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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210967, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253959

RESUMO

There is no much published data on the mothers' false beliefs about signs and symptoms associated with teething in Sudan. Aim: This cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted to assess mothers` knowledge about infant teething process and to evaluate mothers' practices used to alleviate teething disturbances in Gadarif city, eastern Sudan. Methods: Questionnaires were used to collect data. Multivariate logistics regression models were performed and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results/Conclusion: Of a total of 384 participating mothers, 126 (32.8%) had good knowledge about infant teething. The mothers' knowledge was associated with a higher number of children in the family (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.14) and with having a job (AOR = 2.22). Mothers residing in rural areas (AOR = 0.40) and mothers with lower than secondary education (AOR = 0.43) were less likely to have good knowledge about teething. Diarrhea (88.5%), fever (86.5%), an urge to bite (76.6%), and poor appetite (71.9%) were the signs and symptoms most attributed to teething by mothers. Only the mother's knowledge about teething was associated with reporting fever as a sign. A considerable number (317; 82.6%) of mothers reported performing "Dokhan" (acacia wood smoke), 313 (81.5%) preferred to administer paracetamol or other systemic analgesics, 262 (68.2%) agreed that a child with tooth eruption should be taken to a hospital or health center, and 216 (56.3%) believed that antibiotics relieved symptoms related to teething


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Sinais e Sintomas , Erupção Dentária , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimento , Mães
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1041, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medicines management in care homes requires significant improvement. CHIPPS was a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of integrating pharmacist independent prescribers into care homes to assume central responsibility for medicines management. This paper reports the parallel mixed-methods process evaluation. METHOD: Intervention arm consisted of 25 triads: Care homes (staff and up to 24 residents), General Practitioner (GP) and Pharmacist Independent Prescriber (PIP). Data sources were pharmaceutical care plans (PCPs), pharmacist activity logs, online questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results were mapped to the process evaluation objectives following the Medical Research Council framework. RESULTS: PCPs and activity logs were available from 22 PIPs. Questionnaires were returned by 16 PIPs, eight GPs, and two care home managers. Interviews were completed with 14 PIPs, eight GPs, nine care home managers, six care home staff, and one resident. All stakeholders reported some benefits from PIPs having responsibility for medicine management and identified no safety concerns. PIPs reported an increase in their knowledge and identified the value of having time to engage with care home staff and residents during reviews. The research paperwork was identified as least useful by many PIPs. PIPs conducted medication reviews on residents, recording 566 clinical interventions, many involving deprescribing; 93.8% of changes were sustained at 6 months. For 284 (50.2%) residents a medicine was stopped, and for a quarter of residents, changes involved a medicine linked to increased falls risk. Qualitative data indicated participants noted increased medication safety and improved resident quality of life. Contextual barriers to implementation were apparent in the few triads where PIP was not known previously to the GP and care home before the trial. In three triads, PIPs did not deliver the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was generally implemented as intended, and well-received by most stakeholders. Whilst there was widespread deprescribing, contextual factors effected opportunity for PIP engagement in care homes. Implementation was most effective when communication pathways between PIP and GP had been previously well-established. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The definitive RCT was registered with the ISRCTN registry (registration number  ISRCTN 17847169 ).


