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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14422, 2023 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37660226

RESUMO

Kolanut contains caffeine and it is widely consumed in various social contexts in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African countries. While some studies have suggested that kolanut is consumed by pregnant women, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence, consumption pattern and reasons for kolanut consumption among this group. This study investigated kolanut use among pregnant women in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 478 consenting pregnant women in all trimesters of pregnancy was conducted. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data. Associations between kolanut use and respondent characteristics were investigated using the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the women was 28.7 ± 6.3 years. One hundred and sixty-two (33.9%) of women reported kolanut use during pregnancy, 140 (29.3%) in the current pregnancy. Fifty-five (39.3%) pregnant women reported frequent use and 46 (32.9%) used it in high quantities. Significant associations were found between current kolanut use and Hausa respondents (p = 0.014), educational level; secondary (p = 0.032), tertiary (p = 0.006), TBA (p = 0.005). The majority (93.7%) used kolanut to prevent spitting, nausea, and vomiting. This study showed that kolanut use is quite common among pregnant women and frequently used in large quantities.


Assuntos
População Negra , Cola , Gestantes , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ingestão de Alimentos
2.
Recent Adv Drug Deliv Formul ; 17(3): 228-240, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37711010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate Cola acuminata gum (CAG) for the formulation of mucoadhesive sustained-release matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium. METHODS: Different batches of granules containing CAG and 100 mg of DS in ratios 0.5:1, 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1 were prepared, compressed into tablets, and evaluated for mucoadhesive strength, swelling index, and drug release in SGF (pH 1.2) and SIF (pH 7.4). RESULTS: Swelling indices and mucoadhesive strengths of the tablets were pH-dependent. Swelling indices of 56 ± 2.03 to 121 ± 2.19% and mucoadhesive strengths of 7.25 ± 1.45 to 15.43 ± 2.71 g/cm2 obtained at pH 7.4 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than swelling indices of 25 ± 2.43 to 47 ± 3.15% and mucoadhesive strengths of 5.52 ± 0.76 to 9.22 ± 1.95 g/cm2 obtained at pH 1.2. The percentage release of DS from the matrix tablets at pH 1.2 after 2 h (T2h) was insignificant. However, the percentage of drug release at pH 7.4 was significant for all the batches and dependent on the CAG concentration. The drug release was in the order of batches containing 3 g (80.44 ± 7.75) < 2 g (86.35 ± 5.65) < 1 g (90.08 ± 6.14) < 0.5 g (99.70 ± 3.90). The time for maximum drug release was 7 h (T7h) for CAG containing 0.5 g and 10 h (T10h) for other batches. CONCLUSION: This study showed that CAG could be useful for mucoadhesive sustained drug delivery.


Assuntos
Cola , Diclofenaco , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Comprimidos
3.
Can Vet J ; 64(8): 747-752, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37529386

RESUMO

A 16-year-old, neutered male domestic longhair feline with gastroduodenal and jejunal trichobezoars was treated with administration of Coca-Cola through endoscopic injection catheter. Examination with a Karl Storz endoscope identified a trichobezoar causing suspected partial or early complete obstruction of the jejunum; however, the length of the scope was inadequate to retrieve the trichobezoar. Consequently, 55 mL of Coca-Cola and 5 mL of iohexol were instilled into an injection catheter to disrupt the trichobezoar. No peri- or postoperative complications were reported, and the cat recovered uneventfully. Key clinical message: This case report demonstrates a minimally invasive approach to treatment of a small intestinal trichobezoar in a cat with no intra- or postoperative complications. Coca-Cola infusion through an endoscopic injection catheter may be a viable treatment in cats when a surgical approach is not an option, although further cases are needed to determine whether these results can be generalized to the larger patient population.


