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1.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 47(4): 495-507, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467928

RESUMO

The ongoing exploration of economical, sustainable, and environment-friendly methods for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal metal nanoparticles is growing day by day due to their potential application in various fields. The use of plant derivatives in nanoparticle synthesis and their suitability as sustainable catalysts have emerged as significant areas of research. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous extract obtained from the commonly found weed Commelina erecta, L. Extensive study is conducted to optimize various synthesis parameters such as pH, reducing agent concentration, silver nitrate concentration, and temperature. The plant extract utilized in the synthesis process contained variety of antioxidants, including malic acid, phenol, benzoic acid, and catechol, which played a crucial role in both reduction and capping during the synthesis process, thereby making them suitable for biomedical applications. The optimized synthesis process yielded silver nanoparticles with a particle size of 16.2 ± 3.1 nm. These nanoparticles exhibited excellent stability and demonstrated remarkable antibacterial activity compared to the standard antibacterial agent, streptomycin. In addition, the silver nanoparticles displayed promising antioxidant activity attributed to the presence of antioxidant functional groups on their surface. This study reports, for the first time, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using antioxidant compounds present in C. erecta, L. plant extract. The antioxidant compounds identified through GC-MS belong to phenols, phenolic acids, and carboxylic acid groups. Furthermore, the exceptional antimicrobial and antioxidant properties exhibited by the synthesized silver nanoparticles offer new possibilities for their potential applications.


Assuntos
Commelina , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antioxidantes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata , Antibacterianos/química , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
Protoplasma ; 261(2): 377-393, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37910229

RESUMO

Commelina erecta is a successful weed species. The aims of this study were to analyse the morpho-anatomy of the fruit and dimorphic seeds of the weed C. erecta, the dynamics and type of dormancy, and water entry. Flowers and fruits at different development stages were processed using standard anatomical techniques. Besides, experiments of imbibition, germinability and water entry were performed on both seed types. In the fruit of C. erecta, free and coated seeds are developed within dehiscent and indehiscent carpels, respectively. Dehiscent carpels open through a region of mechanical weakness in the dorsal vascular bundle. This region does not form in the indehiscent carpel. The main anatomical differences between the two seed types were observed in the testa and in the number of covering layers. Imbibition experiments showed that the covering of both seed types is water permeable, so these seeds lack physical dormancy and may exhibit physiological dormancy. Germinability experiments showed that the dormancy in free seeds is variable throughout the reproductive season, whereas, in coated seeds, it is high throughout the reproductive season. The embryotega is an area where the hardness of the seed coat is interrupted and facilitates water entry. Differences in the morpho-anatomy of carpels result in the formation of dimorphic seeds with different covering layers and different germination properties. These different properties allow some seeds germinate immediately after falling from the mother plant, and others to be incorporated into the seed bank. These results are useful for designing weed management strategies in agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Commelina , Frutas , Sementes , Água , Germinação/fisiologia , Dormência de Plantas/fisiologia
3.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 26(1): 74-81, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37996971

RESUMO

Environmental changes associated with urbanisation can exert pressure that facilitates both adaptations and plastic responses in plants. Field surveys or common garden experiments (CGE) alone cannot differentiate between the observed phenotypic traits resulting from plastic responses versus evolutionary adaptations to urban environments. We conducted a field survey of habitat environmental factors and four vegetative traits in 12 Commelina communis populations along an urban-rural gradient in the Osaka-Kobe megacity area. We collected seedlings from six of the 12 populations, transplanted them into a greenhouse, and measured six vegetative traits. We investigated correlations between pairs of measured traits in both the field survey and CGE. Plant height and leaf area increased significantly in increasingly developed land areas (DLA) in the field survey, whereas no such variations were found in the CGE, suggesting that the observed phenotypic variation was due to a plastic response to urban eutrophication. Leaf number and specific leaf area (SLA) significantly decreased with increasing DLA in the CGE, suggesting the adaptation of these traits to urban environments. Positive correlations between plant height and leaf area were only observed in urban populations in both the field survey and CGE, indicating the evolution of this trait correlation in urban environments. It has been suggested that urban environments promote both plastic response and genetic divergence of a set of traits in native plants. Our findings suggest that low leaf number, SLA, and positive plant height-leaf area correlations have evolved. In addition, larger plant size is achieved via phenotypic plasticity in urban environments.


