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2.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 104, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato complex play a major role in malaria transmission across Africa. This study assessed the relative importance of members of An. gambiae s.l. in malaria transmission in two rural villages in the Republic of the Congo. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected using electric aspirators from June to September 2022 in Djoumouna and Ntoula villages and were sorted by taxa based on their morphological features. Anopheles gambiae s.l. females were also molecularly identified. A TaqMan-based assay and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to determine Plasmodium spp. in the mosquitoes. Entomological indexes were estimated, including man-biting rate, entomological inoculation rate (EIR), and diversity index. RESULTS: Among 176 mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (85.8%), followed by Culex spp. (13.6%) and Aedes spp. (0.6%). Three members of the An. gambiae s.l. complex were collected in both villages, namely An. gambiae sensu stricto (74.3%), Anopheles coluzzii (22.9%) and Anopheles arabiensis (2.8%). Three Plasmodium species were detected in An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii (Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale), while only P. falciparum and P. malariae were found in An. arabiensis. In general, the Plasmodium infection rate was 35.1% (53/151) using the TaqMan-based assay, and nested PCR confirmed 77.4% (41/53) of those infections. The nightly EIR of An. gambiae s.l. was 0.125 infectious bites per person per night (ib/p/n) in Djoumouna and 0.08 ib/p/n in Ntoula. The EIR of An. gambiae s.s. in Djoumouna (0.11 ib/p/n) and Ntoula (0.04 ib/p/n) was higher than that of An. coluzzii (0.01 and 0.03 ib/p/n) and An. arabiensis (0.005 and 0.0 ib/p/n). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides baseline information on the dominant vectors and dynamics of malaria transmission in the rural areas of the Republic of the Congo during the dry season. In the two sampled villages, An. gambiae s.s. appears to play a predominant role in Plasmodium spp.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plasmodium , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Congo/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/genética
3.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 26(4): 349-354, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430477

RESUMO

To compare the urine Congo-red dot paper test (CRD) with dipstick urinalysis to screen preeclampsia (PE). A total of 409 paired spot urine samples were obtained prospectively from women with suspected pre-eclampsia attending for routine hospital visits. Congo-red dot paper test and dipstick urinalysis were examined and compared to screen pre-eclampsia. The agreement between the two urinary test is modest (kappa coefficient = 0.28, 95% CI 0.14-0.42). The specificity of CRD was higher than urinalysis (97.4% vs. 90.4%, p < .001). Urinalysis performed better in sensitivity (77.3% vs. 40.9%, p = .04) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) (0.84 [95% CI 0.74-0.94] vs. 0.69 [95% CI 0.55-0.83], p = .04) than CRD, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, AUC of the parallel test of them is 86.4% (64.0%-96.4%), 89.1% (85.5%-92.0%), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.96). And the serial test is 31.8% (14.7%-54.9%), 98.7% (96.8%-99.5%), 0.65 (95% CI 0.51-0.79), accordingly. The urinalysis is a better diagnosing test for preeclampsia. CRD could aid in the diagnosis of patients with preeclampsia. Combined the two tests in suspected patients may further improve the performance in the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Further study need to be made for its potential clinical practice.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Congo , Urinálise , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Ethn Health ; 29(3): 353-370, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest an increased prevalence of diet-related chronic diseases among African immigrants with increased length of stay in the U.S. The objective of the current study is to understand the dietary practices and perceptions of recent African immigrant families. DESIGN: Focus group sessions were conducted with Nigerian and Congolese immigrant parents residing in Illinois. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling methods and focus group sessions were conducted via videoconference. Participants discussed dietary practices, meal preparation, and family mealtimes for their families. They also discussed experiences with eating different kinds of foods since arrival in the U.S. Verbatim transcription of focus group sessions were completed and deductive thematic analysis of transcribed data was conducted using NVivo (QSR International Pty Ltd. [2020] NVivo [version 12]). RESULTS: Twenty African immigrant parents (Mean age: 42 years, Female: 95%) residing in Northern and Central Illinois participated in a total of five focus group sessions. Seven themes were derived from the analysis. Participants had a positive attitude toward healthy diet and had a high level of interest in receiving educational resources to make healthier food choices. Participants preferred and mostly consumed foods they were familiar with before migration. A majority of the participants perceived 'American foods' as unhealthy, characterizing them as containing a high amount of sugar and salt. Parents reported that their school-aged children often preferred a western diet over traditional African meals. CONCLUSION: This study helps to understand unique diet-related practices and perceptions of recent Nigerian and Congolese African immigrants in Illinois. Findings could help to inform cultural adaptation of evidence-based nutrition education programs for these groups of African immigrants.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Nigéria , Congo , Dieta , Illinois
5.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04053, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483441

