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1.
J Safety Res ; 89: 343-353, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858059

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The surge in popularity of electric kick scooters (e-scooters) poses new challenges for traffic planning, demanding a comprehensive understanding of route choice behavior to see how e-scooters are used, how they affect traffic flow, and where improvements can be made to the road infrastructure. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze route choices and preferences of e-scooter riders and cyclists in a quasi-experimental setup with both user groups having the same trip destinations. METHOD: Two groups of participants (n = 52) completed a ride with either a shared e-scooter or bicycle to reach four predefined destinations in Dresden, Germany. The riders were supposed to choose their routes and subsequently reported the difficulty of decision-making and the importance of several route choice factors related to the ride. RESULTS: E-scooter riders rated road surface and safety as significantly more important for route choice than cyclists and tended to perceive the decision-making as more difficult. Riding data revealed broad comparability between the groups, with e-scooter riders tendentially having longer routes for complex decisions (unknown destinations, scenic routes, more turns required). DISCUSSION: The study suggests that the route preferences of e-scooter riders may be influenced by a combination of road surface and safety considerations, highlighting the need for high-quality cycling infrastructure. Limitations exist regarding the naturally occurring differences in riding experience in e-scooter riding versus cycling. Practical implications indicate that planning for e-scooter riders can benefit from insights drawn from activities designed for cyclists. The provision of real-time road quality information is proposed, considering its potential impact on overall road safety. SUMMARY: This study contributes to a better understanding of how e-scooter riders navigate through cities and delivers a valuable foundation for transport planners and engineers considering the rise in cycling and micro-mobility use.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Tomada de Decisões , Segurança , Planejamento Ambiental , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302886, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Economic evaluation of healthcare typically assumes that an identical health gain to different patients has the same social value. There is some evidence that the public may give greater value to gains for children and young people, although this evidence is not always consistent. We present a mixed methods study protocol where we aim to explore public preferences regarding health gains to children and young people relative to adults, in an Australian setting. METHODS: This study is a Person Trade Off (PTO) choice experiment that incorporates qualitative components. Within the PTO questions, respondents will be asked to choose between treating different groups of patients that may differ in terms of patient characteristics and group size. PTO questions will be included in an online survey to explore respondent views on the relative value of health gains to different age groups in terms of extending life and improving different aspects of quality of life. The survey will also contain attitudinal questions to help understand the impact of question style upon reported preferences. Additionally, the study will test the impact of forcing respondents to express a preference between two groups compared with allowing them to report that the two groups are equivalent. One-to-one 'think aloud', semi-structured interviews will be conducted to explore a sub-sample of respondents' motivations and views in more detail. Focus groups will be conducted with members of the public to discuss the study findings and explore their views on the role of public preferences in health care prioritisation based on patient age. DISCUSSION: Our planned study will provide valuable information to healthcare decision makers in Australia who may need to decide whether to pay more for health gains for children and young people compared with adults. Additionally, the methodological test of forcing respondent choice or allowing them to express equivalence will contribute towards developing best practice methods in PTO studies. The rationale for and advantages of the study approach and potential limitations are discussed in the protocol.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Criança , Adulto , Adolescente , Austrália , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento de Escolha
3.
Eat Weight Disord ; 29(1): 39, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831033

RESUMO

PURPOSE:  The growing importance placed on health and physical well-being by consumers continues to influence food industry choices. The food market therefore, pandering to the desires for a lean and athletic body, offers new products deemed more healthy and able to impact body image. It is evidenced, thus, a change in food choices and habits, with more attention to the quality and nutrient content of the products consumed, in which protein is assuming increasing importance. The purpose of the study is to highlight important changes in eating habits and in particular the increase in the consumption of high-protein foods, attributable to the focus on physical fitness and thinness, resulting in a decreasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the progressive loss of its positive impact on health. METHODS AND RESULTS: This analysis is based on CIRCANA srl data on food consumption trends (change percentage of quantity and value sales) in recent years. Specifically, between January and September 2022 vs. 2021, there was a 21.6% increase in the sale of high-protein products, significantly higher than all the previous ones. CONCLUSIONS: The past few years have seen the gradual discovery of new products, at first little-known and niche, which are becoming major players on the national food consumption scene. The trend is toward a growing preference for high-protein foods and diets with the gradual abandonment of the Mediterranean and an increased risk of nutritional deficiencies, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, evidence obtained from multiple time series with or without the intervention.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento de Escolha , Proteínas Alimentares
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4782, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839747

