Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.407
Filtrar
1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 267, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yoga can be used as a complementary intervention to conventional treatments, whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological. Sustained practice of yoga can generate a series of benefits for individuals' quality of life and improve their physical fitness. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effects of yoga as an adjunct intervention in conditions involving impulse control issues, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline personality disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and substance use disorders. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of placebo-controlled, randomized trials of yoga in patients with impulsivity. PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases were searched for trials published up to January, 2023. Data were extracted from published reports and quality assessment was performed per Cochrane recommendations. RESULTS: Out of 277 database results, 6 RCT were included in this systematic review. To assess the level of attention and impulsiveness, the following scales were analyzed: Barratt Impulsiveness, UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior scale, Conners' Continuous Performance Test IIª and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long. CONCLUSIONS: Yoga didn't have a significant improvement in impulsivity when compared to placebo. There are many tools to assess impulsivity, but they mean different concepts and domains consisting in a weakness on comparison of yoga effects. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42023389088.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Bipolar , Yoga , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 251, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Quick Delay Questionnaire (QDQ) is a short questionnaire designed to assess delay-related difficulties in adults. This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the QDQ (C-QDQ) in Chinese adults, and explore the ecological characteristics of delay-related impulsivity in Chinese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Data was collected from 302 adults, including ADHD (n = 209) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 93). All participants completed the C-QDQ. The convergent validity, internal consistency, retest reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the C-QDQ were analyzed. The correlations between C-QDQ and two laboratory measures of delay-related difficulties and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), the comparison of C-QDQ scores between ADHD subgroups and HCs were also analyzed. RESULTS: The Cronbach's α of C-QDQ was between 0.83 and 0.89. The intraclass correlation coefficient of C-QDQ was between 0.80 and 0.83. The results of CFA of C-QDQ favoured the original two-factor model (delay aversion and delay discounting). Significant positive associations were found between C-QDQ scores and BIS-11 total score and performance on the laboratory measure of delay-related difficulties. Participants with ADHD had higher C-QDQ scores than HCs, and female ADHD reported higher scores on delay discounting subscale than male. ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C) reported higher scores on delay aversion subscale than ADHD-inattention type (ADHD-I). CONCLUSION: The C-QDQ is a valid and reliable tool to measure delay-related responses that appears to have clinical utility. It can present the delay-related impulsivity of patients with ADHD. Compared to HCs, the level of reward-delay impulsivity was higher in ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 187, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605002

RESUMO

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting both children and adolescents. Individuals with ADHD experience heterogeneous problems, such as difficulty in attention, behavioral hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Recent studies have shown that complex genetic factors play a role in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Animal models with clear hereditary traits are crucial for studying the molecular, biological, and brain circuit mechanisms underlying ADHD. Owing to their well-managed genetic origins and the relative simplicity with which the function of neuronal circuits is clearly established, models of mice can help learn the mechanisms involved in ADHD. Therefore, in this review, we highlighting the important genetic animal models that can be used to study ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Animais , Camundongos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Atenção , Aprendizagem
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8605, 2024 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615065

RESUMO

Adolescence is characterized by increased impulsive and risk-taking behaviors. To better understand the neural networks that subserves impulsivity in adolescents, we used a reward-guided behavioral model that quantifies age differences in impulsive actions in adult and adolescent rats of both sexes. Using chemogenetics, we identified orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) projections to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) as a critical pathway for age-related execution of impulsive actions. Simultaneous recording of single units and local field potentials in the OFC and DMS during task performance revealed an overall muted response in adolescents during impulsive actions as well as age-specific differences in theta power and OFC-DMS functional connectivity. Collectively, these data reveal that the OFC-DMS pathway is critical for age-differences in reward-guided impulsive actions and provide a network mechanism to enhance our understanding of how adolescent and adult brains coordinate behavioral inhibition.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado , Neostriado , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Ratos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Encéfalo , Procedimentos Clínicos
5.
eNeuro ; 11(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569920