Assuntos
Commelina , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Fenótipo , Ecossistema , Folhas de Planta/genética
4.
Food Res Int ; 166: 112583, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36914315

RESUMO

Caruru (Amaranthus spinosus L) and trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis) are NCEPs introduced into Brazil and are widely used by certain communities. Given the lack of information on carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals present in A. spinosus and C. benghalensis grown in Brazil, this study aimed to determine the proximate composition and the micronutrient profile of these two NCEPs obtained from family farming in the Middle Doce River (Médio Rio Doce) region in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The proximate composition was evaluated using AOAC methods, vitamin E by HPLC with fluorescence detection, vitamin C and carotenoids by HPLC-DAD, and minerals by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. In summary, the leaves of A. spinosus exhibited a high content of dietary fiber (10.20 g.100 g-1), potassium (708.8 mg·100 g-1), iron (4.0 mg·100 g-1) and ß-carotene (6.94 mg·100 g-1), while the leaves of C. benghalensis were sources of potassium (1399.31 mg·100 g-1), iron (5.7 mg·100 g-1), calcium (163 mg·100 g-1), zinc (1.3 mg·100 g-1), ascorbic acid (23.61 mg·100 g-1), and ß-carotene (31.33 mg·100 g-1). It was therefore concluded that C. benghalensis and A. spinosus, especially, presented excellent potential as important nutritional sources for human consumption, highlighting the gap existing between the available technical and scientific material, thus making them an important and necessary axis of research.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Commelina , Humanos , Plantas Comestíveis , Amaranthus/química , beta Caroteno/análise , Brasil , Vitaminas/análise , Minerais/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ferro/análise , Potássio/análise
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(2): 356-365, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725225

RESUMO

This research established a high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin in Commelina communis to conduct content difference analysis and quality evaluation of 62 batches of C. communis from different origins. The HPLC content determination was performed on a Dikma Platisil ODS chromatographic column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm), with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid(14∶86) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 348 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1), and the column temperature was 35 ℃. The differences in origins and quality of 62 batches of C. communis were studied by chemometrics. The results showed that the determination of four components mani-fested a good linear relationship in the range of mass concentration(r>0.999 9), and the average recovery rate was 96.17%-103.0%. The relative standard deviations(RSDs) of precision, stability, and repeatability were all less than 2.0%. The content of four components from high to low was isoorientin>isovitexin>orientin>vitexin. Forty-seven batches of C. communis with clear origins were classified into six categories by chemometrics. C. communis from different origins had different qualities. Generally, C. communis from Western China, Central China, and South of China had superior qualities. The HPLC method established in this study is specific, simple, and efficient, which provides references for the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of C. communis. The chemometrics shows that the qualities of C. communis from different origins are largely different. Isoorientin can be used as an index to determine the content of C. communis, and its content limit should be set no less than 0.023%.


Assuntos
Commelina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Quimiometria , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115803, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216194

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Commelina benghalensis Linn is a perennial plant with upright stems reaching a height of 1 m. Its stem is commonly used to induce abortion in traditional medicine. However, there are insignificant scientific data to evaluate such a claim. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was conducted to determine the abortifacient and toxicological potential of ethanol extract of Commelina benghalensis Linn stem (EECBS) via selected proinflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in pregnant Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine the phytochemicals responsible for EECBS's toxicity and abortifacient effects, high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used. The abortion rate was determined by monitoring the markers of reproductive system failure in the experimental model. To assess rat hepatotoxicity, biochemical markers and immunohistopathological parameters were used. RESULTS: Results demonstrated the presence of isomeric benzene-mesitylene compounds in EECBS. Also, EECBS significantly altered the markers of liver function and oxidative damage while eliciting a significantly reduced (P < 0.05) number of live fetuses, number of corpora lutea, progesterone, estradiol, and luteinizing hormone, whereas the number of dead fetuses percentage vaginal opening, and post-implantation loss increased significantly (P < 0.05). Estrogenicity studies indicated a significant (P < 0.05) increase in uterine weight, uterine glucose, and ALP dose-dependently. Moreover, EECBS also caused a vaginal hemorrhage preceding the parturition. Also, EECBS treatment significantly increased levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and significantly elevated the expression of COX-2 protein in the liver. CONCLUSION: The current investigation established Commelina benghalensis Linn stem's abortifacient activity. Continuous use, on the other hand, may cause liver damage in pregnant rats by disrupting antioxidant defense mechanisms, promoting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increasing COX-2 expression. Hence, caution should be excised while consuming this plant's stem for medication purposes, especially during the gestational period.