RESUMO

During perceptually guided decisions, correlates of choice are found as upstream as in the primary sensory areas. However, how well these choice signals align with early sensory representations, a prerequisite for their interpretation as feedforward substrates of perception, remains an open question. We designed a two alternative forced choice task (2AFC) in which male mice compared stimulation frequencies applied to two adjacent vibrissae. The optogenetic silencing of individual columns in the primary somatosensory cortex (wS1) resulted in predicted shifts of psychometric functions, demonstrating that perception depends on focal, early sensory representations. Functional imaging of layer II/III single neurons revealed mixed coding of stimuli, choices and engagement in the task. Neurons with multi-whisker suppression display improved sensory discrimination and had their activity increased during engagement in the task, enhancing selectively representation of the signals relevant to solving the task. From trial to trial, representation of stimuli and choice varied substantially, but mostly orthogonally to each other, suggesting that perceptual variability does not originate from wS1 fluctuations but rather from downstream areas. Together, our results highlight the role of primary sensory areas in forming a reliable sensory substrate that could be used for flexible downstream decision processes.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Optogenética , Córtex Somatossensorial , Vibrissas , Animais , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Masculino , Vibrissas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Biol Lett ; 20(6): 20240051, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863345

RESUMO

When chimpanzees search for hidden food, do they realize that their guesses may not be correct? We applied a post-decision wagering paradigm to a simple two-cup search task, varying whether we gave participants visual access to the baiting and then asking after they had chosen one of the cups whether they would prefer a smaller but certain reward instead of their original choice (experiment 1). Results showed that chimpanzees were more likely to accept the smaller reward in occluded than visible conditions. Experiment 2 found the same effect when we blocked visual access but manipulated the number of hiding locations for the food piece, showing that the effect is not owing to representation type. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that when given information about the contents of the unchosen cup, chimpanzees were able to flexibly update their choice behaviour accordingly. These results suggest that language is not a pre-requisite to solving the disjunctive syllogism and provides a valuable contribution to the debate on logical reasoning in non-human animals.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Pan troglodytes/psicologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Recompensa
6.
Food Res Int ; 189: 114515, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876601

RESUMO

Culture is a well-known driver of food choices, and therefore, it could also impact food pairing preferences. Food pairing has been studied from different approaches; however, little cross-cultural research has been done. This work explored food and beverage pairing using projective mapping (PM) to create maps of food-beverage combinations. Four countries (Mexico, Argentina, France, and Norway), thirty foods, and six beverages were selected. PM was carried out through an online study in each country. Participants were asked to map foods together with beverages following the instruction that foods and beverages closer together represented a good combination. The coordinates of each product were analyzed through Multiple Factorial Analyses (MFA) by countries. The first four factors of each MFA were used to perform RV coefficients to test similarities in food-beverage pairings between the countries. Finally, a k-means clustering was performed on the beverage coordinates of each MFA. PM provided maps representing food and beverage pairings for each country in which the proximity between food-beverages represented a good combination according to consumers. RV coefficients between countries were low, showing that food-beverage pairings were not similar across countries, evidencing the cultural effect in food-drink combinations. Results from the k-means clustering showed some similarities and differences between countries. In general, the food-beverage pairing was effectively explored with PM, from which several differences and similarities were found within cultures.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comparação Transcultural , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Noruega , México , França , Adulto Jovem , Argentina , Comportamento de Escolha , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos , Adolescente
7.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev ; 52(3): 102-107, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865162

RESUMO

The influence of habit on physical activity is computationally modeled as the aggregated influence of past behavioral choices a person makes in a given context. We hypothesize that the influence of habit on behavior can be enhanced through engagement of the target behavior in a particular context or weakened through engagement of alternative behaviors in that context.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hábitos , Humanos , Comportamento de Escolha , Simulação por Computador , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
8.
Trends Neurosci Educ ; 35: 100223, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879195