RESUMO

Most neuroeconomic research seeks to understand how value influences decision-making. The influence of reward type is less well understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate delay discounting of primary (i.e., food) and secondary rewards (i.e., money) in 28 healthy, normal-weighted participants (mean age = 26.77; 18 females). To decipher differences in discounting behavior between reward types, we compared how well-different option-based statistical models (exponential, hyperbolic discounting) and attribute-wise heuristic choice models (intertemporal choice heuristic, dual reasoning and implicit framework theory, trade-off model) captured the reward-specific discounting behavior. Contrary to our hypothesis of different strategies for different rewards, we observed comparable discounting behavior for money and food (i.e., exponential discounting). Higher k values for food discounting suggest that individuals decide more impulsive if confronted with food. The fMRI revealed that money discounting was associated with enhanced activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, involved in executive control; the right dorsal striatum, associated with reward processing; and the left hippocampus, involved in memory encoding/retrieval. Food discounting, instead, was associated with higher activity in the left temporoparietal junction suggesting social reinforcement of food decisions. Although our findings do not confirm our hypothesis of different discounting strategies for different reward types, they are in line with the notion that reward types have a significant influence on impulsivity with primary rewards leading to more impulsive choices.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Recompensa , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Hipocampo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
6.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 125-143, Abr 1, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232225

RESUMO

El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir el efecto de la depresión, la desesperanza y la impulsividad sobre la orientación al suicidio y el papel de la impulsividad como mediador de la orientación suicida en universitarios con antecedentes de conductas autolesivas. Participaron 1.645 jóvenes entre los 18 y 29 años, de dos ciudades colombianas. Se seleccionaron 218 jóvenes (M= 21,00; DT= 2,99) que informaron de al menos un intento de suicidio en el último año, quienes contestaron el “Inventario de orientación suicida”, la “Escala de desesperanza de Beck”, el “Inventario de depresión de Beck” y la “Escala de impulsividad de Barratt”. La depresión, la desesperanza y la impulsividad explicaron el 63% de la variación de la orientación al suicidio (R2= 0,635; IC 95% [0,555; 0,713]; p= 0,001). La impulsividad medió con depresión en aquellos casos en los que la orientación suicida era alta, cuyos efectos totales, directos e indirectos, fueron estadísticamente significativos (p< 0,001). La impulsividad desempeña un papel mediador entre la depresión y la desesperanza en la predicción de la orientación suicida.(AU)


The aim of this research was to describe the effect of depression,hopelessness, and impulsivity on orientation to suicide and the role of impulsivityas a mediator of suicidal orientation in university students with a history of self-injury behaviors. 1645 young people between 18 and 29 years old participated,from two Colombian cities. 218 young people were selected (M= 21.00; SD= 2.99)who reported at least one suicide attempt in the last year, who answered the“Suicidal Orientation Inventory”, the “Beck Hopelessness Scale”, the “BeckDepression Inventory” and the “Barratt Impulsivity Scale”. Depression,hopelessness, and impulsivity explained 63% of the variation in suicidal orientation (R 2 = .635, IC 95% [.555, .713], p= .001). Impulsivity mediated with depression inthose cases in which suicidal orientation was high, whose total, direct and indirecteffects were statistically significant (p< .001). Impulsivity plays a mediating rolebetween depression and hopelessness in predicting suicidal orientation.K EY WORDS : depression, hopelessness, impulsivity, suicidality, college youth.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento do Adolescente , Suicídio , Depressão , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Comportamento Impulsivo , Psicologia do Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Psicologia
7.
Brain Struct Funct ; 229(4): 865-877, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446245

RESUMO

Impulsive traits (i.e., the tendency to act without forethought regardless of negative outcomes) are frequently found in healthy populations. When exposed to risk factors, individuals may develop debilitating disorders of impulse control (addiction, substance abuse, gambling) characterized by behavioral and cognitive deficits, eventually leading to huge socioeconomic costs. With the far-reaching aim of preventing the onset of impulsive disorders, it is relevant to investigate the topological organization of functional brain networks associated with impulsivity in sub-clinical populations. Taking advantage of the open-source LEMON dataset, we investigated the topological features of resting-state functional brain networks associated with impulsivity in younger (n = 146, age: 20-35) and older (n = 61, age: 59-77) individuals, using a graph-theoretical approach. Specifically, we computed indices of segregation and integration at the level of specific circuits and nodes known to be involved in impulsivity (frontal, limbic, and striatal networks). In younger individuals, results revealed that impulsivity was associated with a more widespread, less clustered and less efficient functional organization, at all levels of analyses and in all selected networks. Conversely, impulsivity in older individuals was associated with reduced integration and increased segregation of striatal regions. Speculatively, such alterations of functional brain networks might underlie behavioral and cognitive abnormalities associated with impulsivity, a working hypothesis worth being tested in future research. Lastly, differences between younger and older individuals might reflect the implementation of age-specific adaptive strategies, possibly accounting for observed differences in behavioral manifestations. Potential interpretations, limitations and implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Impulsivo , Mapeamento Encefálico
8.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 129, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448952

