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1.
Crit Care ; 28(1): 109, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital triage and treatment of patients with acute coma is challenging for rescue services, as the underlying pathological conditions are highly heterogenous. Recently, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has been identified as a biomarker of intracranial hemorrhage. The aim of this prospective study was to test whether prehospital GFAP measurements on a point-of-care device have the potential to rapidly differentiate intracranial hemorrhage from other causes of acute coma. METHODS: This study was conducted at the RKH Klinikum Ludwigsburg, a tertiary care hospital in the northern vicinity of Stuttgart, Germany. Patients who were admitted to the emergency department with the prehospital diagnosis of acute coma (Glasgow Coma Scale scores between 3 and 8) were enrolled prospectively. Blood samples were collected in the prehospital phase. Plasma GFAP measurements were performed on the i-STAT Alinity® (Abbott) device (duration of analysis 15 min) shortly after hospital admission. RESULTS: 143 patients were enrolled (mean age 65 ± 20 years, 42.7% female). GFAP plasma concentrations were strongly elevated in patients with intracranial hemorrhage (n = 51) compared to all other coma etiologies (3352 pg/mL [IQR 613-10001] vs. 43 pg/mL [IQR 29-91.25], p < 0.001). When using an optimal cut-off value of 101 pg/mL, sensitivity for identifying intracranial hemorrhage was 94.1% (specificity 78.9%, positive predictive value 71.6%, negative predictive value 95.9%). In-hospital mortality risk was associated with prehospital GFAP values. CONCLUSION: Increased GFAP plasma concentrations in patients with acute coma identify intracranial hemorrhage with high diagnostic accuracy. Prehospital GFAP measurements on a point-of-care platform allow rapid stratification according to the underlying cause of coma by rescue services. This could have major impact on triage and management of these critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Coma , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Masculino , Coma/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida
2.
J Int Med Res ; 52(4): 3000605241234555, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587813

RESUMO

Among the various manifestations of COVID-19, the neurological implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are of significant concern. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD), a neurodegenerative disorder, exhibits a clinical spectrum ranging from mild progressive dementia in its chronic form to states of acute coma and varied mortality rates. Acute MBD primarily occurs in chronic alcoholics and malnourished individuals and is characterized by sudden loss of consciousness, seizures, confusion, and psychosis. We herein report a case of MBD presenting as acute loss of consciousness after the development of COVID-19. The patient presented with a history of fever and upper respiratory infection and was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. He developed a neurological syndrome characterized by altered consciousness and convulsions, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal signals in the corpus callosum and frontoparietal lobes. Considering his alcohol intake history and the absence of other differential diagnoses, we diagnosed him with acute MBD triggered by COVID-19. After high-dose vitamin B1 and corticosteroid therapy, his clinical symptoms improved. In this case, we observed a temporal sequence between the development of COVID-19 and acute exacerbation of MBD. This case adds to the mounting evidence suggesting the potential effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the neurological system.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Demência , Doença de Marchiafava-Bignami , Humanos , Masculino , Estado de Consciência , Doença de Marchiafava-Bignami/diagnóstico , Doença de Marchiafava-Bignami/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/complicações , SARS-CoV-2 , Coma
3.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 158, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the visual outcomes of the first operated eyes with those of the second operated eyes following small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: A total of 202 patients (404 eyes) underwent SMILE using the tear film mark centration method for myopia and myopic astigmatism correction. Baseline characteristics, objective optical quality, decentered displacement, induced corneal aberrations, and modulation transfer function (MTF) values were assessed. Linear regression analyzed the relationship between decentration and visual quality parameters, including corneal aberrations and MTF values. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in objective visual quality, efficacy, and safety indexes between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The average decentered displacement for the first and second surgical eyes was 0.278 ± 0.17 mm and 0.315 ± 0.15 mm, respectively (P = 0.002). The horizontal coma in the first surgical eyes were notably lower than in the second (P = 0.000). MTF values at spatial frequencies of 5, 10, 15, and 20 cycles/degree (c/d) were higher in the first surgical eyes compared to the second (all P < 0.05). Linear regression indicated that high-order aberrations (HOAs), root mean square (RMS) coma, spherical aberration, horizontal coma, vertical coma, and eccentric displacement were all linearly correlated. Furthermore, MTF values exhibited a linear relationship with eccentric displacement across these spatial frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: There was no discernible difference in visual acuity, efficacy, or safety between the two operated eyes. Nonetheless, the first operated eyes exhibited reduced decentered displacement and demonstrated superior outcomes in terms of horizontal coma and MTF values compared to the second operated eyes following SMILE. The variations in visual quality parameters were linearly correlated with decentered displacement.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea , Miopia , Humanos , Refração Ocular , Coma , Topografia da Córnea , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Substância Própria/cirurgia
5.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 30(2): 106-120, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441156