Administration endoscopique de Coca-Cola pour la prise en charge médicale d'un trichobézoard intestinal coincé chez un chat. Un félin domestique à poil long mâle castré de 16 ans atteint de trichobézoards gastroduodénaux et jéjunaux a été traité par l'administration de Coca-Cola via un cathéter d'injection endoscopique. L'examen avec un endoscope Karl Storz a identifié un trichobézoard suspecté d'obstruction partielle ou complète précoce du jéjunum; cependant, la longueur de l'endoscope était insuffisante pour récupérer le trichobézoard. Par conséquent, 55 ml de Coca-Cola et 5 ml d'iohexol ont été instillés dans un cathéter d'injection pour défaire le trichobézoard. Aucune complication péri- ou postopératoire n'a été signalée et le chat s'est rétabli sans incident.Message clinique clé :Ce rapport de cas démontre une approche peu invasive du traitement d'un trichobézoard de l'intestin grêle chez un chat sans complications per- ou postopératoires. L'infusion de Coca-Cola via un cathéter d'injection endoscopique peut être un traitement viable chez les chats lorsqu'une approche chirurgicale n'est pas une option, bien que d'autres cas soient nécessaires pour déterminer si ces résultats peuvent être généralisés à une population de patients plus large.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Bezoares , Doenças do Gato , Coca , Gatos , Masculino , Animais , Bezoares/cirurgia , Bezoares/veterinária , Bezoares/complicações , Cola , Endoscopia/veterinária , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/cirurgia
4.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 165(9): 37, 2023 05.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37155060

Assuntos
Cola , Hipoglicemia , Humanos
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8036, 2023 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37198219

RESUMO

Sexual incompatibility among kola genotypes accounted for over 50% yield loss. Compatible and high yielding varieties are in demand to develop commercial orchards. The objective of this study was to assess self-compatibility and cross-compatibility of kola (C. nitida) genotypes within self, single and double hybrid crosses and to determine heterosis pattern in the resulting hybrids for sexual compatibility and key nut yield and quality traits. Crosses among kola genotypes from three field gene banks (JX1, GX1, MX2) and one advanced germplasm (Bunso progeny) in Ghana were evaluated along their parents for sexual compatibility, nut yield and nut quality. Data were collected on pod set, pseudo-pod set, pod weight, number of nuts per pod, nut weight, brix, potential alcohol and nut firmness. Significant (P < 0.001) differential pod set was observed within Bunso progeny, JX1, GX1 and MX2 crosses; while pseudo-pod set differed only within JX1 and MX2 crosses (P < 0.001). Very large prevalence of mid-parent, heterobeltiosis, and economic heterosis was observed for sexual compatibility, outturn and brix for the single and double hybrid crosses. Heterosis was prominent among the double hybrid crosses as compared to the single hybrid crosses suggesting that recurrent selection of compatible varieties from advanced generations could result in genetic gain in kola improvement. The top five crosses with best heterosis for sexual compatibility and an appreciable positive heterosis for outturn and brix were B1/11 × B1/71 × B1/157 × B1/149, B1/11 × B1/71 × B1/296 × B1/177, GX1/46 × GX1/33 × B1/212 × B1/236, JX1/90 × JX1/51 and JX1/51 × JX1/36. These materials could serve as sources of beneficial alleles for improving Ghanaian kola hybrids and populations for yield and sexual compatibility.


Assuntos
Vigor Híbrido , Nozes , Nozes/genética , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Cola , Gana , Fenótipo , Cruzamentos Genéticos
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(3)2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36984574

RESUMO

A 71-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who had been taking NSAIDs for many years consulted our hospital for abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with a small bowel obstruction due to an enterolith according to an abdominal CT scan that showed dilation from the enterolith in the small intestine on the oral side. It was considered that the intestinal stone was formed due to stagnation of intestinal contents and had gradually increased in size, resulting in an intestinal obstruction. We performed antegrade double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) to observe and remove the enterolith. We used forceps and a snare to fracture the enterolith. During this attempt, we found a seed in the center of the enterolith. Since the intestinal stone was very hard, cola dissolution therapy was administered from an ileus tube for 1 week. The following week, DBE was performed again, and it was found that the stone had further softened, making attempts at fracture easier. Finally, the enterolith was almost completely fractured. Intestinal stenosis, probably due to ulcers caused by NSAIDs, was found. Small bowel obstruction with an enterolith is rare. In this case, it was considered that the seed could not pass through the stenotic region of the small intestine and the intestinal contents had gradually built up around it. It has been suggested that DBE may be a therapeutic option in cases of an enterolith. Further, cola dissolution therapy has been shown to be useful in treating an enterolith, with the possible explanation that cola undergoes an acid-base reaction with the enterolith. In summary, we report, for the first time, treatment of an enterolith with a combination of DBE and cola dissolution therapy, thereby avoiding surgery and its risks.