RESUMO

AIM: We examined age-related differences in valuation and cognitive control circuits during value-based decision-making. METHODS: 13-year-olds (N = 25) and 17-year-olds (N = 22) made a metacognitive choice to be tested or not on an upcoming learning task, based on reward and difficulty associated with word-pairs. To investigate whether these determinants of subjective value are differently processed at different ages, we performed region-of-interest(ROI)-based analyses of task-related and functional connectivity data. RESULTS: We observed age-related differences in responsiveness of valuation structures (amygdala, ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex) and caudate nucleus, with activity modulated by reward in 13-year-olds, while in 17-year-olds activity being responsive to difficulty. These accompanied age-related differences in functional connectivity between medial prefrontal and striatal/amygdala seeds. DISCUSSION: These results are in line with current views that sensitivity changes for reward and difficulty during adolescence are the result of a maturational switch in effort-related signalling in the cognitive control circuit, which increasingly regulates value-signalling structures.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Recompensa , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico
9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 21(1): 64, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Front-of-package nutritional warning labels (WLs) are designed to facilitate identification and selection of healthier food choices. We assessed self-reported changes in purchasing different types of unhealthy foods due to WLs in Mexico and the association between the self-reported reductions in purchases of sugary beverages and intake of water and sugar-sweetened beverages. METHODS: Data came from 14 to 17 year old youth (n = 1,696) and adults ≥ 18 (n = 7,775) who participated in the Mexican arm of the 2020-2021 International Food Policy Study, an annual repeat cross-sectional online survey. Participants self-reported whether the WLs had influenced them to purchase less of each of nine unhealthy food categories due to WLs. Among adults, a 23-item Beverage Frequency Questionnaire was used derive past 7-day intake of water and sugary beverages analyzed to determine the relationship between self-reported reductions in purchasing sugary drinks due to the WLs. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the percentage of participants who self-reported reducing purchases within each food group, and overall. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with this reduction were investigated as well. RESULTS: Overall, 44.8% of adults and 38.7% of youth reported buying less of unhealthy food categories due to the implementation of WL, with the largest proportion reporting decreased purchases of cola, regular and diet soda. A greater impact of WLs on the reported purchase of unhealthy foods was observed among the following socio-demographic characteristics: females, individuals who self-identified as indigenous, those who were overweight, individuals with lower educational levels, those with higher nutrition knowledge, households with children, and those with a significant role in household food purchases. In addition, adults who reported higher water intake and lower consumption of sugary beverages were more likely to report reduced purchases of sugary drinks due to the WLs. Adults who reported greater water intake and lower sugary beverages intake were significantly more likely to report buying fewer sugary drinks due to the WLs. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that implementation of WLs has reduced perceived purchases of unhealthy foods in Mexico. These results underscore the potential positive impact of the labeling policy particularly in subpopulations with lower levels of education and among indigenous adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Autorrelato , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , México , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento de Escolha , Política Nutricional , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13463, 2024 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862606

RESUMO

In the context of the expanding local food market, grasping the evolutionary trajectory of consumer purchasing behavior is crucial for understanding market dynamics. This study adopts a cross-generational perspective to delve into and elucidate the similarities and differences in local food consumption behaviors between Gen Z and Gen Y. Through the analysis of online survey data from 251 individuals of Gen Z and 319 of Gen Y and utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical framework, and the study identifies eight key variables. The findings reveal that while Gen Z and Gen Y exhibit a range of common characteristics in their choice of local food,including attention to word of mouth, health consciousness, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and attitude.there is a significant divergence in their motivating factors for purchasing. Specifically, convenience is the primary driver for Gen Z when selecting local food; conversely, price is the decisive factor in the decision-making process of Gen Y. By unveiling these significant differences and similarities, the research offers significant understanding beneficial to the food sector, particularly in formulating market strategies targeted at different generations.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento de Escolha , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Alimentar
11.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892558