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute encephalopathy (AE) - which frequently develops in critically ill patients with and without primary brain injury - is defined as an acute process that evolves rapidly and leads to changes in baseline cognitive status, ranging from delirium to coma. The diagnosis, monitoring, and management of AE is challenging. Here, we discuss advances in definitions, diagnostic approaches, therapeutic options, and implications to outcomes of the clinical spectrum of AE in ICU patients without primary brain injury. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding and definitions of delirium and coma have evolved. Delirium is a neurocognitive disorder involving impairment of attention and cognition, usually fluctuating, and developing over hours to days. Coma is a state of unresponsiveness, with absence of command following, intelligible speech, or visual pursuit, with no imaging or neurophysiological evidence of cognitive motor dissociation. The CAM-ICU(-7) and the ICDSC are validated, guideline-recommended tools for clinical delirium assessment, with identification of clinical subtypes and stratification of severity. In comatose patients, the roles of continuous EEG monitoring and neuroimaging have grown for the early detection of secondary brain injury and treatment of reversible causes. SUMMARY: Evidence-based pharmacologic treatments for delirium are limited. Dexmedetomidine is effective for mechanically ventilated patients with delirium, while haloperidol has minimal effect of delirium but may have other benefits. Specific treatments for coma in nonprimary brain injury are still lacking.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Delírio , Humanos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/terapia , Coma/diagnóstico , Coma/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações
7.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 41(3): 221-229, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a lack of clinical and epidemiological knowledge about nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in developing countries including Mexico, which has the highest prevalence of epilepsy in the Americas. Our aim was to describe the clinical findings, EEG features, and outcomes of NCSE in a tertiary center in Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series study (2010-2020) including patients (≥15 years old) with NCSE according to the modified Salzburg NCSE criteria 2015 with at least 6 months of follow-up. We extracted the clinical data (age, sex, history of epilepsy, antiseizure medications, clinical manifestations, triggers, and etiology), EEG patterns of NCSE, and outcome. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-four patients were analyzed; 74 (54.8%) women, the total mean age was 39.5 (15-85) years, and 71% had a history of epilepsy. Altered state of consciousness was found in 82% (including 27.7% in coma). A generalized NCSE pattern was the most common (32.1%). The NCSE etiology was mainly idiopathic (56%), and previous uncontrolled epilepsy was the trigger in 48% of patients. The clinical outcome was remission with clinical improvement in 54.5%. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the patient's age (P = 0.04), absence of comorbidities (P = 0.04), history of perinatal hypoxia (P = 0.04), absence of clinical manifestations (P = 0.01), and coma (P = 0.03) were negatively correlated with the outcome and only the absence of generalized slowing in the EEG (P = 0.001) had a significant positive effect on the prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Age, history of perinatal hypoxia, coma, and focal ictal EEG pattern influence negatively the prognosis of NCSE.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Estado Epiléptico , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Adolescente , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Coma , Países em Desenvolvimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/epidemiologia , Estado Epiléptico/terapia , Prognóstico , Hipóxia , Eletroencefalografia
8.
Ecol Lett ; 27(3): e14421, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38549250