Assuntos
Abortivos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Commelina , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ratos , Abortivos/toxicidade , Commelina/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2 , Citocinas/farmacologia , Judeus , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar
7.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-970472

RESUMO

This research established a high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin in Commelina communis to conduct content difference analysis and quality evaluation of 62 batches of C. communis from different origins. The HPLC content determination was performed on a Dikma Platisil ODS chromatographic column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid(14∶86) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 348 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1), and the column temperature was 35 ℃. The differences in origins and quality of 62 batches of C. communis were studied by chemometrics. The results showed that the determination of four components mani-fested a good linear relationship in the range of mass concentration(r>0.999 9), and the average recovery rate was 96.17%-103.0%. The relative standard deviations(RSDs) of precision, stability, and repeatability were all less than 2.0%. The content of four components from high to low was isoorientin>isovitexin>orientin>vitexin. Forty-seven batches of C. communis with clear origins were classified into six categories by chemometrics. C. communis from different origins had different qualities. Generally, C. communis from Western China, Central China, and South of China had superior qualities. The HPLC method established in this study is specific, simple, and efficient, which provides references for the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of C. communis. The chemometrics shows that the qualities of C. communis from different origins are largely different. Isoorientin can be used as an index to determine the content of C. communis, and its content limit should be set no less than 0.023%.


Assuntos
Commelina , Quimiometria , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 188: 105260, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464365

RESUMO

Commelina communis L. is a troublesome weed in agronomic fields and increasingly threatens the yield security of corn in north-eastern China. Previously, we found that a C. communis population (JL-1) has evolved resistance to atrazine. Although the potential genetic and enzymic differences contributing to atrazine resistance in this population have been investigated, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying C. communis resistance are still poorly understood. Here, the expression level of the target gene PsbA and the non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism for this population were studied. The results showed that the decline in chlorophyll content in JL-1 leaves was less than in the susceptible JS-10 population following atrazine treatment. JL-1 exhibited an enhanced expression of the PsbA gene compared with JS-10 of 7.28- and 14.28-fold higher at 0 and 24 h after treatment with atrazine, respectively. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) increased the phytotoxicity of atrazine in both populations of C. communis. Seven candidate genes associated with NTSR of Jl-1 were identified through RNA-seq and validated by quantitative real-time PCR, including 5 upregulated genes involved in herbicide metabolism. In addition, the activities of glutathione S-transferases and P450s in JL-1 were increased compared with JS-10. Collectively, PsbA gene overexpression and enhanced metabolism are likely to be responsible for JL-1 resistance to atrazine.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Commelina , Herbicidas , Atrazina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/farmacologia , China , Clorofila
9.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2022: 2028514, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35250385

RESUMO

The incidence of severe inflammatory diseases caused by chronic inflammation has increased owing to unprecedented changes brought about by industrialization. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of treatment of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced murine macrophages with Commelina communis Linne extract (CCE) on synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), hypersecretion of proinflammatory cytokines, intranuclear transition of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor- (NF-) κB, and degradation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα. Notably, CCE treatment did not affect cell viability even at a final concentration of 1.5 mg/mL. At a high concentration of CCE, the LPS-induced high levels of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin- (IL-) 1ß, and IL-6 were decreased via downregulation of inducible NO synthase and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression. Furthermore, phosphorylation of IκBα was significantly decreased upon CCE treatment, and the intranuclear transition of NF-κB p65 triggered by LPS was inhibited at a high concentration of CCE. Polyphenols and flavonoids, secondary metabolites in CCE that regulate the NF-κB pathway, may be responsible for its anti-inflammatory activity. We suggest that CCE has anti-inflammatory effects related to suppression of the NF-κB pathway and can be used to treat chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Commelina , NF-kappa B , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Commelina/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
10.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 38: e38025, Jan.-Dec. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395414

