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1.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 106, 2024 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38812002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we used targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to investigate the genetic basis of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in a 19-year-old Tunisian man who presented with severe hypothyroidism and goiter. CASE PRESENTATION: The propositus reported the appearance of goiter when he was 18. Importantly, he did not show signs of mental retardation, and his growth was proportionate. A partial organification defect was detected through the perchlorate-induced iodide discharge test. NGS identified a novel homozygous mutation in exon 18 of the SLC26A7 gene (P628Qfs*11), which encodes for a new iodide transporter. This variant is predicted to result in a truncated protein. Notably, the patient's euthyroid brother was heterozygous for the same mutation. No renal acid-base abnormalities were found and the administration of 1 mg of iodine failed to correct hypothyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: We described the first case of goitrous CH due to a homozygous mutation of the SLC26A7 gene diagnosed during late adolescence.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Homozigoto , Mutação , Transportadores de Sulfato , Humanos , Masculino , Antiporters , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Bócio/genética , Transportadores de Sulfato/genética , Adolescente
2.
Nat Genet ; 56(5): 869-876, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714868

RESUMO

Insufficient thyroid hormone production in newborns is referred to as congenital hypothyroidism. Multinodular goiter (MNG), characterized by an enlarged thyroid gland with multiple nodules, is usually seen in adults and is recognized as a separate disorder from congenital hypothyroidism. Here we performed a linkage analysis of a family with both nongoitrous congenital hypothyroidism and MNG and identified a signal at 15q26.1. Follow-up analyses with whole-genome sequencing and genetic screening in congenital hypothyroidism and MNG cohorts showed that changes in a noncoding TTTG microsatellite on 15q26.1 were frequently observed in congenital hypothyroidism (137 in 989) and MNG (3 in 33) compared with controls (3 in 38,722). Characterization of the noncoding variants with epigenomic data and in vitro experiments suggested that the microsatellite is located in a thyroid-specific transcriptional repressor, and its activity is disrupted by the variants. Collectively, we presented genetic evidence linking nongoitrous congenital hypothyroidism and MNG, providing unique insights into thyroid abnormalities.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Repetições de Microssatélites , Linhagem , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Bócio Nodular/genética , Adulto , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Ligação Genética
4.
Horm Behav ; 162: 105548, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636205

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones are crucial for brain development and their deficiency during fetal and postnatal periods can lead to mood and cognitive disorders. We aimed to examine the consequences of thyroid hormone deficiency on anxiety-related behaviors and protein expression of hippocampal glutamate transporters in congenital hypothyroid male offspring rats. Possible beneficial effects of treadmill exercise have also been examined. Congenital hypothyroidism was induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU) to drinking water of pregnant Wistar rats from gestational day 6 until the end of the weaning period (postnatal day 28). Next, following 4 weeks of treadmill exercise (5 days per week), anxiety-related behaviors were examined using elevated plus maze (EPM) and light/dark box tests. Thereafter, protein expression of astrocytic (GLAST and GLT-1) and neuronal (EAAC1) glutamate transporters were measured in the hippocampus by immunoblotting. Hypothyroid rats showed decreased anxiety-like behavior, as measured by longer time spent in the open arms of the EPM and in the light area of the light/dark box, compared to control rats. Hypothyroid rats had significantly higher GLAST and GLT-1 and lower EAAC1 protein levels in the hippocampus than did the euthyroid rats. Following exercise, anxiety levels decreased in the euthyroid group while protein expression of EAAC1 increased and returned to normal levels in the hypothyroid group. Our findings indicate that thyroid hormone deficiency was associated with alterations in protein expression of glutamate transporters in the hippocampus. Up-regulation of hippocampal GLAST and GLT-1 could be at least one of the mechanisms associated with the anxiolytic effects of congenital hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório , Hipocampo , Ratos Wistar , Animais , Masculino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ratos , Feminino , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/metabolismo , Gravidez , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Transportador 2 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório/metabolismo , Transportador 3 de Aminoácido Excitatório/genética , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Propiltiouracila , Sistema X-AG de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema X-AG de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
5.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 37(6): 536-542, 2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transient hyperthyrotropinemia/transient hypothyroxinaemia and congenital hypothyroidism (CH) have completely different treatment and clinical outcomes. However, a powerful, highly sensitive and cost-effective marker for the differentiation of these clinical entities in the early postnatal period is not available. Therefore, we aimed to test the potential, early predictive, diagnostic power of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)/free thyroxine (fT4) ratio for differentiation of the two clinical entities in the early period of life. METHODS: TSH and fT4 levels were recorded on the postnatal day 7 of premature infants<32 weeks of gestational age. TSH/fT4 ratio was calculated. The significance degree of TSH/fT4 ratio was analyzed for the differentiation of transient hyperthyrotropinemia or transient hypothyroxinaemia and CH. RESULTS: The study included 1,204 preterm infants<32 weeks of gestational age. Of the 1,204 infants, 978 (81.2 %) had normal thyroid function. Eighty-eight infants (7.3 %) were diagnosed with CH and 138 (11.5 %) with transient hyperthyrotropinemia or transient hypothyroxinemia. Initial TSH/fT4 ratio>4.8 was found to be an early diagnostic warning sign with high power in favor of transient hyperthyrotropinemia or transient hypothyroxinemia (AUC value: 0.947) and TSH/fT4 ratio>12.5 (AUC value: 0.999) was found to be an early diagnostic warning sign with high power in favor of CH (p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We found for the first time that the TSH/fT4 ratio can be used for the early differentiation of transient hyperthyrotropinemia/transient hypothyroxinaemia and CH in preterm infants without additional cost and with high power.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Hipertireoxinemia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hipertireoxinemia/diagnóstico , Hipertireoxinemia/sangue , Idade Gestacional , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Prognóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Seguimentos , Doenças do Prematuro/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico
6.
J Clin Invest ; 134(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557491