RESUMO

To explore the influencing factors of consumers' impulsive purchase behavior in live streaming, based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response framework, we construct the model of how streamers influence consumers' impulsive purchase behavior by consulting literature. Collected data by means of a questionnaire, and made an empirical study by using the structural equation model to explore the mechanism of streamer affecting consumers' impulsive purchase behavior. The results show that streamer characteristics (personal charisma, professionalism) and streamer performance (interactivity, entertainment) affect consumers' impulsive purchase behavior by affecting consumers' trust and flow experience. The empirical results have important theoretical and practical significance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Pesquisa Empírica , Confiança
9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(5): e26589, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has shown smaller cortical and subcortical gray matter volumes among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, neuroimaging studies often do not differentiate between inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which are distinct core features of ADHD. The present study uses an approach to disentangle overlapping variance to examine the neurostructural heterogeneity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity dimensions. METHODS: We analyzed data from 10,692 9- to 10-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to derive factors representing inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive traits. We employed structural equation modeling to examine these factors' associations with gray matter volume while controlling for the shared variance between factors. RESULTS: Greater endorsement of inattentive traits was associated with smaller bilateral caudal anterior cingulate and left parahippocampal volumes. Greater endorsement of hyperactivity/impulsivity traits was associated with smaller bilateral caudate and left parahippocampal volumes. The results were similar when accounting for socioeconomic status, medication, and in-scanner motion. The magnitude of these findings increased when accounting for overall volume and intracranial volume, supporting a focal effect in our results. CONCLUSIONS: Inattentive and hyperactivity/impulsivity traits show common volume deficits in regions associated with visuospatial processing and memory while at the same time showing dissociable differences, with inattention showing differences in areas associated with attention and emotion regulation and hyperactivity/impulsivity associated with volume differences in motor activity regions. Uncovering such biological underpinnings within the broader disorder of ADHD allows us to refine our understanding of ADHD presentations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral , Cognição , Comportamento Impulsivo
10.
Brain Behav ; 14(3): e3335, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite its impact on daily life, impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) is understudied as a neuropsychiatric symptom. Our aim is to characterize temporal impulsivity in HD and to disentangle the white matter correlate associated with impulsivity. METHODS: Forty-seven HD individuals and 36 healthy controls were scanned and evaluated for temporal impulsivity using a delay-discounting (DD) task and complementary Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire. Diffusion tensor imaging was employed to characterize the structural connectivity of three limbic tracts: the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the accumbofrontal tract (NAcc-OFC), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex connectig the caudate nucleus (DLPFC-cn). Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to analyze the relationship between impulsive behavior and white matter microstructural integrity. RESULTS: Our results revealed altered structural connectivity in the DLPC-cn, the NAcc-OFC and the UF in HD individuals. At the same time, the variability in structural connectivity of these tracts was associated with the individual differences in temporal impulsivity. Specifically, increased structural connectivity in the right NAcc-OFC and reduced connectivity in the left UF were associated with higher temporal impulsivity scores. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings highlight the importance of investigating the spectrum of temporal impulsivity in HD. As, while less prevalent than other psychiatric features, this symptom is still reported to significantly impact the quality of life of patients and caregivers. This study provides evidence that individual differences observed in temporal impulsivity may be explained by variability in limbic frontostriatal tracts, while shedding light on the role of sensitivity to reward in modulating impulsive behavior through the selection of immediate rewards.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Doença de Huntington , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Impulsivo , Individualidade
11.
Addict Behav ; 153: 107968, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurobiological characteristics have been identified regarding the severity of gambling disorder (GD). The aims of this study were: (1) to examine, through a path analysis, whether there was a relationship between neuroendocrine features, potentially mediational GD variables, and GD severity, and (2) to associate neuroendocrine variables, with GD severity-related variables according to gambling preferences. METHODS: The sample included 297 outpatients with GD. We analyzed endocrine concentrations of different appetite-related hormones (ghrelin, liver antimicrobial peptide 2 [LEAP-2], leptin, adiponectin), and neuropsychological performance (working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibition, decision making, premorbid intelligence). Path analysis assessed mechanisms between neuroendocrine features and GD severity, including mediational GD variables (impulsivity traits and gambling-related cognitive distortions). Partial correlations evaluated the associations between neuroendocrine variables, including impulsivity traits, and variables related to GD severity (DSM-5, South Oaks Gambling Screen, illness duration, and gambling-related cognitive distortions). RESULTS: Lower adiponectin concentrations predicted greater GD severity, while higher LEAP-2 concentrations predicted more gambling-related cognitive distortions. Likewise, better neuropsychological performance directly predicted GD severity, but worse neuropsychological performance was associated with GD severity through the mediational variables of impulsivity traits and gambling-related cognitive distortions. Also, in non-strategic individuals with GD, poor working memory was associated with gambling expectancies and predictive control. In strategic individuals with GD, poor cognitive flexibility was associated with illusion of control, predictive control, and inability to stop gambling. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide updated information about the comprehension of the interaction between neuroendocrine features, clinical variables, and severity of GD. Thus, neurobiological functions seem to be strongly related to GD severity.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Humanos , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Endofenótipos , Adiponectina , Comportamento Impulsivo , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6535, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503800