RESUMO

Other herbicides, alone or in combination with glyphosate, may be effective in controlling Richardia brasiliensis, Commelina benghalensis, Conyza sumatrensis e Digitaria insularis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicides, alone or in combination, in the control of these weeds in the off-season. Three composite experiments were conducted by applying herbicides, alone or in combinations. Experiments 1 and 2 were conducted in Palotina, State of Paraná (PR), Brazil. Experiment 3 in Iporã, PR, Brazil. The three during fall 2017 in fallow areas after soybean harvest. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with 4 replications and weed control at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days after application (DAA). The control of R. brasiliensis and C. benghalensis was evaluated in the three experiments, the control of C. sumatrensis, in experiments 1 and 2, while the control of D. insularis was evaluated only in experiment 3. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and F-test (p < 0.05). The treatment means values of experiments 1 and 2 were compared by Tukey's test (p < 0.05), and the treatment mean values of experiment 3 were grouped by the Scott and Knott test (p < 0.05). Some herbicide combinations were effective in controlling R. brasiliensis, C. benghalensis, in a single or sequential application. Herbicide combinations were effective in controlling C. sumatrensis with sequential application. Herbicide combinations in a single application did not provide satisfactory final control (≥ 80%) for D. insularis.


Assuntos
Cephaelis , Conyza , Commelina , Digitaria , Controle de Plantas Daninhas , Herbicidas
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(42): 24080-24101, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694309

RESUMO

While identified by the respective flavylium cation, anthocyanins are much more than this molecule. The flavylium cation (generally appearing only at very acidic pH values) is one of the molecules of a complex sequence of pH dependent molecular species reversibly interconnected by different chemical reactions. These species include the red flavylium cation, purple quinoidal base and blue or bluish anionic quinoidal bases. At the common pH of the vacuoles of simpler anthocyanins, the red flavylium cation is present only at very acidic pH values and at moderately acidic pHs there is no significant colour of the purple quinoidal base. Moreover, the blue or bluish anionic quinoidal base appearing around neutral pH values is not stable. Intermolecular (copigmentation) and intramolecular (in acylated anthocyanins) interactions increase the colour hue and yield bathochromic shifts in the absorption bands, permitting to extend the pH domain of the flavylium cation and increase the mole fraction of the quinoidal bases. Metal complexation is another strategy. In particular, the Al3+ cation plays an essential role in the blue colour of hydrangea. The most sophisticated structures are however the metaloanthocyanins, such as the one that gives the blue colour of commelina communis, constituted of six anthocyanins, six flavanones and two metals. In this work we discuss how physical chemical tools are indispensable to account for the chemical behaviour of these complex systems. The experimental procedures and the equations needed to calculate all equilibrium constants of anthocyanins and the consequent pH dependent mole fraction distributions in the absence or presence of copigments are described in detail. Reverse pH jumps monitored by stopped flow have been shown to be an indispensable tool to calculate these parameters.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Cor , Commelina/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933093

RESUMO

The kinetics of biological reactions depends on the deuterium/protium (D/H) ratio in water. In this work, we describe the kinetic model of biocatalytic reactions in living organisms depending on the D/H ratio. We show that a change in the lifetime or other characteristics of the vital activity of some organisms in response to a decrease or increase in the content of deuterium in the environment can be a sign of a difference in taxons. For animals-this is a curve with saturation according to the Gauss's principle, for plants-it is the Poisson dependence, for bacteria a weakly saturated curve with a slight reaction to the deuterium/protium ratio toward increasing deuterium. The biological activity of the aquatic environment with reduced, elevated, and natural concentrations of deuterium is considered. The results of the study are presented in different vital indicators of some taxons: the bacteria kingdom-the colony forming units (CFU) index (Escherichia coli); animals-the activation energy of the death of ciliates (Spirostomum ambiguum), embryogenesis of fish (Brachydanio rerio); plants-germination and accumulation of trace elements Callisia fragrans L., sprouting of gametophores and peptidomics of moss Physcomitrella patens. It was found that many organisms change their metabolism and activity, responding to both high and low concentrations of deuterium in water.