RESUMO

Mutations in genes encoding chromatin modifiers are enriched among mutations causing intellectual disability. The continuing development of the brain postnatally, coupled with the inherent reversibility of chromatin modifications, may afford an opportunity for therapeutic intervention following a genetic diagnosis. Development of treatments requires an understanding of protein function and models of the disease. Here, we provide a mouse model of Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS) (OMIM 603736) and demonstrate proof-of-principle efficacy of postnatal treatment. SBBYSS results from heterozygous mutations in the KAT6B (MYST4/MORF/QFK) gene and is characterized by intellectual disability and autism-like behaviors. Using human cells carrying SBBYSS-specific KAT6B mutations and Kat6b heterozygous mice (Kat6b+/-), we showed that KAT6B deficiency caused a reduction in histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. Kat6b+/- mice displayed learning, memory, and social deficits, mirroring SBBYSS individuals. Treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid, or an acetyl donor, acetyl-carnitine (ALCAR), elevated histone acetylation levels in the human cells with SBBYSS mutations and in brain and blood cells of Kat6b+/- mice and partially reversed gene expression changes in Kat6b+/- cortical neurons. Both compounds improved sociability in Kat6b+/- mice, and ALCAR treatment restored learning and memory. These data suggest that a subset of SBBYSS individuals may benefit from postnatal therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Acetilcarnitina , Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Histona Acetiltransferases , Deficiência Intelectual , Instabilidade Articular , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/tratamento farmacológico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Acetilação , Acetilcarnitina/farmacologia , Acetilcarnitina/uso terapêutico , Blefarofimose , Cromatina , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/tratamento farmacológico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Éxons , Fácies , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Histona Acetiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histonas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0293570, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598477

RESUMO

TPO (Thyroid Peroxidase) is known to be one of the major genes involved in congenital hypothyroid patients with thyroid dyshormonogenesis. The present study aims to validate high-resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis as a substitute method for Sanger sequencing, focusing on the frequently observed non-synonymous mutations c.1117G>T, c.1193G>C, and c.2173A>C in the TPO gene in patients from Bangladesh. We enrolled 36 confirmed cases of congenital hypothyroid patients with dyshormonogenesis to establish the HRM method. Blood specimens were collected, and DNA was extracted followed by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Among the 36 specimens, 20 were pre-sequenced, and variants were characterized through Sanger sequencing. Following pre-sequencing, the 20 pre-sequenced specimens underwent real-time PCR-HRM curve analysis to determine the proper HRM condition for separating the three variations from the wild-type state into heterozygous and homozygous states. Furthermore, 16 unknown specimens were subjected to HRM analysis to validate the method. This method demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 100 percent in accurately discerning wild-type alleles from both homozygous and heterozygous states of c.1117G>T (23/36; 63.8%), c.1193G>C (30/36; 83.3%), and c.2173A>C (23/36; 63.8%) variants frequently encountered among 36 Bangladeshi patients. The HRM data was found to be similar to the sequencing result, thus confirming the validity of the HRM approach for TPO gene variant detection. In conclusion, HRM-based molecular technique targeting variants c.1117G>T, c.1193G>C, and c.2173A>C could be used as a high throughput, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective screening approach for the detection of all common mutations in TPO gene in Bangladeshi patients with dyshormonogenesis.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Humanos , Bangladesh , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Mutação , DNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
9.
Biomedica ; 44(1): 102-107, 2024 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648350