Assuntos
Gerentes de Casos , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Conhecimento , Farmacêuticos , Qualidade de Vida
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 523, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simulation-based learning with virtual patients is a highly effective method that could potentially be further enhanced by including reflection phases. The effectiveness of reflection phases for learning to diagnose has mainly been demonstrated for problem-centered instruction with text-based cases, not for simulation-based learning. To close this research gap, we conducted a study on learning history-taking using virtual patients. In this study, we examined the added benefit of including reflection phases on learning to diagnose accurately, the associations between knowledge and learning, and the diagnostic process. METHODS: A sample of N = 121 medical students completed a three-group experiment with a control group and pre- and posttests. The pretest consisted of a conceptual and strategic knowledge test and virtual patients to be diagnosed. In the learning phase, two intervention groups worked with virtual patients and completed different types of reflection phases, while the control group learned with virtual patients but without reflection phases. The posttest again involved virtual patients. For all virtual patients, diagnostic accuracy was assessed as the primary outcome. Current hypotheses were tracked during reflection phases and in simulation-based learning to measure diagnostic process. RESULTS: Regarding the added benefit of reflection phases, an ANCOVA controlling for pretest performance found no difference in diagnostic accuracy at posttest between the three conditions, F(2, 114) = 0.93, p = .398. Concerning knowledge and learning, both pretest conceptual knowledge and strategic knowledge were not associated with learning to diagnose accurately through reflection phases. Learners' diagnostic process improved during simulation-based learning and the reflection phases. CONCLUSIONS: Reflection phases did not have an added benefit for learning to diagnose accurately in virtual patients. This finding indicates that reflection phases may not be as effective in simulation-based learning as in problem-centered instruction with text-based cases and can be explained with two contextual differences. First, information processing in simulation-based learning uses the verbal channel and the visual channel, while text-based learning only draws on the verbal channel. Second, in simulation-based learning, serial cue cases are used to gather information step-wise, whereas, in text-based learning, whole cases are used that present all data at once.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Estudantes de Medicina , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 482, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood cancers (BCs) are responsible for over 720 K yearly deaths worldwide. Their prevalence and mortality-rate uphold the relevance of research related to BCs. Despite the availability of different resources establishing Disease-Disease Associations (DDAs), the knowledge is scattered and not accessible in a straightforward way to the scientific community. Here, we propose SicknessMiner, a biomedical Text-Mining (TM) approach towards the centralization of DDAs. Our methodology encompasses Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Named Entity Normalization (NEN) steps, and the DDAs retrieved were compared to the DisGeNET resource for qualitative and quantitative comparison. RESULTS: We obtained the DDAs via co-mention using our SicknessMiner or gene- or variant-disease similarity on DisGeNET. SicknessMiner was able to retrieve around 92% of the DisGeNET results and nearly 15% of the SicknessMiner results were specific to our pipeline. CONCLUSIONS: SicknessMiner is a valuable tool to extract disease-disease relationship from RAW input corpus.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Mineração de Dados , Conhecimento
5.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 316-320, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complementary and Alternative Medicine is a group of diverse medical and health care practices and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. The purpose of study was to assess the level of awareness and attitude of Complementary and Alternative medicine among middle aged adults and to find out the correlation between awareness and attitude. METHODS: A descriptive, correlational study design was carried out on 63 subjects through convenient sampling technique. Data was collected through face to face interview method among middle aged adults of Kirtipur municipality in Kathmandu by using Nepali version of structured set of questionnaire for all respondents. Data were entered using SPSS-20 and analyzed using descriptive statistics for socio-demographic and study variables, and inferential statistics namely Spearman Rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the relation between awareness and attitude regarding Complementary and Alternative medicine. RESULTS: Highest proportion (36.5%) of respondents was aged from 41-45 years. Majority (88.9%) of the respondents were literate. It was found that majority (71.4%) of the middle aged adults pose moderate knowledge and favorable attitude (93.7%) regarding complementary and alternative medicine, with negligible relationship between awareness and attitude(r=0.171). CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that majority of the middle aged adults pose moderate knowledge and favorable attitude regarding complementary and alternative medicine, with negligible relationship between awareness and attitude.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Conhecimento , Adulto , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Alfabetização , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal
6.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 331-336, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer in women is a major health burden. In Nepal, most common cancer in female is breast cancer. Knowledge plays an important role in improvement of health seeking behavior. Knowledge may positively affect attitude and practice. So, this study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding breast cancer among the adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done among students of 23 randomly selected highher secondary schools of Bhaktapur district. Total 990 participant were assessed with questionnaire regarding knowledge and attitude towards breast cancer. RESULTS: Out of total 400 participants, 89.6% of male and 88.5% of female respondents had poor knowledge regarding breast cancer. 63.2% of the female and 50.9% of the male respondents had good attitude towards breast cancer. Religion, education of parents and ethnicity of respondents showed positive association with respondent's knowledge of breast cancer. Gender, education and ethnicity of respondents showed positive association with respondent's attitude of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the respondents had poor knowledge and half of respondents had good attitude towards breast cancer. Therefore, educational programs and awareness campaigns that target adolescents to improve their knowledge and attitude regarding breast cancer must be encouraged.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Nepal , Percepção
7.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 2878189, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603428

RESUMO

The purpose of knowledge graph entity disambiguation is to match the ambiguous entities to the corresponding entities in the knowledge graph. Current entity ambiguity elimination methods usually use the context information of the entity and its attributes to obtain the mention embedding vector, compare it with the candidate entity embedding vector for similarity, and perform entity matching through the similarity. The disadvantage of this type of method is that it ignores the structural characteristics of the knowledge graph where the entity is located, that is, the connection between the entity and the entity, and therefore cannot obtain the global semantic features of the entity. To improve the Precision and Recall of entity disambiguation problems, we propose the EDEGE (Entity Disambiguation based on Entity and Graph Embedding) method, which utilizes the semantic embedding vector of entity relationship and the embedding vector of subgraph structure feature. EDEGE first trains the semantic vector of the entity relationship, then trains the graph structure vector of the subgraph where the entity is located, and balances the weights of these two vectors through the entity similarity function. Finally, the balanced vector is input into the graph neural network, and the matching between the entities is output to achieve entity disambiguation. Extensive experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. Among them, on the ACE2004 data set, the Precision, Recall, and F1 values of EDEGE are 9.2%, 7%, and 11.2% higher than baseline methods.