RESUMO

Studies of ectotherm responses to heat extremes often rely on assessing absolute critical limits for heat coma or death (CTmax), however, such single parameter metrics ignore the importance of stress exposure duration. Furthermore, population persistence may be affected at temperatures considerably below CTmax through decreased reproductive output. Here we investigate the relationship between tolerance duration and severity of heat stress across three ecologically relevant life-history traits (productivity, coma and mortality) using the global agricultural pest Drosophila suzukii. For the first time, we show that for sublethal reproductive traits, tolerance duration decreases exponentially with increasing temperature (R2 > 0.97), thereby extending the Thermal Death Time framework recently developed for mortality and coma. Using field micro-environmental temperatures, we show how thermal stress can lead to considerable reproductive loss at temperatures with limited heat mortality highlighting the importance of including limits to reproductive performance in ecological studies of heat stress vulnerability.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Coma , Reprodução , Temperatura
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 117974, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467317

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute alcohol intoxication is one of the leading causes of coma. A well-regarded Chinese herbal formula, known as An-Gong-Niu-Huang-Wan (AGNHW), has garnered recognition for its efficacy in treating various brain disorders associated with impaired consciousness, including acute alcohol-induced coma. Despite its clinical effectiveness, the scientific community lacks comprehensive research on the mechanistic aspects of AGNHW's impact on the electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns observed during alcohol-induced coma. Gaining a deeper understanding of AGNHW's mechanism of action in relation to EEG characteristics would hold immense importance, serving as a solid foundation for further advancing its clinical therapeutic application. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study sought to investigate the impact of AGNHW on EEG activity and sleep EEG patterns in rats with alcoholic-induced coma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat model of alcohol-induced coma was used to examine the effects of AGNHW on EEG patterns. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 32% ethanol to induce a coma, followed by treatment with AGNHW. Wireless electrodes were implanted in the cortex of the rats to obtain EEG signals. Our analysis focused on evaluating alterations in the Rat Coma Scale (RCS), as well as assessing changes in the frequency and distribution of EEG patterns, sleep rhythms, and body temperature subsequent to AGNHW treatment. RESULTS: The study found a significant increase in the δ-band power ratio, as well as a decrease in RCS scores and ß-band power ratio after modeling. AGNHW treatment significantly reduced the δ-band power ratio and increased the ß-band power ratio compared to naloxone, suggesting its superior arousal effects. The results also revealed a decrease in the time proportion of WAKE and REM EEG patterns after modeling, accompanied by a significant increase in the time proportion of NREM EEG patterns. Both naloxone and AGNHW effectively counteracted the disordered sleep EEG patterns. Additionally, AGNHW was more effective than naloxone in improving hypothermia caused by acute alcohol poisoning in rats. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence for the arousal effects of AGNHW in alcohol-induced coma rats. It also suggests a potential role for AGNHW in regulating post-comatose sleep rhythm disorders.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica , Coma , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Coma/induzido quimicamente , Coma/tratamento farmacológico , Eletroencefalografia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Sono , Naloxona/farmacologia
10.
Med Sci Monit ; 30: e943501, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The main causes of accidental trauma in children include road traffic accidents (RTAs) and falling from height (FFH). Rapid and accurate assessment of severity of injury is required to guide effective management. This retrospective study aimed to compare the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS), and Injury Severity Score (ISS) and outcomes for 118 pediatric trauma patients at a single Emergency Department (ED) in Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients admitted to Ankara City Hospital due to high-energy trauma between November 1, 2019 and April 30, 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Data for 118 patients with trauma by major mechanisms, aged 0-17, were collected. Demographic characteristics, trauma-related characteristics, outcomes, and GCS, PTS, and ISS values were compared. It was examined whether there was a relationship between trauma severity and prognosis. In this context, trauma severity was defined by these scores. RESULTS Of the 118 admitted patients, 66 (55.9%) were discharged from the ED, 33 (28%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), and 19 (16.1%) were admitted to non-ICU departments in the hospital. With hospitalization, patients with thoracic trauma (P<0.001; OR 11.1; 95% CI 3.0-40) and patients with abdominal trauma (P=0.003; OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.5-10.8) were discharged significantly less frequently than patients with other types of trauma. Patients with low ISS (P<0.001) and high PTS (P<0.001) were discharged more often. The relationship between diagnosis and hospitalization was significant (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS RTA and FFH are the leading trauma mechanisms in children. Boys experience more trauma. ISS and PTS provide accurate predictions of severe and poor prognosis in pediatric trauma cases.