Assuntos
Cálculos , Obstrução Intestinal , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Cola , Solubilidade , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Endoscopia , Cálculos/complicações , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides
8.
Nutrients ; 15(3)2023 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36771291

RESUMO

Short-term animal experiments and association studies in humans have shown that cola intake may have a detrimental impact on bone mineral density (BMD); however, other bone parameters have not been investigated. This study examined the effects of long-term cola consumption on the femoral bone microstructure using adult mice (n = 32) as an animal model, which were divided into water and cola groups depending on whether they received water or cola along with a standard rodent diet for 6 months. Micro-computed tomography revealed that cola intake did not significantly affect all measured parameters characterizing trabecular bone mass and microarchitecture, as well as cortical microarchitecture and geometry in both sexes, although a slight deterioration of these parameters was noted. Cola consumption also resulted in a slightly, statistically insignificant worsening of bone mechanical properties. In contrast to female mice, males receiving cola had a lower area of primary osteons' vascular canals. Nevertheless, long-term cola intake did not cause evident pathological alterations in the femur of adult mice, possibly due to a balanced diet and no restriction of physical activity. Therefore, the adverse effects of cola consumption on BMD, the only bone parameter studied so far, may be caused by other risk and lifestyle factors.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Cola , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Feminino , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Densidade Óssea , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 29: e939341, 2023 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36747464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The majority of dental professionals currently recognize lithium disilicate E-max ceramic veneers as a the most widely used, conservative, and effective cosmetic materials in dentistry. This study aimed to compare the degree of surface changes - roughness (Ra), depth (Rz), and mean color changes (ΔE00) - of computer-aided design-computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) ceramic veneers materials of varying thicknesses caused by staining by green tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola using digital spectrophotometer. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted at King Khalid University, College of Dentistry. Lithium disilicate glass ceramic (LDGC) material was used to create 60 rectangular slices using the CAD/CAM system. The material thickness and the type of beverage were measured. The specimens were immersed in beverages according to the manufacturer's instructions. Specimen description and tomography were completed with a 3D noncontact surface metrology using interferometry. The "VITA Easy-Shade" spectrophotometer was used to measure ΔE00. It was recorded after 2 weeks for different material thicknesses after immersing samples in green tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola staining materials.f RESULTS Significant changes in ceramic thickness were found in Ra and Rz of 0.07 and 1.00 mm after 14 days of staining. Coca-Cola showed a significant difference in Ra and Rz with 1.00 mm thickness measurement compared to the 0.07 mm group with ≤ of 0.05, which was considered statistically significant. Highest ΔE00 were recorded among samples stained by Coca-Cola, followed by coffee, for both thicknesses. CONCLUSIONS Those findings support previous studies using spectrophotometric analysis of staining of CAD-CAM ceramic veneers that Coca-Cola followed by coffee resulted in the greatest color ΔE00 change.


Assuntos
Coca , Humanos , Café , Chá , Cola , Cor , Teste de Materiais , Cerâmica , Porcelana Dentária , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Computadores , Propriedades de Superfície
10.
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; 26(6): 1503-1510, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38248811

RESUMO

The influence of cola intake on birth outcomes is unclear. This study sought to describe and compare the associations between cola intake and adverse birth outcomes among women following assisted reproductive technology (ART) and women spontaneously conceived (SC). Participants (736 ART women and 1,270 SC women) were from the Chinese National Birth Cohort collected in Anhui province. Cola intake was assessed by self-reported questionnaires at each trimester. Outcome measures including preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) were extracted from medical records. The association between cola intake during pregnancy and PTB was found using multivariable log-binomial regression in combined ART and SC women. Separately, for ART women, cola intake during pregnancy increased the risk of PTB (risk ratios were 2.10, 1.65, and 1.81 for all three trimesters, respectively, all p < 0.05), and cola intake in the 1st trimester increased the risk of LWB (risk ratio 2.58, 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 5.16). Cola intake during pregnancy was not associated with PTB or LBW for SC women. Our findings indicate a detrimental effect of cola intake during pregnancy on birth outcomes for ART women. Thus, avoidance of cola intake should be counselled by medical doctors in women prescribed with ART treatment.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Cola , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Povo Asiático , Estudos de Coortes , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Cola/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez
11.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 10 05.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36300479

RESUMO

A 37-year-old man was referred to the Emergency Department of the FundashonMariadal hospital in Bonaire because of an abnormal color of urine after having exercised heavily. Laboratory tests showed rhabdomyolysis with a creatine kinase level of 112.114 U/L. After hyperhydration creatine kinase values decreased rapidly, renal function remained normal.


