitoring of jellyfish outbreaks, which can aid characterization in data-scarce coastal regions, including retrospective assessment. Transferring and scaling up the proposed approach should consider data accessibility as well as platform relative popularity and usage in the regions under investigation.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Cifozoários , Animais , Humanos , Israel , Estudos Retrospectivos , Surtos de Doenças
11.
Mar Environ Res ; 196: 106441, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484650

RESUMO

Scyphozoan jellyfish, known for their evolutionary position and ecological significance, are thought to exhibit relatively notable resilience to ocean acidification. However, knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the scyphozoan jellyfish response to acidified seawater conditions is currently lacking. In this study, two independent experiments were conducted to determine the physiological and molecular responses of moon jellyfish (Aurelia coerulea) polyps to within- and trans-generational exposure to two reduced pH treatments (pH 7.8 and pH 7.6). The results revealed that the asexual reproduction of A. coerulea polyps significantly declined under acute exposure to pH 7.6 compared with that of polyps at ambient pH conditions. Transcriptomics revealed a notable upregulation of genes involved in immunity and cytoskeleton components. In contrast, genes associated with metabolism were downregulated in response to reduced pH treatments after 6 weeks of within-generational acidified conditions. However, reduced pH treatments had no significant influence on the asexual reproduction of A. coerulea polyps after exposure to acidified conditions over a total of five generations, suggesting that A. coerulea polyps may acclimate to low pH levels. Transcriptomics revealed distinct gene expression profiles between within- and trans-generational exposure groups to two reduced pH treatments. The offspring polyps of A. coerulea subjected to trans-generational acidified conditions exhibited both upregulated and downregulated expression of genes associated with metabolism. These physiological and transcriptomic characteristics of A. coerulea polyps in response to elevated CO2 levels suggest that polyps produced asexually under acidified conditions may be resilient to such conditions in the future.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Cifozoários , Animais , Água do Mar , Transcriptoma , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cifozoários/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica
12.
Genome Biol Evol ; 16(3)2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502059

RESUMO

Siphonophores (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) are abundant predators found throughout the ocean and are important constituents of the global zooplankton community. They range in length from a few centimeters to tens of meters. They are gelatinous, fragile, and difficult to collect, so many aspects of the biology of these roughly 200 species remain poorly understood. To survey siphonophore genome diversity, we performed Illumina sequencing of 32 species sampled broadly across the phylogeny. Sequencing depth was sufficient to estimate nuclear genome size from k-mer spectra in six specimens, ranging from 0.7 to 2.3 Gb, with heterozygosity estimates between 0.69% and 2.32%. Incremental k-mer counting indicates k-mer peaks can be absent with nearly 20× read coverage, suggesting minimum genome sizes range from 1.4 to 5.6 Gb in the 25 samples without peaks in the k-mer spectra. This work confirms most siphonophore nuclear genomes are large relative to the genomes of other cnidarians, but also identifies several with reduced size that are tractable targets for future siphonophore nuclear genome assembly projects. We also assembled complete mitochondrial genomes for 33 specimens from these new data, indicating a conserved gene order shared among nonsiphonophore hydrozoans, Cystonectae, and some Physonectae, revealing the ancestral mitochondrial gene order of siphonophores. Our results also suggest extensive rearrangement of mitochondrial genomes within other Physonectae and in Calycophorae. Though siphonophores comprise a small fraction of cnidarian species, this survey greatly expands our understanding of cnidarian genome diversity. This study further illustrates both the importance of deep phylogenetic sampling and the utility of k-mer-based genome skimming in understanding the genomic diversity of a clade.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Genoma Mitocondrial , Hidrozoários , Animais , Cnidários/genética , Filogenia , Hidrozoários/genética , Genômica , Tamanho do Genoma
13.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 712024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526292