Assuntos
Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Conhecimento , Bases de Conhecimento , Semântica
8.
Korean J Med Educ ; 33(3): 163-170, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474523

RESUMO

It is necessary to reflect on the question, "How to prepare for medical education after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?" Although we are preparing for the era of Education 4.0 in line with the 4th industrial revolution of artificial intelligence and big data, most measures are focused on the methodologies of transferring knowledge; essential innovation is not being addressed. What is fundamentally needed in medicine is insightful intelligence that can see the invisible. We should not create doctors who only prescribe antispasmodics for abdominal pain, or antiemetic drugs for vomiting. Good clinical reasoning is not based on knowledge alone. Insightology in medicine is based on experience through Bayesian reasoning and imagination through the theory of mind. This refers to diagnosis of the whole, greater than the sum of its parts, by looking at the invisible using the Gestalt strategy. Identifying the missing process that links symptoms is essential. This missing process can be described in one word: context. An accurate diagnosis is possible only by understanding context, which can be done by standing in someone else's shoes. From the viewpoint of medicine, Education 4.0 is worrisome because people are still clinging to methodology. The subject we should focus on is "human", not "artificial" intelligence. We should first advance the "insightology in medicine" as a new paradigm, which is the "essence" that will never change even when rare "phenomena" such as the COVID-19 outbreak occur. For this reason, we should focus on teaching insightology in medicine, rather than teaching medical knowledge.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação Médica/tendências , Inteligência Artificial , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 25(4): 467-505, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516946

RESUMO

Change is ubiquitous in the study of organizations. Organizational change is characterized by multiple perspectives, both conceptually and methodologically. Computational modeling efforts are not the exception. In this work, we aim to provide an analysis of computational modeling approaches to organizational change. For that, we first review published works that directly connect to developing knowledge in organizational change from a computational lens. Second, we offer an account of unexplored topics in computational organizational change. Last, we highlight the potentialities of computer simulation models based on agent interactions in regard to how they could contribute to the understanding of central issues in this organizational research subfield.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e051447, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the global general population regarding COVID-19. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO were used to identify articles published between 1 January and 30 June 2021 assessing KAP regarding COVID-19 in the global general population. The quality of eligible studies was assessed. Random effects model was used to obtain the pooled proportion of each component of KAP of COVID-19. Heterogeneity (I2) was tested, and subgroup and correlation analyses were performed. RESULTS: Out of 3099 records, 84 studies from 45 countries across all continents assessing 215 731 participants' COVID-19 KAP were included in this study. The estimated overall correct answers for knowledge, good attitude and good practice in this review were 75% (95% CI 72% to 77%), 74% (95% CI 71% to 77%) and 70% (95% CI 66% to 74%), respectively. Low-income countries, men, people aged below 30 years and people with 12 years of education or less had the lowest practice scores. Practice scores were below 60% in Africa and Europe/Oceania. Overall heterogeneity was high (I2 ≥98%), and publication bias was present (Egger's regression test, p<0.01). A positive significant correlation between knowledge and practice (r=0.314, p=0.006), and attitude and practice (r=0.348, p=0.004) was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings call for community-based awareness programmes to provide a simple, clear and understandable message to reinforce knowledge especially regarding efficacy of the preventive measures in low and lower middle-income countries, and in Africa and Europe/Oceania, which will translate into good practice. Targeted intervention for men, people with low education, unemployed people and people aged below 30 years should be recommended. As most of the included studies were online surveys, underprivileged and remote rural people may have been missed out. Additional studies are needed to cover heterogeneous populations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020203476.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 45(4): 797-802, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529541

RESUMO

The field of neuroscience has made notable strides that have contributed to progress and change in a number of academic pursuits. However, the lack of understanding of basic neuroscience concepts among the general public is likely to hinder, and in some instances possibly even prevent, the appropriate application of scientific advancements to issues facing society today. Greater neuroscience literacy among the general public is necessary for the benefits of neuroscientific discovery to be fully realized. By actively enhancing neuroscience literacy, scientists can dispel falsehoods established by early research that harmed underrepresented communities, ensure that public conversations concerning neuroscience (e.g., legalization of psychotropic substances) revolve around facts, and empower individuals to make better health decisions. The widespread implementation of communication technologies and various forms of media indicate there are numerous means to engage classroom learners across disciplines and age cohorts and the public to increase neuroscience knowledge. Thus, it is not only necessary but timely that neuroscientists seek meaningful ways to bridge the widening knowledge gap with the public.