Assuntos
Coma , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente
11.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 146, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499839

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) treatment on the optical performance of the cornea at 12-month follow-up after CXL in patients with progressive keratoconus. METHODS: One hundred and ten eyes of 67 patients were included. The following corneal optical aberrations over the 4-mm-diameter pupil were recorded via Sirius dual-scanning corneal tomography: total, anterior and posterior amount of corneal higher order aberrations [HOAs], vertical coma, horizontal coma, vertical trefoil, oblique trefoil, and spherical aberration, and Strehl ratio of point spread function (PSF). RESULTS: There were significant improvements in mean root mean square error values for corneal total HOA, total coma, anterior HOA, anterior coma, and vertical coma following CXL (P > 0.05, for all). No significant changes were found in the posterior aberometric parameters. PSF value did not change after CXL (P > 0.05). The corneal topographic measurements not revealed a change in the mean simulated keratometry-1, simulated keratometry-2, and maximum keratometry compared with the baseline measurements (P > 0.05, for all). At 12 months, there was a significant improvement in the uncorrected (UCVA) and best corrected (BCVA) visual acuity (P < 0.001, both). Most corneal aberrations correlated significantly with postoperative BCVA, but changes in HOAs were not statistically associated with improvements in visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: Transepithelial CXL was effective in stabilizing the keratometric indices and improving the most corneal aberrations in keratoconic eyes 1 year after the procedure. While the healing effect on aberrations after CXL was in total and anterior parameters, no significant changes were observed in the posterior surface. In addition, it was observed that transepithelial CXL treatment did not cause a significant change in PSF distribution data.


Assuntos
Ceratocone , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/tratamento farmacológico , Crosslinking Corneano , Coma , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Riboflavina/uso terapêutico , Córnea , Topografia da Córnea , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Reagentes de Ligações Cruzadas/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Brain Inj ; 38(4): 249-259, 2024 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329043

RESUMO

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to verify the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). METHODS: Subjects included 59 patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) due to acquired brain injury. To validate test-retest reliability, Evaluator A assessed the CRS-R twice on the same day (A1, A2). To examine inter-rater reliability, Evaluators A (A2) and B (B) assessed the CRS-R without a time interval. To test concurrent validity, Evaluator A (A1) assessed the CRS-R, Japan Coma Scale (JCS), and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) consecutively. To validate diagnostic accuracy, we evaluated the degree of agreement between A1 and A2 and between A2 and B in their diagnosis of DOC by CRS-R. RESULTS: The test-retest (ρ = 0.92) and inter- (ρ = 0.98) reliability of CRS-R were excellent" and Concurrent validity of CRS-R with JCS (ρ = -0.82) and GCS (ρ = 0.92) were high. Results of DOC diagnosis were consistent for 48/59 cases (κ = 0.82) for A1 and A2 and for 54/59 cases (κ = 0.92) for A2 and B. CONLCUSION: The Japanese version of the CRS-R may be as reliable and valid as the original English and other language versions.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Coma , Humanos , Coma/diagnóstico , Coma/etiologia , Japão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico
13.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(2): 19, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407885

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the influence of decentration, rotation, and tilt on objective optical quality of plate haptic toric intraocular lenses (tIOLs). Methods: The area ratio of modulation transfer function (MTF), strehl ratio of point spread function (PSF), and higher order aberrations (HOAs) for 3 mm and 5 mm pupil diameter (PD) were evaluated at postoperative 1 month. The retroillumination images pictured by OPD-scan III were used to quantify the degree of decentration and rotation, whereas the tIOL tilt was directly obtained by the tilt aberration. Patients were separated into two subgroups based on tIOL misalignment cutoff values. Results: There were 29 eyes (24 patients) in the study. The decentration of more than 0.25 mm did not substantially differ from those less than or equal to 0.25 mm. PSF of 3 mm PD and MTF, intraocular HOAs, and trefoil aberration for 3 mm and 5 mm PD significantly deteriorated with a rotation of more than 3 degrees, whereas only intraocular HOAs for 5 mm PD and coma for 3 mm and 5 mm PD were significantly severe with a tilt of more than 0.1 µm and 0.25 µm in corresponding PD. Furthermore, tIOL rotation and tilt were highly correlated with intraocular trefoil aberration and coma, respectively. Conclusions: The decentration of the monofocal bitoric IOLs is more tolerant to optical quality degradation after 1 month of surgery but more sensitive to intraocular trefoil aberration caused by rotation and coma aberration induced by tilt. Translational Relevance: As far as we know, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between the plate haptic bitoric IOL misalignment and objective optical quality measured by OPD-scan III in the real world, which may provide reference information for IOL selection to improve surgical outcomes.