RESUMO

Introduction. The first neonatal screening program in Colombia ­ PREGEN ­ was set up in the medical private sector of Bogotá in 1988. We report the results from recent years that, given the scarcity of similar information in our country, may help estimate the frequency of the evaluated neonatal disorders and which ones should be included in the neonatal screening programs in our country. Objective. To describe the results of PREGEN´s newborn screening program between 2006 and 2019. Materials and methods. We analyzed databases and other informative documents preserved in PREGEN from the 2006-2019 period. Results. One in every 164 newborns screened in our program had an abnormal hemoglobin variant, and one in every 194 carried some hemoglobin S variant. Glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and congenital hypothyroidism are next as the more common disorders. Conclusions. Abnormal hemoglobin causes the most frequent monogenic disorder in the world. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymopathy affecting nearly 400 million individuals worldwide. Since both disorders are more common in people of African descent and confer some resistance to malaria, we believe that screening for both disorders may be more relevant in the areas with African ancestry in our country.


Introducción. En Colombia, el primer programa de tamizaje neonatal, PREGEN, inició labores en el sector privado de Bogotá en 1988. En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en los últimos años, que, dada la carencia de estos estudios en el país, pueden servir para evaluar la frecuencia de aparición de los trastornos congénitos evaluados y estimar cuáles de ellos deben ser objeto de tamizaje neonatal a nivel nacional. Objetivos. Reportar los resultados del programa de tamizaje PREGEN entre el 2006 y el 2019. Materiales y métodos. Para este análisis se examinaron las bases de datos y otros documentos informativos de PREGEN para el periodo 2006-2019. Resultados. Uno de cada 164 recién nacidos tamizados en el programa PREGEN en Bogotá presentó una variante anormal de la hemoglobina y uno de cada 194 es portador de hemoglobina S. Los siguientes dos trastornos más frecuentes encontrados fueron la deficiencia de la enzima glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa (frecuencia 1:2.231) y el hipotiroidismo congénito (frecuencia 1:3.915). Conclusiones. Las hemoglobinopatías mostraron ser uno de los desórdenes monogénicos más comunes, seguidos por la deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa y el hipotiroidismo congénito. Se calcula que cerca de 400 millones de personas en el mundo están afectadas por la deficiencia de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, por lo cual es la enzimopatía más común en el mundo. Como ambos desórdenes son más frecuentes en poblaciones de origen africano y confieren algún grado de resistencia a la malaria, es de prever que su tamizaje debe ser de mayor importancia en las zonas con ancestros africanos en Colombia.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Triagem Neonatal , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Setor Privado , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinopatias/diagnóstico , Hemoglobinopatias/epidemiologia
10.
Thyroid ; 34(5): 659-667, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38482822

RESUMO

Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is caused by mutations in cysteine residues, including Cys655 and Cys825 that form disulfide bonds in thyroid peroxidase (TPO). It is highly likely that these disulfide bonds could play an important role in TPO activity. However, to date, no study has comprehensively analyzed cysteine mutations that form disulfide bonds in TPO. In this study, we induced mutations in cysteine residues involved in disulfide bonds formation and analyzed their effect on subcellular localization, degradation, and enzyme activities to evaluate the importance of disulfide bonds in TPO activity. Methods: Vector plasmid TPO mutants, C655F and C825R, known to occur in CH, were transfected into HEK293 cells. TPO activity and protein expression levels were measured by the Amplex red assay and Western blotting. The same procedure was performed in the presence of MG132 proteasome inhibitor. Subcellular localization was determined using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The locations of all disulfide bonds within TPO were predicted using in silico analysis. All TPO mutations associated with disulfide bonds were induced. TPO activity and protein expression levels were also measured in all TPO mutants associated with disulfide bonds using the Amplex red assay and Western blotting. Results: C655F and C825R showed significantly decreased activity and protein expression compared with the wild type (WT) (p < 0.05). In the presence of the MG132 proteasome inhibitor, the protein expression level of TPO increased to a level comparable with that of the WT without increases in its activity. The degree of subcellular distribution of TPO to the cell surface in the mutants was lower compared with the WT TPO. Twenty-four cysteine residues were involved in the formation of 12 disulfide bonds in TPO. All TPO mutants harboring an amino acid substitution in each cysteine showed significantly reduced TPO activity and protein expression levels. Furthermore, the differences in TPO activity depended on the position of the disulfide bond. Conclusions: All 12 disulfide bonds play an important role in the activity of TPO. Furthermore, the mutations lead to misfolding, degradation, and membrane insertion.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos , Iodeto Peroxidase , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma , Humanos , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Iodeto Peroxidase/química , Células HEK293 , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/química , Mutação , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/metabolismo , Autoantígenos
12.
Ann Lab Med ; 44(4): 343-353, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433572