RESUMO

Over half of children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) display interpersonal and social problems. Several lines of research suggest that suboptimal decision making, the ability to adjust choices to different risk-varying options, influences poorer choices made in social interactions. We thus measured decision making and its prediction of social problems longitudinally with the Cambridge Gambling Task in children with ADHD over four years. Children with ADHD had shown suboptimal decision making driven mainly by delay aversion at baseline and we expected this to be a stabile trait which would predict greater parent-reported social problems. From the baseline assessment (n = 70), 67% participated at the follow-up assessment, 21 from the ADHD group and 26 from the typically developing group. The mean age at the follow-up was 14.5 years old. The results confirmed our expectations that suboptimal decision making was a stabile trait in children and adolescents with ADHD. Although delay aversion did not differ from controls at follow-up it still proved to be the main longitudinal predictor for greater social problems. Our findings indicate that impulsivity in social interactions may be due to a motivational deficit in youth with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Jogo de Azar , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Interação Social , Tomada de Decisões
13.
Psychiatr Hung ; 39(1): 80-95, 2024.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502018

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset mental disorder, demonstrates genetical effects, and is characterized by attention deficit, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. While ADHD was previously only considered a childhood disorder, longitudinal studies over the past decades have proven that in a significant number of cases, the symptoms of the disorder can also be detected in adulthood, and therefore affects 2-4% of the adult population. In Hungary, adult ADHD programs started about 20 years ago and has been able to provide help to many adults living with ADHD. However, this form of care needs further development in many aspects and suffers from capacity deficits at the national level. On July 4-6, 2023 we organized a CME course on adult ADHD at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Semmelweis University. The objective of this course was to deepen the knowledge of participants and alleviate care difficulties in the long term through the sharing of information and good practices. As part of this, a narrative review was written, which touches on the current issues of diagnosing and treating ADHD in adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Psiquiatria , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Hungria , Comportamento Impulsivo
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 162, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531873