Assuntos
Coma , Lentes Intraoculares , Humanos , Tecnologia Háptica , Rotação , Período Pós-Operatório
14.
Brain Inj ; 38(2): 68-75, 2024 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of long-term repetitive transcranial direct current stimulation on patients with DOC in the subacute phase. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled study, 33 patients were randomly assigned to the active or sham group, and 28 patients completed the study. Patients in the active group received anodal stimulation over the DLPFC, while patients in the sham group received placebo stimulation (20 min/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks). The level of consciousness among patients was assessed with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) at baseline and at the end of every week from the first to the fourth week. RESULTS: The CRS-R scores of both the active and sham groups showed a consistent increasing trend over time; however, the treatment effect of the active group was better than that of the sham group. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in the total CRS-R score between the two groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4. Moreover, 10 patients (71.4%) in the active group and 3 patients (21.4%) in the sham group were regarded as responders. CONCLUSION: Long-term tDCS could improve the level of consciousness of patients with DOC in the subacute stage.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Coma , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Transtornos da Consciência/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Método Duplo-Cego
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 74, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An enhanced monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) (Tecnis Eyhance ICB00 and Tecnis Eyhance Toric DIU) has been developed to enhance intermediate vision while avoiding the disadvantages of multifocal IOLs. Although many studies have demonstrated the improvement of intermediate visual acuity with enhanced monofocal IOLs, it is not known specifically for which patients these IOLs should be recommended or avoided. In this study, we aim to find out which ocular parameters affect vision performance and photic phenomenon of ICB00 or DIU at different distances. METHODS: Patients who underwent cataract surgery with ICB00 or DIU, performed by a single surgeon, were included. Before surgery, the patients' age, gender, axial length, anterior chamber depth, spherical aberration Z (4,0), vertical coma, horizontal coma, angle kappa (κ), angle alpha (α), and other ocular parameters were investigated. One month after surgery, uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA at 40 cm), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA at 66 cm), uncorrected distance logMAR visual acuity (UDVA), IOL decentration, and quality of vision (QoV) questionnaires were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 43 patients (58 eyes) were included. The results of the univariate linear regression analyses showed a negative correlation between spherical aberration and logMAR UNVA and UIVA (p = 0.003, ß=-0.51 and p = 0.018, ß=-0.23, respectively) and a positive correlation between angle α and logMAR UIVA (p = 0.036, ß = 0.19). Deeper anterior chamber depth (ACD) was associated with poorer total QoV (p = 0.018, ß = 14.43), particularly in glare, halo, blur, and fluctuation perception. A higher degree of IOL decentration tended to decrease UNVA and UIVA (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.336 and r = 0.221, respectively); however, no significant effect was observed on UDVA (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: In enhanced monofocal IOLs, a higher level of spherical aberration is associated with better performance in UNVA and UIVA, whereas a larger angle α has a negative impact. A deeper ACD negatively affects the QoV.