RESUMO

Background: Genetic defects in the human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) gene can cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). However, the biological functions and comprehensive genotype-phenotype relationships for most TSHR variants associated with CH remain unexplored. We aimed to identify TSHR variants in Chinese patients with CH, analyze the functions of the variants, and explore the relationships between TSHR genotypes and clinical phenotypes. Methods: In total, 367 patients with CH were recruited for TSHR variant screening using whole-exome sequencing. The effects of the variants were evaluated by in-silico programs such as SIFT and polyphen2. Furthermore, these variants were transfected into 293T cells to detect their Gs/cyclic AMP and Gq/11 signaling activity. Results: Among the 367 patients with CH, 17 TSHR variants, including three novel variants, were identified in 45 patients, and 18 patients carried biallelic TSHR variants. In vitro experiments showed that 10 variants were associated with Gs/cyclic AMP and Gq/11 signaling pathway impairment to varying degrees. Patients with TSHR biallelic variants had lower serum TSH levels and higher free triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels at diagnosis than those with DUOX2 biallelic variants. Conclusions: We found a high frequency of TSHR variants in Chinese patients with CH (12.3%), and 4.9% of cases were caused by TSHR biallelic variants. Ten variants were identified as loss-of-function variants. The data suggest that the clinical phenotype of CH patients caused by TSHR biallelic variants is relatively mild. Our study expands the TSHR variant spectrum and provides further evidence for the elucidation of the genetic etiology of CH.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Humanos , China , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , AMP Cíclico , Oxidases Duais/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Receptores da Tireotropina/genética , Tireotropina
13.
Endocr J ; 71(5): 471-480, 2024 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462462

RESUMO

Central congenital hypothyroidism (CH) can occur as an isolated deficiency or as part of combined pituitary hormone deficiency. Unlike primary CH, central CH cannot be detected by newborn screening (NBS) using dry filter paper blood TSH levels, and early diagnosis remains challenging. In this study, the clinical and genetic backgrounds of patients with isolated central CH were determined through a questionnaire-based survey among members of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology. The known causes of isolated central CH were studied in 14 patients, including six with previously reported patient data. The results revealed IGSF1 and TBL1X pathogenic variants in nine and one patient, respectively. All six patients with low free thyroxine (FT4) levels detected in NBS carried IGSF1 pathogenic variants. Five patients with isolated central CH diagnosed after 3 months of age were variant-negative, except for one female patient with a heterozygous IGSF1 variant. Two of the four variant-negative patients and a variant-positive patient were diagnosed with pituitary hypoplasia. One and two patients with IGSF1 variant had obesity and intellectual disability, respectively. Left amblyopia was identified in the patient with a TBL1X variant. The study revalidated that IGSF1 variants comprise the most frequent pathogenic variant in patients with isolated central CH in Japan. The neonatal period is the optimal time for the diagnosis of central CH, particularly IGSF1 abnormalities, and the introduction of T4 screening should be considered in the future, taking cost-effectiveness into consideration.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Triagem Neonatal , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/sangue , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/genética , Mutação , Transducina
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 38(3): 1737-1743, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532265