Assuntos
Alfabetização , Neurociências , Comunicação , Humanos , Conhecimento
12.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(4): e20210113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop a mid-range theory for nursing diagnosis ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion in patients with diabetic foot. METHOD: the theory construction was carried out in six stages: approach definition; theoretical-conceptual model definition; definition of the main concepts; pictogram development; construction of propositions and establishment of causal relationships evidence for practice. RESULTS: twelve etiological factors and 22 clinical indicators were included in the theory, some of which were not listed in NANDA International (Inc.) and others were adapted to better characterize patients with diabetic foot. A pictogram was constructed and eight propositions were established to verify causal relationships and evidence for practice. CONCLUSION: medium-range theory made it possible to broaden the concepts and demonstrate the causal relationships between the elements of ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion, providing subsidies to minimize gaps in knowledge and assist clinical nursing practice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Humanos , Conhecimento , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Perfusão
13.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3683-3692, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468662

RESUMO

Colombia is currently implementing a new health model, which is being tested initially in a region of the Amazon, with the main objective of primary health care with an intercultural approach. It is a cut of a doctoral thesis outlined by the case study methodology, which aimed to understand the daily construction process of primary health care from the perspective of indigenous and health professionals in Guainía, Colombia. Twenty-two indigenous users and 26 health professionals participated in the study, as well as three key participants. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and direct observation, and were later transcribed and analyzed by Bardin's thematic content analysis technique. The results show that interculturality, as a permanent process of negotiations and articulations present in the daily lives of indigenous and health professionals, is a fundamental part of the construction of primary health care in Guainía. In it materializes the encounter and exchange of heterogeneous forms of thinking-knowledge, that allow new interpretations and reinventions of knowledge and practices in health, although this process is permeated by conflicts, ambiguities, asymmetries and contradictions.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Colômbia , Humanos , Conhecimento
14.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 12(2): 372-378, set. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1291786

RESUMO

Objetivo: avaliar o Letramento Funcional em Saúde e o conhecimento do idoso renal crônico em relação ao tratamento pré dialítico. Estudo transversal, quantitativo com 60 idosos em tratamento conservador para a Doença Renal Crônica. Verificou-se que o Letramento Funcional em Saúde e o conhecimento em relação a doença renal foram insuficientes e esteve associado ao fato de não saberem a causa da doença renal e desconhecerem que a piora da função renal está associada ao aumento da taxa de creatinina. Conclui-se que o letramento funcional em saúde e o déficit de compreensão sobre a doença influenciam no autogerenciamento do idoso em relação a doença renal crônica, servindo de subsídios para ressignificar o processo de comunicação da equipe multiprofissional a fim de postergar o início do tratamento dialítico. (AU)


Objective: To evaluate Functional Literacy in Health and the knowledge of the chronic renal elderly in relation to pre-dialysis treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional, quantitative study with 60 elderly people under conservative treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease. Results: It was found that Functional Health Literacy and knowledge regarding kidney disease were insufficient and was associated with the fact that they did not know the cause of kidney disease and were unaware that the worsening of kidney function is associated with increased creatinine rate. Conclusion: It is concluded that the functional health literacy and the lack of understanding about the disease influence the self-management of the elderly in relation to chronic kidney disease, serving as subsidies to reframe the communication process of the multidisciplinary team in order to postpone the beginning of dialysis treatment. (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar la Alfabetización en Salud Funcional y el conocimiento del anciano renal crónico en relación al tratamiento prediálisis. Metodos: Estudio transversal, cuantitativo, con 60 ancianos en tratamiento conservador por Enfermedad Renal Crónica. Resultados: Se encontró que la Alfabetización en Salud Funcional y el conocimiento sobre la enfermedad renal eran insuficientes y estaban asociados con el hecho de que no conocen la causa de la enfermedad renal y desconocen que el empeoramiento de la función renal está asociado con un aumento de la tasa de creatinina. Conclusión: Se concluye que la alfabetización funcional en salud y el desconocimiento de la enfermedad influyen en el autocuidado del anciano en relación a la enfermedad renal crónica, sirviendo como subsidios para resignificar el proceso de comunicación del equipo multidisciplinario con el fin de posponer el inicio del tratamiento de diálisis. (AU)