RESUMO

Adequate hydration is essential for good health, and an individual's hydration status is determined by the quantity and type of ingested fluids. The aim of the present study was to determine the hydration status of school-age children and evaluate changes in the type and quantity of consumed beverages between 2018 and 2023. The study was conducted in two stages between 2018 and 2023, and a total of 1030 fully completed questionnaires were returned by the children and their parents. A comparison of the parents' responses regarding factors that affect beverage choices revealed that beverage composition was more significant for the parents in 2023 than in 2018, whereas health-promoting properties were significant for only less than 30% of the respondents. Taste preferences were important for both the parents and the children, and they were the main criterion in the choice of beverages in both 2018 and 2023. In turn, advertising was an important factor for children, and the percentage of children who were guided by advertising in their choice of beverages increased from 52.1% in 2018 to 58.5% in 2023 (p < 0.05). Daily fluid intake from beverages in children aged 11-13 years generally does not meet recommended intakes. Low fluid intake can negatively affect children's hydration status and bodily functions. Taste preferences and advertising were correlated with a higher intake of carbonated and non-carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dairy beverages. The percentage of children who bought drinks independently and had access to SSBs increased significantly during the analyzed period. Obtain results indicate that nutrition education programs are needed to teach adolescents to make healthy drink choices, limit their consumption of SSBs and EDs, and promote regular intake of natural mineral water and non-sweetened dairy beverages.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comportamento de Escolha , Humanos , Criança , Polônia , Adolescente , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Preferências Alimentares , Ingestão de Líquidos , Pais/psicologia , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Paladar
12.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892655

RESUMO

Commercial environments and food acquisition methods significantly shape dietary practices and impact health. This study assesses dietary choices among Portuguese university students regarding vending machines, canteens, and lunches from home. It also evaluates their use of the university canteen and their tendency to bring lunch from home. This pilot cross-sectional study used a self-administered electronic questionnaire, made available in early 2023. Participants were recruited through snowball sampling. The study included 137 students from Portuguese higher education institutions, mainly women (74.5%), pursuing degrees or integrated Master's degrees (83.2%), primarily in health-related fields (55.5%). The median age was 21 years (20 to 23.5 years). About 70.0% regularly consumed food from vending machines, while approximately 60.0% brought lunch from home, avoiding the canteen. Factors such as convenience (48.5%), price (47.5%), product availability (40.6%), and taste (39.6%) mainly influenced vending machine choices. Monthly, chocolates, water, coffee, cookies, treats, and soft drinks were the most commonly acquired items, with coffee being the most frequent daily purchase. These findings provide insights for creating policies and initiatives to promote healthier and more accessible food options for students and strategies to encourage positive eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Serviços de Alimentação , Almoço , Estudantes , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Feminino , Universidades , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Transversais , Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Portugal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar
13.
Evol Psychol ; 22(2): 14747049241262712, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881307

RESUMO

Many researchers have proposed that women perceive men with masculine face shapes to be less suitable as parents and long-term partners than men with feminine face shapes, causing women to find masculine men more attractive for short-term than long-term relationships. However, recent work shows that results obtained using the type of experimentally manipulated stimuli that were employed in studies presenting evidence for these claims are not necessarily observed when natural (i.e., unmanipulated) face stimuli were used to suggest that the evidence for these claims may need to be revaluated. Consequently, we tested for possible relationships between ratings of natural male faces for parenting- and relationship-related traits and shape masculinity (Study 1) and also tested whether women's preferences for shape masculinity were stronger when natural male faces were rated for short-term relationships than when natural male faces were rated for long-term relationships (Studies 2 and 3). We saw no evidence for either of these predictions, instead finding that men with more attractive faces were perceived to be better parents and better long-term partners. Thus, our findings do not support the widely held view that masculine men are more attractive for short-term relationships because they are perceived to be unlikely to invest time and effort in their romantic partners and offspring.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Masculinidade , Parceiros Sexuais , Percepção Social , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Face , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente
14.
Anim Cogn ; 27(1): 44, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884865