RESUMO

A 7-month-old male French bulldog was referred for abnormal mentation and gait. Physical examination revealed a dome shaped calvarium and persistent bregmatic fontanelle. Neurological examination revealed proprioceptive ataxia, pelvic limb paraparesis and strabismus with moderate ventriculomegaly, thinning of the cerebral parenchyma, and widened cerebral sulci on magnetic resonance imaging. Masses were identified in the region of the thyroid, which appeared heterogeneous and hyperintense in T1-weighted and T2-weighted compared with the adjacent muscle signal masses were identified. Radiological diagnosis was hydrocephalus "ex vacuo" and goiter. Blood test revealed abnormally low total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), and normal thyrotropin concentration. A diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism was confirmed by positive genetic test for thyroid peroxidase mutation. Thyroxine supplementation treatment rapidly improved clinical signs.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Doenças do Cão , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tiroxina , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Masculino , Animais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Tiroxina/sangue , Cães , Hidrocefalia/veterinária , Hidrocefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidrocefalia/genética , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética
15.
J Pediatr ; 269: 113974, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401790

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine among infants born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) the incidence of alterations in thyroid function and associated comorbidities; the incidence of atypical congenital hypothyroidism (CH) requiring thyroxine therapy; and reference ranges for rescreening at 1 month of age. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of infants born VPT or with VLBW and admitted to UC Irvine Medical Center between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2020. Repeat thyroid screening was obtained at 1 month of life (+10 days). Infants with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >5 µIU/mL or free thyroxine <0.8 ng/dL underwent follow-up testing and endocrinology consultation. Initial newborn screening (NBS) and repeat thyroid screening data were collected via chart review. Demographic data and short-term outcomes were abstracted from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative database. RESULTS: In total, 430 patients were included; 64 of 429 patients (14.9%) had TSH >5 µIU/mL and 20 of 421 patients (4.8%) had free thyroxine <0.8 ng/dL. Logistic regression analysis identified small for gestational age (P = .044), patent ductus arteriosus (P = .013), and late-onset sepsis (P = .026) as risk factors associated with delayed TSH rise. Atypical CH requiring treatment through neonatal intensive care unit discharge was diagnosed in 6 patients (incidence of 1.4%); none were identified by NBS. The 90th percentile TSH for infants with extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) was 7.2 µIU/mL, and the 95th percentile for those with birth weight of 1000-1500 g was 6.1 µIU/mL; using these cutoff values identified all infants diagnosed with atypical CH with 100% sensitivity and 90%-95% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal thyroid function is common in infants born preterm. Those infants, including some with atypical CH, are missed by NBS. We recommend repeat thyroid screening with TSH at 1 month of age in infants born VPT or infants with VLBW to identify CH that may require therapy.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Triagem Neonatal , Tireotropina , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/sangue , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/diagnóstico , Doenças do Prematuro/sangue , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Incidência
16.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 8: e2300140, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295322

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is essential for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. However, specific mutations render TPO antigenic and prone to autoimmune attacks leading to thyroid cancer, TPO deficiency, and congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Despite technological advancement, most experimental procedures cannot quickly identify the genetic causes of CH nor detect thyroid cancer in the early stages. METHODS: We performed saturated computational mutagenesis to calculate the folding energy changes (∆∆G) caused by missense mutations and analyzed the mutations involved in post-translational modifications (PTMs). RESULTS: Our results showed that the functional important missense mutations occurred in the heme peroxidase domain. Through computational saturation mutagenesis, we identified the TPO mutations in G393 and G348 affecting protein stability and PTMs. Our folding energy calculations revealed that seven of nine somatic thyroid cancer mutations destabilized TPO. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the impact of these specific mutations on TPO stability, linking them to thyroid cancer and other genetic thyroid-related disorders. Our results show that computational mutagenesis of proteins provides a quick insight into rare mutations causing Mendelian disorders and cancers in humans.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Mutação , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Programas de Rastreamento
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1812, 2024 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245625

RESUMO

Alagille Syndrome (ALGS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by cholestasis, congenital cardiac anomalies, and butterfly vertebrae. The variable phenotypic expression of ALGS can lead to challenges in accurately diagnosing affected infants, potentially resulting in misdiagnoses or underdiagnoses. This study highlights novel JAG1 gene mutations in two cases of ALGS. The first case with a novel p.Pro325Leufs*87 variant was diagnosed at 2 months of age and exhibited a favorable prognosis and an unexpected manifestation of congenital hypothyroidism. Before the age of 2, the second patient was incorrectly diagnosed with liver structural abnormalities, necessitating extensive treatment. In addition, he exhibited delays in language acquisition that may have been a result of SNAP25 haploinsufficiency. The identification of ALGS remains challenging, highlighting the importance of early detection and genetic testing for effective patient management. The variant p.Pro325Leufs*87 is distinct from reported variants linked to congenital hypothyroidism in ALGS patients, thereby further confirming the clinical and genetic complexity of ALGS. This emphasizes the critical need for individualized and innovative approaches to diagnosis and medical interventions, uniquely intended to address the complexity of this syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alagille , Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Alagille/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Alagille/genética , China , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Testes Genéticos , Proteína Jagged-1/genética
18.
Thyroid ; 34(3): 324-335, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183624