Assuntos
Cola , Rabdomiólise , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Creatina Quinase
12.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267429, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560319

RESUMO

Emotions are an essential drive in decision making and may influence consumer preference. In this study we assessed the influence of brands in product preference after tasting 2 soft-drinks (Coca Cola vs. Cola beverage), by using physiological measurements, namely the skin conductance, the respiratory rate and heart rate variability (HRV) extracted using contactless sensors. The experimental protocol enrolled twenty-five young subjects which were asked to taste 2 soft drinks in random order, without knowing the brand (blind condition) and then knowing the brand (not blind condition). After each phase the subject was asked to choose the preferred beverage. Our main hypothesis is that if the subject knows the brand there is an arousal effect, independently from the absolute appreciation of the product. In order to evaluate the emotional components, the skin conductance, respiratory and Video-Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals were continuously recorded throughout the experiment. The Video-PPG was then processed to extract HRV parameters. We observed that the arousal levels changed among beverages and conditions, going from higher arousal for Coca-Cola in the blind condition, to higher arousal for Cola in the not blind condition. Moreover, 44% of the subjects changed their preference when the brand was uncovered: from blind to not blind conditions, 6 subjects went from Cola to Coca-Cola as preferred drink and 5 went from Coca-Cola to Cola. Opposite results were found for the two beverages when comparing the physiological response when the beverage was/was not preferred. Finally, differences were found also between consumers and not consumers of Coca-Cola and the blind/not blind comparison. We conclude that the brand is a fundamental element in a request for choice and it can affect the first emotional response of a subject.


Assuntos
Cola , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Emoções , Humanos , Paladar/fisiologia
13.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(1): 246-255, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530301

RESUMO

The ethyl acetate fraction, the stem bark and the residual methanolic extracts from the leaves of Cola heterophylla (Sterculiaceae) led to the isolation of two new compounds: Heterophynone (1) and methyl ester of Colic acid (6), along with four known triterpenes: betulinic acid (2), oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4) and chletric acid (5). Structures of compounds were established by different spectroscopic methods that included 1D and 2D NMR experiment. The antimicrobial activity of isolated compounds was evaluated against two yeasts, Candida Albicans NR 29456 and Candida Krusei 1415; and five Gram-positive bacterial, Salmonella enteric Serovar Muenchem, Salmonella enteric Serovar Thyphimurium, Staphylococcus aureus NR 46003, Staphylococcus aureus NR46374 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa HM 601). Among tested compounds, Heterophynone was found to be the most active with significant antimicrobial activity against Salmonella enteric Serovar Thyphimurium (MIC = 7.82 µg/mL and MBC = 62.5 µg/mL) and good activity against Candida Albicans NR 29456 (MIC = 62.5 µg/mL).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cola/química , Ésteres , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
14.
Curr Drug Discov Technol ; 19(1): e290321192495, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of cognitive decline has been proposed to rise exponentially in the coming years. Therapies targeting molecular pathways involved in the enhancement of memory and energy regulation could be a major breakthrough in the prevention or management of dementia in susceptible populations. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Cola nitida (AECONS) and Garcinia kola (AEGAK) on glutamate level and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of male Wistar rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats (170-200) were randomly allotted into groups (n=5/group); control (distilled water p.o.), AECONS1 (200 mg/kg), AECONS2 (400 mg/kg), AEGAK1 (200 mg/kg), AEGAK2 (400 mg/kg), AECONS1+AEGAK1 and AECONS2+AEGAK2. The extract was prepared and the administration was done daily for 6 weeks. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Administration of AECONS or AEGAK increased plasma, hippocampal and hypothalamic glutamate, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, NO, SOD except hippocampal glutamate in AECONS1/AEGAK1, Na+/K+-ATPase activity and SOD in AEGAK1, hypothalamic glutamate and SOD in AECONS1 when compared with control. Besides, MDA level decreased in AEGAK2 and hippocampal but not hypothalamic MDA decreased in AEGAK1 compared with control. However, concomitant administration of AECONS and AEGAK enhanced plasma, hippocampal and hypothalamic biomarkers except hypothalamic MDA level. The present study demonstrates that AECONS and AEGAK synergistically enhance hippocampal and hypothalamic glutamate and Na+/K+- ATPase activity, which are accompanied by NO and SOD-dependent antioxidant enrichment. CONCLUSION: These findings, therefore, suggest that AECONS+AEGAK could be a better therapeutic candidate in hippocampal-hypothalamic-related neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Cola , Garcinia kola , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Garcinia kola/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Água
15.
Intern Med ; 61(3): 335-338, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334573