Assuntos
Biocatálise , Deutério/química , Hidrogênio/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Briófitas , Bryopsida , Cromatografia Líquida , Cilióforos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Commelina , Escherichia coli , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Isótopos , Cinética , Peptídeos , Distribuição de Poisson , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Oligoelementos , Tripsina/química , Água , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Zinco/química
13.
F1000Res ; 9: 493, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676186

RESUMO

Background: Medicinal plants are a source of phytochemicals and they are used for the treatment of several oxidative stress-related or other diseases for their effectiveness, low toxicity and easy availability. Five traditionally used and less characterized herbaceous weeds of West Bengal, India, namely, Heliotropium indicum, Tridax procumbens, Cleome rutidosperma, Commelina benghalensis and Euphorbia hirta, were investigated for the current research study. Methods: Aqueous and 70% ethanolic extracts of the leaves were analyzed for estimation of essential phytochemicals and to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant status, medicinal properties and cytotoxic effects. To the best of our knowledge, several assays and comparative evaluations using these herbs are reported for the first time. For quantitative study, UV-vis spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector HPLC-DAD techniques were used. Antibacterial properties were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. For in vitro anti-lithiatic study, a titration method was used. The cell viability assay was done using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: The aqueous extract exhibits higher content of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and inhibition percentage values for free radical scavenging assays, whereas the 70% ethanolic extract exhibits higher content of alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. HPLC-DAD analysis of 70% ethanolic extracts led us to identify 10 predominant phenolic constituents. Euphorbia hirta extracts showed minimum cytotoxicity (cell death ~2.5% and 4% in water and 70% ethanolic extract, respectively ), whereas Cleome rutidosperma and Tridax procumbens' 70% ethanolic extracts showed higher cell death (~13% and 28%, respectively), compared with the control (cell death ~10-12%). Conclusions: The study concluded that of all the medicinal weeds selected for the current study, Euphorbia hirta possesses the highest amount of bioactive compounds and hence exhibits the highest in vitro antioxidant activity and promising in vitro medicinal properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/química , Asteraceae/química , Células Cultivadas , Cleome/química , Commelina/química , Euphorbia/química , Heliotropium/química , Humanos , Índia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20190491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401840

RESUMO

The Commelina erecta L. (C. erecta) also known as erva-de-santa-luzia is reported by local population to have medical properties against some pathological conditions. In this study, two extracts of C. erecta leaves (aqueous and ethanolic) were phytochemically analysed and evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities by DPPH, TBARS, NO assays and cell viability assays. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of rutin and caffeic acid in aqueous and ethanolic extract. The total polyphenols in aqueous and ethanolic extracts found were 142.7 ± 3.0 and 123.1 ± 5.8 µg/mL of GAE, respectively. The ethanolic extract (5 mg/mL) inhibits TBARS by 33.8%, and the aqueous extract (5 mg/mL) exhibited scavenger property against nitric oxide derivatives to an extent of 77.8%. In cell culture, both extracts improved cell survivability under H2O2 induced oxidative stress. Thus, C. erecta extract is a good candidate to become a phytotherapic medicine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Commelina/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rutina/análise , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacocinética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1747-1757, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049110

RESUMO

The ability of a plant species to succeed in colonization of agroecosystem depends on its efficiency in the use of growth resources even in deficient conditions. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of competition and water deficit in the soil on the accumulation of macronutrients of Vigna unguiculataL. Walp., Commelina benghalensis L. and Waltheria indica L. The study was conducted in a greenhouse, in randomized block design, with four replications. The treatments were arranged in a 5 × 2 factorial, with the first factor corresponding to types of interaction among species (V. unguiculata + C. benghalensis; V. unguiculata + W. indica; V. unguiculata in monoculture, C. benghalensis in monoculture and W. indica in monoculture), and the second of water regimes (irrigated and water deficit).The water deficit differently affects macronutrient content on the species, with decreased of K, Ca and Mg in cowpea, and N, P, K and Ca in W. indica. For C. benghalensis, the water deficit does not reduce the macronutrient contents on the plant. The competition between plants intensifies the effects of water deficit only on C. benghalensis, with a decreased on the content of all macronutrients studied. Under irrigated conditions, competition between plants was more damaging the weeds compared to cowpea. The C. benghalensis specie, free from interference, has a high potential for nutrient extraction under irrigated and water deficit regimes.