RESUMO

Background: The limited impact of increased access to care on improvements in health outcomes during the Millennium Development Goal era has been attributed, in part, to inadequate quality of care. We identified regional factors associated with health service quality for sick child care in low-income countries and examined whether provider factors interact with regional factors to affect the quality of care. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional random intercept four-level linear regression using the most recent Service Provision Assessment and Demographic Health Survey data from four countries (467 from the Democratic Republic of Congo 2018, 2425 from Afghanistan 2018, 2072 from Nepal 2015, and 813 from Senegal 2017). The outcome variable was the service quality score for sick child care, which was measured as the percentage of clinically recommended tasks completed in the integrated management of childhood illness (ranging from 0 to 100). Regional factors were selected based on the High-Quality Health System Framework. Results: The service quality score was found to be positively associated with the proportion of large facilities (ß = 8.61; P = 0.004) and the proportion of providers ranked in the top fifth for service quality score (ß = 30.15; P < 0.001) in the region. We identified significant cross-level interactions between provider qualifications (ß = -16.6; P < 0.001) or job descriptions (ß = 12.01; P = 0.002) and the proportion of providers in the top fifth for service quality scores within the region. As the proportion of top-performing providers in a region increased, the increase in the service quality score was more pronounced among providers who were nonmedical doctors or did not have job descriptions than among their counterparts. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the quality of care for sick children in a region improves with a greater proportion of high-performing providers or larger facilities. Providers who are not medical doctors, or those who have specific job descriptions, tend to benefit more from the presence of these top-performing providers.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Humanos , Criança , Análise Multinível , Estudos Transversais , Afeganistão , Congo
8.
Sci Adv ; 10(2): eadj2543, 2024 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198536

RESUMO

In hunter-gatherer societies, women's subsistence activities are crucial for food provisioning and children's social learning but are understudied relative to men's activities. To understand the structure of women's foraging networks, we present 230 days of focal-follow data in a BaYaka community. To analyze these data, we develop a stochastic blockmodel for repeat observations with uneven sampling. We find that women's subsistence networks are characterized by cooperation between kin, gender homophily, and mixed age-group composition. During early childhood, individuals preferentially coforage with adult kin, but those in middle childhood and adolescence are likely to coforage with nonkin peers, providing opportunities for horizontal learning. By quantifying the probability of coforaging ties across age classes and relatedness levels, our findings provide insights into the scope for social learning during women's subsistence activities in a real-world foraging population and provide ground-truth values for key parameters used in formal models of cumulative culture.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Aprendizagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Adolescente , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Congo , Probabilidade
9.
Malar J ; 23(1): 21, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Republic of Congo, with Plasmodium falciparum being the deadliest species of Plasmodium in humans. Vector transmission of malaria is poorly studied in the country and no previous report compared rural and urban data. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles fauna and the entomological indices of malaria transmission in the rural and urban areas in the south of Brazzaville, and beyond. METHODS: Indoor household mosquitoes capture using electric aspirator was performed in rural and urban areas during raining and dry seasons in 2021. The identification of Anopheles species was done using binocular magnifier and nested-PCR. TaqMan and nested-PCR were used to detect the Plasmodium species in the head/thorax and abdomens of Anopheles. Some entomological indices including the sporozoite infection rate, the entomological inoculation rate and the man biting rate were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 699 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (90.7%), Anopheles funestus s.l. (6.9%), and Anopheles moucheti (2.4%). Three species of An. gambiae s.l. were identified including Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (78.9%), Anopheles coluzzii (15.4%) and Anopheles arabiensis (5.7%). The overall sporozoite infection rate was 22.3% with a predominance of Plasmodium falciparum, followed by Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. Anopheles aggressiveness rate was higher in households from rural area (1.1 bites/night) compared to that from urban area (0.8 ib/p/n). The overall entomological inoculation rate was 0.13 ib/p/n. This index was 0.17 ib/p/n and 0.092 ib/p/n in rural and in urban area, respectively, and was similar during the dry (0.18 ib/p/n) and rainy (0.14 ib/p/n) seasons. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight that malaria transmission remains high in rural and urban area in the south of Republic of Congo despite the ongoing control efforts, thereby indicating the need for more robust interventions.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mordeduras e Picadas , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plasmodium , Animais , Humanos , Congo/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Plasmodium falciparum , Malária/prevenção & controle , Esporozoítos
16.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 200(5): 437-447, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38226499