RESUMO

A 77-year-old man complained of postmeal vomiting and sustained general fatigue. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed massive gastric expansion and fluid storage. Gastroscopy revealed four gastric bezoars that were considered to have caused pyloric ring obstruction. The patient was asked to drink 500 mL per day of Coca-Cola® for 4 days. On the fourth day, we performed endoscopic crushing and removal by injecting Coca-Cola®, cutting the softened bezoar with endoscopic snares, and collecting the pieces with endoscopic nets. We herein report (with a video presentation) a rare case of tannin-phytobezoars endoscopically removed with the administration and injection of Coca-Cola®.


Assuntos
Bezoares , Coca , Obstrução da Saída Gástrica , Idoso , Bezoares/complicações , Bezoares/diagnóstico por imagem , Bezoares/cirurgia , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Cola , Gastroscopia , Humanos , Masculino , Solubilidade , Taninos
16.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 60(3): 265-273, 2022. tables
Artigo em Inglês | AIM (África) | ID: biblio-1378407

RESUMO

Introduction Bitter Kola (Garcinia Kola) and kola nut, contains substances attributed to numerous effects on humans including anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic properties, anti-infective and caffeinism. This study explores Bitter kola and kola nut use and its impact on treatment outcome on People Living with HIV (PLWHIV). Methods: The study was conducted at a Military Hospital in Nigeria. An analytical cross-sectional study was done using questionnaire among 700 HIV-positive clients selected using simple random sampling. Data were collected by researcher and three trained assistants. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used for identifying associations and predictors, respectively. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Findings show that 260 (63.6%) and 179 (25.6%) have ever and currently used Bitter kola/Kola nut, respectively. Also, 14 (7.8%) used Bitter kola/Kola nut alone while 165 (92.2%) used it in addition to other substances, especially with alcohol 123 (68.7%). Bitter kola use was associated with age (p = 0.037), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.001), and number of children (p < 0.011). Identified predictors were being a female (AOR 0.79; 95% CI 0.08-0.92) and earning <18,000 Naira (AOR 2.91; 95% CI 2.03-21.54). There was no association of Bitter kola/kola nut use with CD4 count and viral load suppression. Conclusion: Though Kola nut and Bitter kola use was high as in the general population we have not found any effect on treatment outcome among PLWHIV. This calls for more research to ascertain if there are other possible beneficial effects on PLWHIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , Resultado do Tratamento , Antialérgicos , Cola , Garcinia kola , Anti-Infecciosos , Anti-Inflamatórios
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6630449, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307662

RESUMO

Management of diarrhea has evolved over the years from relatively inadequate interventions in the early years to more successful physiological approaches. The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has grown significantly over the past three decades, with more than half of the global population depending on it for some aspect of their primary health care needs. This study is aimed at formulating solid and liquid oral dosage forms of the ethanolic extract of Cola nitida seeds for the treatment of diarrhea. The flow property of the dried ethanolic extract was determined and subsequently formulated into granules for encapsulation. The ethanolic extract was also used in formulating an oral suspension. Pharmacopeia tests such as uniformity of weight, disintegration, drug content, and dissolution were carried out on the formulated capsules. The formulated suspension was also assessed using the following parameters; viscosity, flow rate, drug content, dissolution, sedimentation rate, and sedimentation volume. The dried ethanolic extract and formulated granules exhibited good flow properties. The formulated capsules exhibited optimal in vitro release of extract (>90% after 45 minutes) and passed the uniformity of weight, disintegration, and drug content tests. The formulated suspension also passed the drug content test and had a good sedimentation rate, sedimentation volume, and flow rate. The formulated suspension also exhibited pseudoplastic flow, optimal viscosity, and a good in vitro release profile (>90% after 45 minutes). Capsules and suspension of the ethanolic extract of Cola nitida seeds have been successfully formulated and can be used as standard dosage forms for the management of diarrhea.