Assuntos
Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Coma , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Visão Ocular , Desenho de Prótese , Satisfação do Paciente , Refração Ocular
16.
Intensive Care Med ; 50(3): 385-394, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407824

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in comatose patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unclear. We compared two RRT initiation strategies on the probability of awakening in comatose patients with severe AKI. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of a trial comparing two delayed RRT initiation strategies in patients with severe AKI. Patients were monitored until they had oliguria for more than 72 h and/or blood urea nitrogen higher than 112 mg/dL and then randomized to a delayed strategy (RRT initiated after randomization) or a more-delayed one (RRT initiated if complication occurred or when blood urea nitrogen exceeded 140 mg/dL). We included only comatose patients (Richmond Agitation-Sedation scale [RASS] < - 3), irrespective of sedation, at randomization. A multi-state model was built, defining five mutually exclusive states: death, coma (RASS < - 3), incomplete awakening (RASS [- 3; - 2]), awakening (RASS [- 1; + 1] two consecutive days), and agitation (RASS > + 1). Primary outcome was the transition from coma to awakening during 28 days after randomization. RESULTS: A total of 168 comatose patients (90 delayed and 78 more-delayed) underwent randomization. The transition intensity from coma to awakening was lower in the more-delayed group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.36 [0.17-0.78]; p = 0.010). Time spent awake was 10.11 days [8.11-12.15] and 7.63 days [5.57-9.64] in the delayed and the more-delayed groups, respectively. Two sensitivity analyses were performed based on sedation status and sedation practices across centers, yielding comparable results. CONCLUSION: In comatose patients with severe AKI, a more-delayed RRT initiation strategy resulted in a lower chance of transitioning from coma to awakening.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Coma , Humanos , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Coma/etiologia , Coma/terapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 60(2): 198-206, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family caregivers (FC) contribute to reducing the misdiagnosis rate in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Unfortunately, the recent pandemic of COVID-19 imposed drastic restrictions that limited the access of FC to the sensory/cognitive stimulation protocols. Telemedicine approaches have been implemented to avoid discontinuity in care pathways and to ensure caregivers involvement in rehabilitation programs. AIM: The aim was to investigate whether the presence of FC remotely connected might help clinicians in eliciting higher cortically mediated behavioral responses in patients with DOC. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Post-acute Unit of Neurorehabilitation. POPULATION: DOC due to severe brain injury. METHODS: Consecutive patients with DOC were assessed by means of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) by two expert examiners. Each patient underwent to five assessments in two weeks in three different conditions: 1) by the examiner only (standard); 2) with the verbal stimulation given by the FC remotely connected by PC tablet (caregiver in remote); and 3) with the verbal stimulation given by the FC physically present (caregiver in presence). RESULTS: Thirty patients with DOC (VS/UWS=10; MCS=20; mean age: 51, range: 21-79; vascular: 16; anoxic: 6; TBI=8) and their FC were enrolled. Higher total scores of CRS-R were recorded both in "caregiver in remote" and in "caregiver in presence" than in standard condition (standard vs. remote, Z=2.942, P=0.003; standard vs. presence, Z=3.736, P<0.001). Furthermore, the administration of the CRS-R with a FC, elicited higher levels of behavioral responses in MCS patients, than CRS-R performed in standard condition. In particular, 2 patients out of 30 (6.66%) showed higher scores and better diagnosis when the CRS-R was administered with FC in remote. Similarly, 5 out of 30 patients (16.66%) showed better diagnoses when the CRS-R was administered with FC in presence. Five patients changed diagnosis between standard and presence conditions (3 MCS- were diagnosed as MCS+; 2 MCS+ were diagnosed as conscious). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add new evidence regarding the beneficial role of family members in the diagnosis of DOC, even mediated by telemedicine approach. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: In future guidelines, FC should have an active and supporting role in the diagnostic and rehabilitative process of DOC.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Transtornos da Consciência , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Estimulação Acústica , Estudos Transversais , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Coma , Estado Vegetativo Persistente/diagnóstico
18.
Brain ; 147(4): 1321-1330, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412555