RESUMO

In this study, the activity concentrations of radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn) and thoron progeny were measured simultaneously in Djeno (Pointe-Noire, Republic of Congo) using RADUET detectors to evaluate the air quality and the radiological risks due to the inhalation of these radionuclides. Activity concentrations of radon progeny were calculated from those of radon. Indoor radon, thoron and progenies followed a lognormal distribution ranging between 20 and 40, 6 and 62, 8 and 17.6 and 0.4 and 19.6 Bq m-3 for radon, thoron, radon progeny and thoron progeny, respectively. Mean values for radon were lower than the worldwide values estimated by the United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), which are 40 Bq m-3 (arithmetic mean) and 45 Bq m-3 (geometric mean). Radon concentrations in the dwellings under study were below the World Health Organization and the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended reference levels, which are, respectively, 100 and 300 Bq m-3. The mean concentration of thoron was twice the world average value of 10 Bq m-3 estimated by UNSCEAR. Thoron progeny mean concentration was sharply greater than the typical value (0.3 Bq m-3) for indoor atmosphere provided by UNSCEAR. Annual effective dose ranges were 0.40-0.87 mSv (arithmetic mean, 0.57 ± 0.11 mSv) for radon and 0.10-4.14 mSv (arithmetic mean, 0.55 ± 0.77 mSv) for thoron. The mean value for radon was lower than the value (1.15 mSv) estimated by UNSCEAR, while the mean value for thoron was five times higher than the UNSCEAR value (0.10 mSv). The study showed that the use of the typical equilibrium factor value given by UNSCEAR to compute effective dose led to an error above 80%. Finally, the results of this study showed that the excess relative risk of radon-induced cancer was low, below 2% for the population under 55 y. The results presented in the present study prove that the population of Djeno is exposed to a relatively low potential risk of radon- and thoron-induced cancer.


Assuntos
Poluentes Radioativos do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Neoplasias , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Radônio/análise , Produtos de Decaimento de Radônio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos do Ar/análise , Congo , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Habitação , Medição de Risco
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011915, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loa loa filariasis (loiasis) is still considered a relatively benign disease. However, recent epidemiologic data suggest increased mortality and morbidity in L. loa infected individuals. We aimed to examine whether the density of L. loa microfilariae (mfs) in the blood is associated with cardiovascular disease. METHODOLOGY: Using a point-of-care device (pOpmètre), we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess arterial stiffness and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in 991 individuals living in a loiasis-endemic rural area in the Republic of the Congo. Microfilaremic individuals were matched for age, sex and village of residence with 2 amicrofilaremic subjects. We analyzed markers of arterial stiffness (Pulse-Wave Velocity, PWV), PAD (Ankle-Brachial Index, ABI) and cardiovascular health (Pulse Pressure, PP). The analysis considered parasitological results (L. loa microfilarial density [MFD], soil-transmitted helminths infection, asymptomatic malaria and onchocerciasis), sociodemographic characteristics and known cardiovascular risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, creatininemia, blood pressure). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among the individuals included in the analysis, 192/982 (19.5%) and 137/976 (14.0%) had a PWV or an ABI considered out of range, respectively. Out of range PWV was associated with younger age, high mean arterial pressure and high L. loa MFD. Compared to amicrofilaremic subjects, those with more than 10,000 mfs/mL were 2.17 times more likely to have an out of range PWV (p = 0.00). Factors significantly associated with PAD were older age, low pulse rate, low body mass index, smoking, and L. loa microfilaremia. Factors significantly associated with an elevation of PP were older age, female sex, high average blood pressure, low pulse rate and L. loa microfilaremia. CONCLUSION: A potential link between high L. loa microfilaremia and cardiovascular health deterioration is suggested. Further studies are required to confirm and explore this association.