RESUMO

Given the unpredictable rapid onset and ubiquitous consequences of weight gain induced by antipsychotics, there is a pressing need to get insights into the underlying processes at the brain system level that will allow stratification of "at risk" patients. The pathophysiological hypothesis at hand is focused on brain networks governing impulsivity that are modulated by neuro-inflammatory processes. To this aim, we investigated brain anatomy and functional connectivity in patients with early psychosis (median age: 23 years, IQR = 21-27) using anthropometric data and magnetic resonance imaging acquired one month to one year after initiation of AP medication. Our analyses included 19 patients with high and rapid weight gain (i.e., ≥5% from baseline weight after one month) and 23 patients with low weight gain (i.e., <5% from baseline weight after one month). We replicated our analyses in young (26 years, IQR = 22-33, N = 102) and middle-aged (56 years, IQR = 51-62, N = 875) healthy individuals from the general population. In early psychosis patients, higher weight gain was associated with poor impulse control score (ß = 1.35; P = 0.03). Here, the observed brain differences comprised nodes of impulsivity networks - reduced frontal lobe grey matter volume (Pcorrected = 0.007) and higher striatal volume (Pcorrected = 0.048) paralleled by disruption of fronto-striatal functional connectivity (R = -0.32; P = 0.04). Weight gain was associated with the inflammatory biomarker plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (ß = 4.9, P = 0.002). There was no significant association between increased BMI or weight gain and brain anatomy characteristics in both cohorts of young and middle-aged healthy individuals. Our findings support the notion of weight gain in treated psychotic patients associated with poor impulse control, impulsivity-related brain networks and chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Aumento de Peso , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
15.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 245: 104215, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490132

RESUMO

Unverified or false information spread by irresponsible users can amplify the dissemination of fake news or misinformation. This phenomenon may not only undermine the credibility of social media platforms but also pose severe consequences for individuals and society. This study applies and extends the prototypical willingness model with the aim of comprehending the reasons, and decision-making process driving users' unverified information-sharing behavior a reasoned and intended pathway or an impulsive and unconscious one. Data from a sample of 646 users were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling to assess the determinative effect of both the reasoned pathway (attitude toward unverified information-sharing, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) and the social-reaction pathway (prototype favorability and similarity). Findings highlight the substantial role of the social-reaction pathway in forecasting users' unverified information-sharing behavior, with prototype similarity and attitude being the dominant predictors. Meanwhile, components of the reasoned pathway, specifically perceived behavior control, and attitude, also exhibited significant contributions toward predicting the behavior. In summary, while a deliberate, reasoned process has some influence, the sharing of unverified information on social media by users is primarily an intuitive, spontaneous response to specific online circumstances. This study therefore offers valuable insights that could aid relevant stakeholders in effectively regulating the spread of misinformation. Against this backdrop, highlighting potential risks associated with sharing unverified information and the negative portrayal of users propagating misinformation may contribute to the development of a more critical perspective toward online information sharing by users themselves.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Atitude , Disseminação de Informação , Comunicação , Comportamento Impulsivo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430953

RESUMO

Impulsivity is related to a host of mental and behavioral problems. It is a complex construct with many different manifestations, most of which are heritable. The genetic compositions of these impulsivity manifestations, however, remain unclear. A number of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and post-GWAS analyses have tried to address this issue. We conducted a systematic review of all GWAS and post-GWAS analyses of impulsivity published up to December 2023. Available data suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than a dozen of genes (e.g., CADM2, CTNNA2, GPM6B) are associated with different measures of impulsivity at genome-wide significant levels. Post-GWAS analyses further show that different measures of impulsivity are subject to different degrees of genetic influence, share few genetic variants, and have divergent genetic overlap with basic personality traits such as extroversion and neuroticism, cognitive ability, psychiatric disorders, substance use, and obesity. These findings shed light on controversies in the conceptualization and measurement of impulsivity, while providing new insights on the underlying mechanisms that yoke impulsivity to psychopathology.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Comportamento Impulsivo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
17.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 160: 105619, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462152