RESUMO

The pathophysiological underpinnings of critically disrupted brain connectomes resulting in coma are poorly understood. Inflammation is potentially an important but still undervalued factor. Here, we present a first-in-human prospective study using the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) radioligand 18F-DPA714 for PET imaging to allow in vivo neuroimmune activation quantification in patients with coma (n = 17) following either anoxia or traumatic brain injuries in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls. Our findings yielded novel evidence of an early inflammatory component predominantly located within key cortical and subcortical brain structures that are putatively implicated in consciousness emergence and maintenance after severe brain injury (i.e. mesocircuit and frontoparietal networks). We observed that traumatic and anoxic patients with coma have distinct neuroimmune activation profiles, both in terms of intensity and spatial distribution. Finally, we demonstrated that both the total amount and specific distribution of PET-measurable neuroinflammation within the brain mesocircuit were associated with the patient's recovery potential. We suggest that our results can be developed for use both as a new neuroprognostication tool and as a promising biometric to guide future clinical trials targeting glial activity very early after severe brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Coma Pós-Traumatismo da Cabeça , Humanos , Coma/complicações , Coma Pós-Traumatismo da Cabeça/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Hipóxia/complicações , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo
19.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 82, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between initial dysnatremia (hyponatremia and hypernatremia) and in-hospital mortality, as well as between initial dysnatremia and functional outcomes, among children with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD: We performed a multicenter observational study among 26 pediatric intensive care units from January 2014 to August 2022. We recruited children with TBI under 18 years of age who presented to participating sites within 24 h of injury. We compared demographics and clinical characteristics between children with initial hyponatremia and eu-natremia and between those with initial hypernatremia and eu-natremia. We defined poor functional outcome as a discharge Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) score of moderate, severe disability, coma, and death, or an increase of at least 2 categories from baseline. We performed multivariable logistic regression for mortality and poor PCPC outcome. RESULTS: Among 648 children, 84 (13.0%) and 42 (6.5%) presented with hyponatremia and hypernatremia, respectively. We observed fewer 14-day ventilation-free days between those with initial hyponatremia [7.0 (interquartile range (IQR) = 0.0-11.0)] and initial hypernatremia [0.0 (IQR = 0.0-10.0)], compared to eu-natremia [9.0 (IQR = 4.0-12.0); p = 0.006 and p < 0.001]. We observed fewer 14-day ICU-free days between those with initial hyponatremia [3.0 (IQR = 0.0-9.0)] and initial hypernatremia [0.0 (IQR = 0.0-3.0)], compared to eu-natremia [7.0 (IQR = 0.0-11.0); p = 0.006 and p < 0.001]. After adjusting for age, severity, and sex, presenting hyponatremia was associated with in-hospital mortality [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31-4.66, p = 0.005] and poor outcome (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.01-2.76, p = 0.045). After adjustment, initial hypernatremia was associated with mortality (aOR = 5.91, 95% CI = 2.85-12.25, p < 0.001) and poor outcome (aOR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.50-5.98, p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Among children with TBI, presenting dysnatremia was associated with in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcome, particularly hypernatremia. Future research should investigate longitudinal sodium measurements in pediatric TBI and their association with clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Hipernatremia , Hiponatremia , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Hipernatremia/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Coma , Mortalidade Hospitalar
20.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 47(4): 104085, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and postoperative visual quality of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and Wavefront-Guided Laser in situ keratomileusis (WFG-LASIK) and to analyze their efficacy in correcting astigmatism. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Databases searched included PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. RevMan software version 5.3.0 was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 976 eyes were included in 8 studies, of which 539 eyes underwent SMILE and 437 eyes underwent WFG-LASIK. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of eyes achieving uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better (P=0.18), the proportion of eyes within±0.50 diopter of target refraction postoperatively (P=0.10), or the postoperative magnitude of cylinder (P=0.10). Regarding the Alpins vector analysis of astigmatism, there was no statistically significant difference in the surgical magnitude of error (P=0.09) between the two groups. WFG-LASIK has a lower surgical angle of error (P= 0.002) and higher surgical correction index of cylinder (P=0.03) than SMILE. In terms of aberrations, higher order aberrations (P=0.46), spherical aberrations (P=0.22) and trefoil (P=0.56) were not statistically different, while WFG-LASIK induced less coma than SMILE surgery (P=0.02). CONCLUSION: Both SMILE and WFG-LASIK are safe and effective ways to correct myopia and astigmatism. Compared with SMILE, WFG-LASIK has a lower surgical angle of error, higher surgical correction index of cylinder and induces less coma.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ , Miopia , Ferida Cirúrgica , Humanos , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/efeitos adversos , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Coma/cirurgia , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Córnea , Substância Própria/cirurgia , Miopia/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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