RESUMO

The blank comparison (BLC) task was developed to assess stimulus relations in discrimination learning; that is, are subjects learning to "select" the correct stimulus (S+) or "reject" the incorrect stimulus (S-) or both? This task has been used to study exclusion learning, mostly in humans and monkeys, and the present study extends the procedure to rats. The BLC task uses an ambiguous stimulus (BLC+/-) that replaces S+ (in the presence of S-) and replaces S- (in the presence of S+). In the current experiment, four rats were trained to remove session-novel scented lids from sand-filled cups in a two-choice, simultaneous presentation procedure called the Odor Span Task (OST) before being trained on the BLC procedure using odors as the discriminative stimuli. The BLC training procedure utilized simple discrimination training (S+ and S-) and added select (S+ and BLC-) and reject (BLC+ and S-) trial types. All rats demonstrated accurate performance in sessions with both select and reject type trials. Next, BLC probe trials were interspersed in standard OST sessions to assess the form of stimulus control in the OST. Rats performed accurately on select type probe trials (similar to baseline OST performance) and also showed above chance accuracy on reject type trials. Thus, we demonstrated that rats could acquire an odor-based version of the BLC task and that both select and exclusion-based (reject) relations were active in the OST. The finding of exclusion in rats under the rigorous BLC task conditions confirms that exclusion-based responding is not limited to humans and non-human primates.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Odorantes , Animais , Ratos , Masculino , Percepção Olfatória , Comportamento de Escolha , Ratos Long-Evans
15.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the efficacy of Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels (FOPNLs) as a cost-effective tool for improving dietary choices among Greek consumers. The purpose of the study was to investigate Greek customers' preferences and comprehension of commonly used European FOPNL schemes. METHODS: The Hellenic Food Authority and the Agricultural University of Athens performed a representative online survey in March 2022, titled "The Role of Nutritional Labelling in Public Perception and Food Procurement." Consumers responded to a questionnaire separated into two parts. Part one included (i) personal, sociodemographic information, and (ii) subjective opinions on the FOPNL schemes, and part two comprised (iii) an objective understanding of NutriScore and NutrInform Battery, using 15 different foods. Participants were randomly allocated to these groups, and general mixed models were used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1389 adults completed the first part of the survey, and 74.8% completed the second part. The Multiple Traffic Lights scheme was the preferred FOPNL, chosen by 48.4% of respondents, compared to 19.7% for NutrInform Battery and 12.3% for NutriScore. However, the mean objective assessment score was highest for NutriScore (5.8 ± 2.3) compared to NutrInform Battery (5.4 ± 1.9). CONCLUSION: The results highlight the necessity for comprehensive nutrition education programs by showing a considerable gap between subjective preferences and an objective understanding of nutrition labels.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grécia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento de Escolha , Adolescente , Valor Nutritivo , Compreensão , Idoso , Percepção
16.
Hum Resour Health ; 22(1): 41, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890735

RESUMO

Employer of choice (EOC) is a relatively new phenomenon, particularly in Human Resources Management. Existing employees and prospective talent have reasons and expectations to designate an employer as an EOC. While EOC has received extensive attention from both academics and practitioners over the past few years, the work has mostly focused on managerial and marketing perspectives, and thus far lacks a strong theoretical foundation. Drawing on Social Exchange Theory (SET), based on Human Resources and employees' perceptions and experiences, this research aims to explore and investigate the factors that constitute/designate an employer as an Employer of Choice EOC. Two qualitative triangulated data sets were collected from existing full-time employees at a Saudi multinational corporation: open interviews and document analysis (cross-sectional and longitudinal). Thematic analysis (TA) was employed to analyze both methods. The findings reveal that company image, training, and development, satisfaction, involvement and commitment, fairness, work culture, reward, opportunities for growth, teamwork, motivation, and corporate social responsibility are the factors that lead employees to designate an employer as an EOC. This research contributes to knowledge conceptually, theoretically, and empirically, mainly in the area of Human Resources Management. This research represents one of the first studies to empirically identify and investigate employee-related factors and evaluate them all together in a multinational Saudi organization. Recognizing the findings of this empirical-based research assists HR managers in designating their organizations as an EOC for current employees and prospective talents.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Motivação , Local de Trabalho , Satisfação no Emprego , Cultura Organizacional , Emprego , Adulto , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento de Escolha
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14174, 2024 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898026

RESUMO

Maintaining driving independence is important for older adults. However, cognitive decline, a common issue in older populations, can impair older adults' driving abilities and overall safety on the roads. This study explores how cognitive impairment influences driving patterns and driving choices among older adults. We analyzed real-world driving patterns of 246 older adults using GPS dataloggers. Our sample included 230 cognitively normal older adults (CN; Clinical Dementia Rating R [CDR] = 0) and 16 older adults with incident cognitive impairment (ICI; CDR = 0.5). The CN group had an average age of 68.2 years, with 46% females and an average of 16.5 years of education, while the ICI group's average age was 69.2 years, with 36% females and an average of 16.0 years of education. We employed spatial clustering and hashing algorithms to evaluate driving behaviours. Significant differences emerged: The ICI group used fewer distinct routes to their most common destination. These differences can be leveraged to develop driving as a digital biomarker for the early detection and continuous monitoring of cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Idoso , Masculino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento de Escolha
18.
PLoS Biol ; 22(6): e3002686, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900903