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence on the existence of a distinct phenotypic expression of Eating Disorders (EDs) associated with childhood maltreatment (CM), the so-called maltreated eco-phenotype of EDs. PRISMA standards were followed. Articles providing data about the characteristics of individuals with an ED reporting CM were included. Relevant results were extracted and summarized. A quality assessment was performed. A total of 1207 records were identified and screened, and 97 articles published between 1994 and 2023 were included. Findings revealed distinct biological and clinical features in patients with EDs reporting CM, including neuroanatomical changes, altered stress responses, ghrelin levels, inflammation markers, and gut microbiota composition. Clinically, CM correlated with severer eating behaviors, higher psychiatric comorbidity, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, and risky behaviors. Additionally, CM was associated with poorer treatment outcomes, especially in general psychopathology and psychiatric comorbidities. This review highlighted the need to move towards an etiologically informed nosography, recognizing CM not merely as a risk factor, but also as an etiologic agent shaping different eco-phenotypic variants of EDs.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Comorbidade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Impulsivo , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia
18.
Addict Behav ; 154: 108019, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impulsive personality traits are strong, consistent risk factors for heavy drinking, and modern theories suggest that impulsive traits may also confer risk for internalizing symptoms. However, it remains unclear which specific impulsive traits are linked with heavy drinking versus internalizing symptoms, and whether heavy drinking and internalizing symptoms are mechanisms of risk for negative alcohol consequences in impulsive individuals. METHOD: Data are from a longitudinal study of young adults (N = 448, Mage = 22.27, 43.5 % female) assessed at baseline (T1), 6 months (T2), and one year later (T3). Longitudinal path models tested whether T1 impulsive traits (i.e., lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, positive urgency, negative urgency) were indirectly associated with T3 negative alcohol consequences through heavy T2 drinking and T2 internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, stress). Separate models were tested for positive and negative urgency given strong correlations between these measures. RESULTS: Across models, T1 lack of premeditation indirectly predicted more T3 negative alcohol consequences through heavy T2 drinking. When tested separately, T1 negative urgency indirectly predicted more T3 negative consequences through higher T2 stress and depressive (but not anxiety) symptoms, and T1 positive urgency predicted higher T2 anxiety symptoms, but T2 anxiety was unrelated to T3 negative consequences. Across models, T1 sensation seeking indirectly predicted less T3 negative consequences through decreased T2 depression. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct impulsive traits prospectively predicted heavy drinking and internalizing symptoms, both of which conferred risk for negative alcohol consequences. Findings underscore the importance of targeted interventions based on personality and suggest that decreases in drinking may be more effective prevention for those who lack premeditation, whereas decreases in internalizing, particularly depression/stress, may be critical for those high in negative urgency.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores de Risco , Personalidade
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7093, 2024 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528075

RESUMO

Repeated stress can predispose to substance abuse. However, behavioral and neurobiological adaptations that link stress to substance abuse remain unclear. This study investigates whether intermittent social defeat (ISD), a stress protocol that promotes drug-seeking behavior, alters intertemporal decision-making and cortical inhibitory function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Male long evans rats were trained in a delay discounting task (DDT) where rats make a choice between a fast (1 s) small reward (1 sugar pellet) and a large reward (3 sugar pellets) that comes with a time delay (10 s or 20 s). A decreased preference for delayed rewards was used as an index of choice impulsivity. Rats were exposed to ISD and tested in the DDT 24 h after each stress episode, and one- and two-weeks after the last stress episode. Immunohistochemistry was performed in rat's brains to evaluate perineuronal nets (PNNs) and parvalbumin GABA interneurons (PV) labeling as markers of inhibitory function in mPFC. ISD significantly decreased the preference for delayed large rewards in low impulsive, but not high impulsive, animals. ISD also increased the density of PNNs in the mPFC. These results suggest that increased choice impulsivity and cortical inhibition predispose animals to seek out rewards after stress.


Assuntos
Córtex Pré-Frontal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Interneurônios , Ratos Long-Evans , Recompensa , Açúcares , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
20.
Psychol Sci ; 35(4): 345-357, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407962

RESUMO

A major challenge in assessing psychological constructs such as impulsivity is the weak correlation between self-report and behavioral task measures that are supposed to assess the same construct. To address this issue, we developed a real-time driving task called the "highway task," in which participants often exhibit impulsive behaviors mirroring real-life impulsive traits captured by self-report questionnaires. Here, we show that a self-report measure of impulsivity is highly correlated with performance in the highway task but not with traditional behavioral task measures of impulsivity (47 adults aged 18-33 years). By integrating deep neural networks with an inverse reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm, we inferred dynamic changes of subjective rewards during the highway task. The results indicated that impulsive participants attribute high subjective rewards to irrational or risky situations. Overall, our results suggest that using real-time tasks combined with IRL can help reconcile the discrepancy between self-report and behavioral task measures of psychological constructs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Reforço Psicológico , Adulto , Humanos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aprendizagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...