A capacidade de uma espécie vegetal para ter sucesso na colonização do agroecossistema depende da sua eficiência na utilização dos recursos de crescimento mesmo em condições deficientes. Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da competição e déficit hídrico no solo no conteúdo de macronutrientes de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.), trapoeraba (Commelina benghalensis L.) e malva-branca (Waltheria indica L.). Foi conduzido estudo em casa de vegetação, em delineamento em blocos casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em fatorial 5 × 2, com o primeiro fator correspondente aos arranjos de competição entre as espécies (V. unguiculata + C. benghalensis; V. unguiculata + W. indica; V. unguiculataem monocultivo; C. benghalensis em monocultivo e W. indica em monocultivo), e o segundo dos regimes hídricos (irrigado e déficit hídrico). O déficit hídrico afeta de forma diferenciada o conteúdo de macronutrientes nas espécies, com redução de K, Ca e Mg no feijão-caupi, e N, P, K e Ca em W. indica. Para C. benghalensis, o déficit hídrico não reduz os conteúdos de macronutrientes na planta. A competição entre plantas intensifica os efeitos do déficit hídrico apenas em C. benghalensis, com redução do conteúdo de todos os macronutrientes estudados. Em condições irrigadas, a competição entre plantas foi mais prejudicial as plantas daninhas do que o feijão-caupi. Aespécie C. benghalensis, livre de interferência, apresenta elevado potencial de extração de nutrientes sob regimes irrigado e de déficit hídrico.


Assuntos
Solo , Alimentos , Malvaceae , Commelina , Desidratação , Vigna , Plantas Daninhas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770097

RESUMO

Background Commelina benghalensis Linn. (Family: Commelinaceae) is a common weed available in Bangladesh with several uses in traditional medicine. However, the chemical profile of this medicinal plant is scarce in relation to its medicinal uses. The aerial parts of this plant have been investigated for the isolation of secondary metabolites and evaluation of the biological activities. Methods Major phytochemical groups were analyzed using chromogenic reagents, whereas n-hexane soluble fractionates of the methanol extract were subjected to 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidant property of the obtained compounds was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). Results Dammara-12-en-3-one (CB-1), stigmasterol (CB-2) and 3 (2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxy)-cinnamoyl dammara-12-ene (CB-3) were isolated from the n-hexane fractionate of methanol extract of C. benghalensis. In the study of DPPH radical scavenging activity, IC50 values were predicted to be 790.18, 4186.94 and 2001.16 µg/mL for CB-1, CB-2 and CB-3, respectively, whereas standard ascorbic acid showed IC50 at 1.26 µg/mL. Conclusions Two new dammarane-type triterpene (CB-1 and CB-3) and one phytosterol (CB-2) were identified in C. benghalensis with mild antioxidant property.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Commelina/química , Fitosteróis/química , Terpenos/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Hexanos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Triterpenos/química
17.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(10): 803-809, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264502

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of time of the day and their associated climatic conditions on spray deposition of two 2,4-D formulations, as well as the influence on weed control. The experiment was installed in the field in complete randomized design. Treatments were arranged in factorial design 8 × 2, with 20 repetitions. First factor corresponded to different application time (1:00, 4:00, 7:00, 10:00, 13:00, 16:00, 19:00, and 22:00) with their respective climatic conditions. The second factor consisted of two formulations of 2,4-D applied at 776 g a.e. ha-1 (2,4-D amine and 2,4-D choline salt with Colex-D™ Technology) + glyphosate (816 g a.e. ha-1). There was more spray deposition when 2,4-D choline formulation was used, and such differences were more evident for applications performed under adverse climatic conditions. More spray deposition was found in applications performed at times of day with more favorable temperature and humidity of the air conditions. Only the initial control of the evaluated species was affected by the time of application.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético , Herbicidas , Plantas Daninhas , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/administração & dosagem , Bidens , Brasil , Cenchrus , Commelina , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/administração & dosagem , Umidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Temperatura , Tempo (Meteorologia)
18.
Funct Plant Biol ; 46(5): 467-481, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940335