RESUMO

Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common neonatal metabolic disorder. In patients with CH in China, thyroid dyshormonogenesis is more common than thyroid dysgenesis; however, the genetic causes of CH due to thyroid dyshormonogenesis remain largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed at identifying novel candidate causative genes for CH. Methods: To identify novel CH candidate genes, a total of 599 patients with CH were enrolled and next-generation sequencing was performed. The functions of the identified variants were confirmed using HEK293T and FTC-133 cell lines in vitro and in a mouse model organism in vivo. Results: Three pathogenic contactin 6 (CNTN6) variants were identified in two patients with CH. Pedigree analysis showed that CH caused by CNTN6 variants was inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. The CNTN6 gene was highly expressed in the thyroid in humans and mice. Cntn6 knockout mice presented with thyroid dyshormonogenesis and CH due to the decreased expression of crucial genes for thyroid hormone biosynthesis (Slc5a5, Tpo, and Duox2). All three CNTN6 variants resulted in the blocking of the release of the Notch intracellular domain, which could not translocate into the nucleus, impaired NOTCH1 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of SLC5A5, TPO, and DUOX2. Further, we found that DTX1 was required for CNTN6 to promote thyroid hormone biosynthesis through Notch signaling. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that CNTN6 is a novel causative gene for CH through the mediation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis via Notch signaling, which provides new insights into the genetic background and mechanisms involved in CH and thyroid dyshormonogenesis.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Oxidases Duais/genética , Células HEK293 , Mutação , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Hormônios Tireóideos , Contactinas/genética
19.
Acta Paediatr ; 113(6): 1221-1227, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38197523

RESUMO

AIM: Newborn thyroid screening tests are carried out during the first days after birth in many parts of the world. The aim of this review was to assess whether additional thyroid function tests of neonates born to mothers with hypothyroidism are necessary to diagnose newborns with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) missed by the usual screening test. METHODS: A search in PubMed and Google Scholar databases was conducted for pertinent studies, using relevant keywords. All studies that were published in any language from 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2023 were included. Observational cohort studies were included in the analysis, while case reports and studies not referring to neonates were excluded. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were identified comprising more than 4400 infants with CH. Studies with the larger study populations recommended against additional testing in healthy infants of hypothyroid mothers. Similar were the results of some smaller retrospective studies. Few studies identified in total 16 infants with CH that were missed on neonatal screening without, though, a definite causative link between the mother's and the infant's thyroid dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Based on available data, additional thyroid function tests seem redundant in identifying undiagnosed cases of CH. Larger studies are needed to reach a definite conclusion.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Triagem Neonatal , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Feminino , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37622708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to TSH is defined as reduced sensitivity to normal, biologicallyactive TSH, and abnormally high levels of TSH are needed to achieve normal levels of thyroid hormones. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year-old female patient, having been treated since childhood with levothyroxine for hyperthyrotropinemia was referred to our institution complaining of tachycardia after the levothyroxine therapy had been increased. Thyroid ultrasound features were normal, and thyroid antibodies were negative. The therapy was gradually tapered in light of the symptoms, although subclinical hypothyroidism was evident at thyroid function tests. First-degree relatives were tested for thyroid function, and the father was also found to have a previously-unknown subclinical hypothyroidism. The patient underwent genetic testing for TSH receptor (TSHR) gene mutations, which revealed a gene variant hitherto not described: p.C598R (c.1792T>C). The father was also tested and was found to carry the same mutation, while other first-degree relatives were wild-type for the TSHR gene. An in-silico analysis was performed, which revealed a loss-of-function phenotype corresponding to the described variant, suggesting a novel loss-of-function TSH receptor gene mutation. CONCLUSION: In this case report, we present a novel loss-of-function gene mutation in the TSH receptor gene associated with a TSH resistance phenotype.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Receptores da Tireotropina , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Receptores da Tireotropina/genética , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Mutação , Tireotropina
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