RESUMO

Two previously undescribed myxozoan species, Henneguya sardellae sp. n. and H. margaritae sp. n., found infecting connective tissues of the Neotropical characid fish Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther) from Argentina are morphologically and molecularly characterised. Mature spores of H. sardellae sp. n. are ellipsoid, with two, straight and visibly fused caudal appendages cleaved at its blunt terminal end; measuring 33.5 ± 1.2 (30.9-35.5) µm in total length, spore body 17.5 ± 0.6 (16.3-18.6) µm, 7.8 ± 0.4 (7.0-8.8) µm wide and 6.9 ± 0.2 (6.6-7.2) µm thick, with two elongated, unequally-sized polar capsules situated at anterior end, and 11-13 turns of polar tubules. Mature spores of H. margaritae sp. n. are pyriform, with two caudal appendages visible fused together and much longer than spore body, with unequal endings; measuring 35.9 ± 2.8 (29.2-40.7) µm in total length, spore body 11.5 ± 0.9 (9.2-13.0) µm long, 5.8 ± 0.4 (5.1-6.7) µm wide and 5.5 ± 0.2 (5.1-5.8) µm thick, with two polar capsules similar in size, pyriform polar capsules containing polar tubules with 4-5 coils. Both species showed a membraneous sheath surrounding the spore body and caudal appendages; in H. sardellae sp. n. this feature can deploy laterally. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequences showed that H. sardellae sp. n. and H. margaritae sp. n. clustered with other myxobolids parasitising Characiformes in Brazil, Cichliformes in Mexico and Cyprinodontiformes in Mexico and the United States. The description of these two new species of Henneguya as the first described species of the genus that parasitise freshwater fish in Argentina highlights the importance of further research on the diversity and distribution of myxozoans in this region.


Assuntos
Characidae , Caraciformes , Cnidários , Myxozoa , Animais , Lagos , Argentina/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Myxozoa/genética
14.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 35(1): 22-29, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38379483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aquatic envenomations are common injuries along the coastal United States that pose a public health risk and can cause significant morbidity. We examined aquatic envenomation exposures that were called in to poison control centers (PCC) in the United States from 2011 to 2020. METHODS: The Association of Poison Control Center's (AAPCC) National Poison Data System was queried for all aquatic envenomations reported during the 10 y period from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2020. Data collected included date, exposure and geographic location, patient age and sex, signs and symptoms, management setting, treatments, and clinical outcome. Duplicated records, confirmed nonexposure, and reports not originating within the United States were excluded. RESULTS: There were 8517 human aquatic envenomations reported during the study period, 62% (5243) of whom were male; 56% (4264) of patients were 30 y or younger. There were an average of 852 calls per year, with 46% of calls occurring during June to August. California, Texas, and Florida had the highest number of envenomations during the study period. Fish (61%; 5159) and Cnidaria (30%; 2519) envenomations were the most common exposures. Overall, 37% (3151) of exposures were treated in healthcare facilities, with no deaths reported. CONCLUSIONS: The highest proportion of aquatic envenomations occurred among younger males (≤30 y) during the summer months. While rarely leading to major adverse events, aquatic envenomations were commonly reported injuries to PCC and occurred in all 50 states. Poison control centers continue to be real-time sources of information and data regarding aquatic envenomation trends.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Florida , Estações do Ano , Texas
15.
J Parasitol ; 110(1): 40-48, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344775

RESUMO

During May 2022 and again in March 2023, 5 quillbacks, Carpiodes cyprinus, were collected from the Verdigris River, Wagoner County, Oklahoma (n = 1), and the Black River, Lawrence County, Arkansas (n = 4), and their gill, gallbladder, fins, integument, musculature, and other major organs were macroscopically examined for myxozoans. Gill lamellae from the single quillback from the Verdigris River was infected with a new myxozoan, Thelohanellus oklahomaensis n. sp. Qualitative and quantitative morphological data were obtained from fresh and formalin-fixed preserved myxospores, and molecular data consisted of a 1,767 base pair sequence of the partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis grouped T. oklahomaensis n. sp. with myxozoans known to infect North American catostomids and Eurasian cyprinids. Histological examination localized plasmodia to an intralamellar developmental site and revealed a possible vestige of a second polar capsule. Although plasmodia markedly expanded lamellae, there were no associated epithelial or inflammatory changes. Thelohanellus oklahomaensis n. sp. is the only member of the genus known to infect the gills of C. cyprinus.