RESUMO

Humans are known to be capable of inferring hidden preferences and beliefs of their conspecifics when observing their decisions. While observational learning based on choices has been explored extensively, the question of how response times (RT) impact our learning of others' social preferences has received little attention. Yet, while observing choices alone can inform us about the direction of preference, they reveal little about the strength of this preference. In contrast, RT provides a continuous measure of strength of preference with faster responses indicating stronger preferences and slower responses signaling hesitation or uncertainty. Here, we outline a preregistered orthogonal design to investigate the involvement of both choices and RT in learning and inferring other's social preferences. Participants observed other people's behavior in a social preferences task (Dictator Game), seeing either their choices, RT, both, or no information. By coupling behavioral analyses with computational modeling, we show that RT is predictive of social preferences and that observers were able to infer those preferences even when receiving only RT information. Based on these findings, we propose a novel observational reinforcement learning model that closely matches participants' inferences in all relevant conditions. In contrast to previous literature suggesting that, from a Bayesian perspective, people should be able to learn equally well from choices and RT, we show that observers' behavior substantially deviates from this prediction. Our study elucidates a hitherto unknown sophistication in human observational learning but also identifies important limitations to this ability.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Tempo de Reação , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento Social , Aprendizagem
19.
PeerJ ; 12: e17300, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38903880

RESUMO

One primary goal of laboratory animal welfare science is to provide a comprehensive severity assessment of the experimental and husbandry procedures or conditions these animals experience. The severity, or degree of suffering, of these conditions experienced by animals are typically scored based on anthropocentric assumptions. We propose to (a) assess an animal's subjective experience of condition severity, and (b) not only rank but scale different conditions in relation to one another using choice-based preference testing. The Choice-based Severity Scale (CSS) utilizes animals' relative preferences for different conditions, which are compared by how much reward is needed to outweigh the perceived severity of a given condition. Thus, this animal-centric approach provides a common scale for condition severity based on the animal's perspective. To assess and test the CSS concept, we offered three opportunistically selected male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) choices between two conditions: performing a cognitive task in a typical neuroscience laboratory setup (laboratory condition) versus the monkey's home environment (cage condition). Our data show a shift in one individual's preference for the cage condition to the laboratory condition when we changed the type of reward provided in the task. Two additional monkeys strongly preferred the cage condition over the laboratory condition, irrespective of reward amount and type. We tested the CSS concept further by showing that monkeys' choices between tasks varying in trial duration can be influenced by the amount of reward provided. Altogether, the CSS concept is built upon laboratory animals' subjective experiences and has the potential to de-anthropomorphize severity assessments, refine experimental protocols, and provide a common framework to assess animal welfare across different domains.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais de Laboratório , Comportamento de Escolha , Macaca mulatta , Animais , Masculino , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Recompensa , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
20.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(6)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38904082

RESUMO

In real-life scenarios, joint consumption is common, particularly influenced by social relationships such as romantic ones. However, how romantic relationships affect consumption decisions and determine dominance remains unclear. This study employs electroencephalography hyperscanning to examine the neural dynamics of couples during joint-consumption decisions. Results show that couples, compared to friends and strangers, prefer healthier foods, while friends have significantly faster reaction times when selecting food. Time-frequency analysis indicates that couples exhibit significantly higher theta power, reflecting deeper emotional and cognitive involvement. Strangers show greater beta1 power, indicating increased cognitive effort and alertness due to unfamiliarity. Friends demonstrate higher alpha2 power when choosing unhealthy foods, suggesting increased cognitive inhibition. Inter-brain phase synchrony analysis reveals that couples display significantly higher inter-brain phase synchrony in the beta1 and theta bands across the frontal-central, parietal, and occipital regions, indicating more coordinated cognitive processing and stronger emotional bonds. Females in couples may be more influenced by emotions during consumption decisions, with detailed sensory information processing, while males exhibit higher cognitive control and spatial integration. Granger-causality analysis shows a pattern of male dominance and female dependence in joint consumption within romantic relationships. This study highlights gender-related neural synchronous patterns during joint consumption among couples, providing insights for further research in consumer decision-making.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Comportamento de Escolha , Eletroencefalografia , Relações Interpessoais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia
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