RESUMO

There are opposing views on whether the responses of stomata to environmental stimuli are all autonomous reactions of stomatal guard cells or whether mesophyll is involved in these responses. Transplanting isolated epidermis onto mesophyll is a potent methodology for examining the roles of mesophyll-derived signals in stomatal responses. Here we report on development of a new transplanting method. Leaf segments of Commelina communis L. were pretreated in the light or dark at 10, 39 or 70Pa ambient CO2 for 1h. Then the abaxial epidermises were removed and the epidermal strips prepared from the other leaves kept in the dark at 39Pa CO2, were transplanted onto the mesophyll. After illumination of the transplants for 1h at 39Pa CO2, stomatal apertures were measured. We also examined the molecular sizes of the mesophyll signals by inserting the dialysis membrane permeable to molecules smaller than 100-500Da or 500-1000Da between the epidermis and mesophyll. Mesophyll pretreatments in the light at low CO2 partial pressures accelerated stomatal opening in the transplanted epidermal strips, whereas pretreatments at 70Pa CO2 suppressed stomatal opening. Insertion of these dialysis membranes did not suppress stomatal opening significantly at 10Pa CO2 in the light, whereas insertion of the 100-500Da membrane decelerated stomatal closure at high CO2. It is probable that the mesophyll signals inducing stomatal opening at low CO2 in the light would permeate both membranes, and that those inducing stomatal closure at high CO2 would not permeate the 100-500Da membrane. Possible signal compounds are discussed.


Assuntos
Commelina , Estômatos de Plantas , Folhas de Planta , Diálise Renal
19.
Bull Entomol Res ; 109(4): 463-471, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284530

RESUMO

We examined previous reports of Lema praeusta (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a minor pest of turmeric, eggplant, bottle gourd and pumpkin leaves, but no feeding damage by larvae and adults of L. praeusta were recorded by us on these leaves. We observed feeding by the larvae and adults of L. praeusta on ten species of Commelinaceae plants in no-choice tests. The biology, fecundity and life table parameters of L. praeusta on two Commelinaceae weeds, Commelina benghalensis L. and Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan were determined under laboratory conditions (27 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and 12L:12D). Total larval development times of L. praeusta were 6.36 ± 0.07 and 7.28 ± 0.11 days (mean ± SE) on C. benghalensis and M. nudiflora, respectively. Adult females lived 106.25 ± 1.17 and 77.65 ± 0.91 days (mean ± SE) on C. benghalensis and M. nudiflora, respectively. Each female laid 272.95 ± 2.39 and 224 ± 1.74 eggs (mean ± SE) during a lifetime on C. benghalensis and M. nudiflora, respectively. The net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), generation time (Tc), doubling time (DT) and finite rate of increase (λ) were 136.48, 0.14, 36.17, 5.10 and 1.41 on C. benghalensis, respectively, whereas Ro, rm, Tc, DT and λ were 112, 0.20, 23.64, 3.47 and 1.51 on M. nudiflora, respectively, suggesting that L. praeusta could be a potential biocontrol agent against C. benghalensis and M. nudiflora in the fields of rice, maize, sorghum, soybean, mung bean, peanut and cotton.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Commelinaceae , Herbivoria , Traços de História de Vida , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Commelina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Commelinaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução
20.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 59(8): 1568-1580, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635388

RESUMO

Regulation of stomatal aperture is essential for plant growth and survival in response to environmental stimuli. Opening of stomata induces uptake of CO2 for photosynthesis and transpiration, which enhances uptake of nutrients from roots. Light is the most important stimulus for stomatal opening. Under drought stress, the plant hormone ABA induces stomatal closure to prevent water loss. However, the molecular mechanisms of stomatal movements are not fully understood. In this study, we screened chemical libraries to identify compounds that affect stomatal movements in Commelina benghalensis and characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms. We identified nine stomatal closing compounds (SCL1-SCL9) that suppress light-induced stomatal opening by >50%, and two compounds (temsirolimus and CP-100356) that induce stomatal opening in the dark. Further investigations revealed that SCL1 and SCL2 had no effect on autophosphorylation of phototropin or the activity of the inward-rectifying plasma membrane (PM) K+ channel, KAT1, but suppressed blue light-induced phosphorylation of the penultimate residue, threonine, in PM H+-ATPase, which is a key enzyme for stomatal opening. SCL1 and SCL2 had no effect on ABA-dependent responses, including seed germination and expression of ABA-induced genes. These results suggest that SCL1 and SCL2 suppress light-induced stomatal opening at least in part by inhibiting blue light-induced activation of PM H+-ATPase, but not by the ABA signaling pathway. Interestingly, spraying leaves onto dicot and monocot plants with SCL1 suppressed wilting of leaves, indicating that inhibition of stomatal opening by these compounds confers tolerance to drought stress in plants.


Assuntos
Commelina/metabolismo , Luz , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Commelina/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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