Assuntos
Carpas , Cnidários , Cipriniformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Myxozoa/genética , Brânquias , Filogenia , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Arkansas , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 16(2)2024 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38393153

RESUMO

Cnidarians (corals, sea anemones, and jellyfish) produce toxins that play central roles in key ecological processes, including predation, defense, and competition, being the oldest extant venomous animal lineage. Cnidaria small cysteine-rich proteins (SCRiPs) were the first family of neurotoxins detected in stony corals, one of the ocean's most crucial foundation species. Yet, their molecular evolution remains poorly understood. Moreover, the lack of a clear classification system has hindered the establishment of an accurate and phylogenetically informed nomenclature. In this study, we extensively surveyed 117 genomes and 103 transcriptomes of cnidarians to identify orthologous SCRiP gene sequences. We annotated a total of 168 novel putative SCRiPs from over 36 species of stony corals and 12 species of sea anemones. Phylogenetic reconstruction identified four distinct SCRiP subfamilies, according to strict discrimination criteria based on well-supported monophyly with a high percentage of nucleotide and amino acids' identity. Although there is a high prevalence of purifying selection for most SCRiP subfamilies, with few positively selected sites detected, a subset of Acroporidae sequences is influenced by diversifying positive selection, suggesting potential neofunctionalizations related to the fine-tuning of toxin potency. We propose a new nomenclature classification system relying on the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of SCRiPs across Anthozoa, which will further assist future proteomic and functional research efforts.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Cnidários , Anêmonas-do-Mar , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Anêmonas-do-Mar/genética , Cnidários/genética , Neurotoxinas/genética , Cisteína/genética , Filogenia , Proteômica
17.
Elife ; 122024 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407174

RESUMO

The Hydra nervous system is the paradigm of a 'simple nerve net'. Nerve cells in Hydra, as in many cnidarian polyps, are organized in a nerve net extending throughout the body column. This nerve net is required for control of spontaneous behavior: elimination of nerve cells leads to polyps that do not move and are incapable of capturing and ingesting prey (Campbell, 1976). We have re-examined the structure of the Hydra nerve net by immunostaining fixed polyps with a novel antibody that stains all nerve cells in Hydra. Confocal imaging shows that there are two distinct nerve nets, one in the ectoderm and one in the endoderm, with the unexpected absence of nerve cells in the endoderm of the tentacles. The nerve nets in the ectoderm and endoderm do not contact each other. High-resolution TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and serial block face SEM (scanning electron microscopy) show that the nerve nets consist of bundles of parallel overlapping neurites. Results from transgenic lines show that neurite bundles include different neural circuits and hence that neurites in bundles require circuit-specific recognition. Nerve cell-specific innexins indicate that gap junctions can provide this specificity. The occurrence of bundles of neurites supports a model for continuous growth and differentiation of the nerve net by lateral addition of new nerve cells to the existing net. This model was confirmed by tracking newly differentiated nerve cells.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Hydra , Animais , Rede Nervosa , Neurônios , Neuritos
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3545, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347054

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective approach to suppress gene expression and monitor gene regulation. Despite its wide application, its use is limited in certain taxonomic groups, including cnidarians. Myxozoans are a unique group of cnidarian parasites that diverged from their free-living ancestors about 600 million years ago, with several species causing acute disease in farmed and wild fish populations. In this pioneering study we successfully applied RNAi in blood stages of the myxozoan Sphaerospora molnari, combining a dsRNA soaking approach, real-time PCR, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting. For proof of concept, we knocked down two unusual actins, one of which is known to play a critical role in S. molnari cell motility. We observed intracellular uptake of dsRNA after 30 min and accumulation in all cells of the typical myxozoan cell-in-cell structure. We successfully knocked down actin in S. molnari in vitro, with transient inhibition for 48 h. We observed the disruption of the cytoskeletal network within the primary cell and loss of the characteristic rotational cell motility. This RNAi workflow could significantly advance functional research within the Myxozoa, offering new prospects for investigating therapeutic targets and facilitating drug discovery against economically important fish parasites.