Assuntos
Cola/química , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sementes/química , Administração Oral , Cápsulas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reologia , Rotação , Suspensões , Fatores de Tempo , Viscosidade
18.
Eur J Appl Physiol ; 121(10): 2859-2867, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189603

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Some cyclists consume flattened cola during competitive events, but limited research has investigated if cola beverages elicit ergogenic effects, particularly on high-intensity exercise performance. Whether the potentially beneficial effects of cola are due to the caffeine and/or the carbohydrate content is also unclear. This study assessed the ergogenic effects of different cola beverages on performance during a constant power bout (CPB) and subsequent high-intensity interval efforts in competitive cyclists. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, competitive cyclists (n = 13; [Formula: see text]O2max 65.7 ± 5.9 ml kg-1 min-1) completed a 45-min CPB at 69% of maximum workload (Wmax), followed by four maximal 1-min high-intensity intervals (HII) against a resistance of 0.5 N kg-1. Participants consumed 16 ml kg-1 total (intermittantly at four time points) of flattened decaffinated diet cola (PLA), caffeinated diet cola (CAF) or cola containing caffeine and carbohydrates (CAF + CHO). RESULTS: During the CPB, ratings of perceived exertion were lower in the CAF + CHO and CAF conditions compared to PLA (both, P < 0.04). Compared to PLA, CAF + CHO and CAF similarly increased (all, P < 0.049) mean power (CAF + CHO: 448 ± 51 W; CAF: 448 ± 50 W; PLA: 434 ± 57 W), minimum power (CAF + CHO: 353 ± 45 W; CAF: 352 ± 51 W; PLA: 324 ± 49 W) and total work (CAF + CHO: 26.9 ± 3.1 kJ; CAF: 26.9 ± 3.0 kJ; PLA: 26.0 ± 3.4 kJ), but not peak power (CAF + CHO: 692 ± 117 W; CAF: 674 ± 114 W; PLA: 670 ± 113 W; all, P > 0.57) during the HII. CONCLUSION: Cola containing caffeine with or without carbohydrates favorably influenced perceived effort during the CPB and enhanced mean and minimum power during repeated maximal intervals. We provide evidence supporting the consumption of commercially available cola for high-intensity cycling in competitive cyclists.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Cafeína/farmacologia , Cola , Comportamento Competitivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112335, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129900

RESUMO

This study investigated the therapeutic mechanism of Cola nitida seeds on diabetic cardiomyopathy in hearts of diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats were treated with C. nitida infusion at 150 or 300 mg/kg body weight (bw). The rats were sacrificed after 6 weeks of treatment, and their hearts harvested. There was an upsurge in oxidative stress on induction of T2D as depicted by the depleted levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, and elevated malondialdehyde level. The activities of acetylcholinesterase, and ATPase were significantly elevated, with suppressed ENTPDase and 5'nucleotodase activities in hearts of T2D rats depicting cholinergic and purinergic dysfunctions. Induction of T2D further led to elevated activity of ACE and altered myocardial morphology. Treatment with C. nitida infusion led to reversal of these biomarkers' activities and levels, while maintaining an intact morphology. The infusion caused decreased lipase activity and depletion of diabetes-generated cardiac lipid metabolites, while concomitantly generating saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, fatty esters and alcohols. There was also an inactivation of plasmalogen synthesis and mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long chain saturated fatty acids pathways in T2D rats treated with C. nitida infusion. These results indicate the therapeutic effect of C. nitida infusion against diabetic cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Cola/química , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/química
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2640-2654, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056728

RESUMO

Sensory evaluation of food relies heavily on the eating context. The objective of this study was to determine how the context effect, created from differences in environmental setting and product information, affects consumer's acceptability of two types of beverages. Participants of this study rated five ready-to-drink tea products and five diet cola products on a 9-point hedonic scale. Environmental setting differences were created by altering testing locations, and product information differences were created by serving the same samples with or without product name and image. Self-reported sensory engagement was measured in each location. Tea samples showed significantly higher appearance liking ratings in the sensory booth location as well as higher flavor liking ratings when product information was provided. Cola samples did not show a significant effect of testing location but did show a significant product information by sample interaction, where well-established brands received higher ratings when product information was provided. Overall, results were product-specific; testing location does not appear to have a large influence on hedonic scores for certain beverages, and the impact of product information varies largely depending on the product type and brand. The laboratory sensory booth setting provided higher panelist engagement overall. Additional research on the combination of external context and meal, sample, or social context is needed to fully explore the effect of eating context in sensory tests. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Findings from this study can help the food industry comprehend how test location may impact results of acceptability testing of different beverage products, both in terms of hedonic scores and sensory engagement. Results of this study also evidence the influence of sample information on product acceptability and how this influence differs based on the type of beverage and the popularity of the brand tested.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Cola/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Paladar/fisiologia , Chá/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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