Assuntos
Loíase , Rigidez Vascular , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Loíase/parasitologia , Loa , Estudos Transversais , Congo , Microfilárias
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(1): 1331-1355, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38040883

RESUMO

The rising human demand for food has increased the pursuit for more agricultural land to feed the ever-growing human population. Although agriculture constitutes the cornerstone of most economies and serves as a vital source of foreign earnings to others, experts suggest that it emits a substantial amount of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, thereby enhancing global warming. Furthermore, with the growing pace of globalization, less developed countries are witnessing economic growth with detrimental impacts on the environment. Inspired by the need to protect tropical rainforests and basins, the current research aims to assess the dynamic impacts of agricultural land use change (LALUC) and globalization (LGLO) on environmental quality (LCO2) in the Congo Basin while controlling for economic growth (LGDP), biomass energy consumption (LBIO), and urbanization (LURBN). Based on panel data from 1980 to 2018, this study utilized second-generation econometric methods including the cross-sectional Im, Peseran Shin (CIPS), Westerlund bootstrapped co-integration test, autoregressive distributive lag/pooled mean group (ARDL/PMG), and the Dumitrescu Hurlin (D-H) panel causality estimates. The outcome reveals a long-run equilibrium co-integrating association among the estimated variables, and LALUC, LBIO, and LURBN were found to reduce LCO2, while LGDP and LGLO increase LCO2. These findings imply the inverted U-shaped relationship between LALUC, LBIO, and LURBN is beneficial for environmental quality in the Congo Basin. Based on the findings, environmental quality and economic growth can be achieved instantaneously in this region by engaging in large-scale production of biomass energy. Therefore, policymakers and governments should promote renewable energy use and convey foreign funds towards its enhancement, while investments in agriculture should prioritize environmentally benign practices such as agroforestry.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Floresta Úmida , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Congo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Internacionalidade , Energia Renovável , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Agricultura
19.
Am J Primatol ; 86(2): e23586, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151775

RESUMO

Ranging dynamics are physical and behavioral representations of how different socioecological factors affect an organism's spatial decisions and space use strategies. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) are a model species to investigate the drivers of spatial dynamics based on both the natural variation in socioecological factors within the species and compared with their mountain gorilla counterparts. In this study, we evaluate the influences of resource seasonality and social dynamics on variation in home range size, utilization, and intergroup overlap among multiple gorilla groups over an 8-year study period in the northern Republic of Congo. This study shows that western lowland gorillas can have small home ranges comparable to mountain gorillas, rather than universally larger home ranges as previously supposed, and that home ranges are stable through time. The largest source of variation in space use was the degree of intergroup home range overlap. The study groups did not demonstrate intraspecific variation in range size nor changes in intergroup overlap with respect to seasonality of fruit resources, but all groups demonstrated expansion of monthly range and core area with group size, matching predictions of intragroup feeding competition. These findings highlight the potential impact of intergroup relationships on space use and prompt further research on the role of social dynamics in ranging strategies. In this study, we reveal a greater degree of variability and flexibility in gorilla ranging behavior than previously realized which is relevant to improving comparative studies and informing conservation strategies on behalf of these endangered primates.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla , Hominidae , Animais , Frutas , Congo , Florestas
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