Assuntos
Cnidários , Doenças dos Peixes , Myxozoa , Parasitos , Animais , Cnidários/genética , Interferência de RNA , Myxozoa/genética , Movimento Celular , Peixes , Actinas/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Filogenia
19.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 99(3): 950-964, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305571

RESUMO

Cilia are widely present in metazoans and have various sensory and motor functions, including collection of particles through feeding currents in suspensivorous animals. Suspended particles occur at low densities and are too small to be captured individually, and therefore must be concentrated. Animals that feed on these particles have developed different mechanisms to encounter and capture their food. These mechanisms occur in three phases: (i) encounter; (ii) capture; and (iii) particle handling, which occurs by means of a cilia-generated current or the movement of capturing structures (e.g. tentacles) that transport the particle to the mouth. Cilia may be involved in any of these phases. Some cnidarians, as do other suspensivorous animals, utilise cilia in their feeding mechanisms. However, few studies have considered ciliary flow when examining the biomechanics of cnidarian feeding. Anthozoans (sessile cnidarians) are known to possess flow-promoting cilia, but these are absent in medusae. The traditional view is that jellyfish capture prey only by means of nematocysts (stinging structures) and mucus, and do not possess cilia that collect suspended particles. Herein, we first provide an overview of suspension feeding in invertebrates, and then critically analyse the presence, distribution, and function of cilia in the Cnidaria (mainly Medusozoa), with a focus on particle collection (suspension feeding). We analyse the different mechanisms of suspension feeding and sort them according to our proposed classification framework. We present a scheme for the phases of pelagic jellyfish suspension feeding based on this classification. There is evidence that cilia create currents but act only in phases 1 and 3 of suspension feeding in medusozoans. Research suggests that some scyphomedusae must exploit other nutritional sources besides prey captured by nematocysts and mucus, since the resources provided by this diet alone are insufficient to meet their energy requirements. Therefore, smaller particles and prey may be captured through other phase-2 mechanisms that could involve ciliary currents. We hypothesise that medusae, besides capturing prey by nematocysts (present in the tentacles and oral arms), also capture small particles with their cilia, therefore expanding their trophic niche and suggesting reinterpretation of the trophic role of medusoid cnidarians as exclusively plankton predators. We suggest further study of particle collection by ciliary action and its influence on the biomechanics of jellyfishes, to expand our understanding of the ecology of this group.


Assuntos
Cílios , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Cílios/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Cnidários/fisiologia
20.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 42, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global warming is causing large-scale disruption of cnidarian-Symbiodiniaceae symbioses fundamental to major marine ecosystems, such as coral reefs. However, the mechanisms by which heat stress perturbs these symbiotic partnerships remain poorly understood. In this context, the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea has emerged as a powerful experimental model system. RESULTS: We combined a controlled heat stress experiment with isotope labeling and correlative SEM-NanoSIMS imaging to show that host starvation is a central component in the chain of events that ultimately leads to the collapse of the Cassiopea holobiont. Heat stress caused an increase in catabolic activity and a depletion of carbon reserves in the unfed host, concurrent with a reduction in the supply of photosynthates from its algal symbionts. This state of host starvation was accompanied by pronounced in hospite degradation of algal symbionts, which may be a distinct feature of the heat stress response of Cassiopea. Interestingly, this loss of symbionts by degradation was concealed by body shrinkage of the starving animals, resulting in what could be referred to as "invisible" bleaching. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study highlights the importance of the nutritional status in the heat stress response of the Cassiopea holobiont. Compared with other symbiotic cnidarians, the large mesoglea of Cassiopea, with its structural sugar and protein content, may constitute an energy reservoir capable of delaying starvation. It seems plausible that this anatomical feature at least partly contributes to the relatively high stress tolerance of these animals in rapidly warming oceans. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Cnidários , Dinoflagellida , Animais , Ecossistema , Simbiose/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Recifes de Corais , Dinoflagellida/fisiologia , Antozoários/fisiologia
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