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Idoso , Conhecimento , Insuficiência Renal Crônica
15.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 177, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on specific interventions to improve diabetes control in primary care is available, but this evidence is not always well-implemented. The concept of "mindlines" has been proposed to explain how clinicians integrate evidence using specifics of their practices and patients to produce knowledge-in-practice-in-context. The goal of this pilot study was to operationalize this concept by creating a venue for clinician-staff interaction concerning evidence. The research team attempted to hold "mindlines"-producing conversations in primary care practices about evidence to improve diabetes control. METHODS: Each of four primary care practices in a single health system held practice-wide conversations about a simple diabetes intervention model over a provided lunch. The conversations were relatively informal and encouraged participation from all. The research team recorded the conversations and took field notes. The team analyzed the data using a framework adapted from the "mindlines" research and noted additional emergent themes. RESULTS: While most of the conversation concerned barriers to implementation of the simple diabetes intervention model, there were examples of practices adopting and adapting the evidence to suit their own needs and context. Performance metrics regarding diabetes control for the four practices improved after the intervention. CONCLUSION: It appears that the type of conversations that "mindlines" research describes can be generated with facilitation around evidence, but further research is required to better understand the limitations and impact of this intervention.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Conhecimento , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 20(4): ar58, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581606

RESUMO

Knowledge construction is an essential scientific practice, and undergraduate research experiences (UREs) provide opportunities for students to engage with this scientific practice in an authentic context. While participating in UREs, students develop conceptualizations about how science gathers, evaluates, and constructs knowledge (science epistemology) that align with scientific practice. However, there have been few studies focusing on how students' science epistemologies develop during these experiences. Through the analysis of written reflections and three research papers and by leveraging methods informed by collaborative autoethnography, we construct a case study of one student, describing the development of her science epistemology and scientific agency during her time participating in a biology education URE. Through her reflections and self-analysis, the student describes her context-dependent science epistemology, and how she discovered a new role as a critic of scientific papers. These results have implications for the use of written reflections to facilitate epistemic development during UREs and the role of classroom culture in the development of scientific agency.


Assuntos
Estudantes , Universidades , Biologia , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento
17.
Ambio ; 50(11): 2072-2089, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562268

RESUMO

We present a study of social effects of climate change as experienced by local communities, based on field research and analysis in Western Siberia, from southern taiga to tundra. The results of field anthropological research reveal different attitudes of local residents to climate change. We compare the key trends of climate change with the perspectives of local residents, based on memories, subjective experiences, and local environmental knowledge. Our results highlight a significant divergence of the subjective assessments of residents from objective data on the dynamics of changes in certain environmental elements. We explore how the human subjective perception of natural processes, their consequences and impacts, are influenced by such factors as: type of settlement, age, gender, level of education and how collective stereotypes and judgments merge information in attitude formation. We also address the need to reconcile observed climate change impacts and perceptions to enable decision-makers to engage more constructively with the local population to develop and implement adaptation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conhecimento , Atitude , Humanos , Percepção , Sibéria
18.
Neuropsychologia ; 161: 108017, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487736

RESUMO

Object and scene recognition both require mapping of incoming sensory information to existing conceptual knowledge about the world. A notable finding in brain-damaged patients is that they may show differentially impaired performance for specific categories, such as for "living exemplars". While numerous patients with category-specific impairments have been reported, the explanations for these deficits remain controversial. In the current study, we investigate the ability of a brain injured patient with a well-established category-specific impairment of semantic memory to perform two categorization experiments: 'natural' vs. 'manmade' scenes (experiment 1) and objects (experiment 2). Our findings show that the pattern of categorical impairment does not respect the natural versus manmade distinction. This suggests that the impairments may be better explained by differences in visual features, rather than by category membership. Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) as 'artificial animal models' we further explored this idea. Results indicated that DCNNs with 'lesions' in higher order layers showed similar response patterns, with decreased relative performance for manmade scenes (experiment 1) and natural objects (experiment 2), even though they have no semantic category knowledge, apart from a mapping between pictures and labels. Collectively, these results suggest that the direction of category-effects to a large extent depends, at least in MS' case, on the degree of perceptual differentiation called for, and not semantic knowledge.


Assuntos
Agnosia , Lesões Encefálicas , Animais , Encéfalo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Semântica
19.
J Sports Sci ; 39(18): 2051-2067, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486926

RESUMO

This scoping review aimed to systematically map studies/tests for assessing the tactical domain of young soccer players. The study followed the PRISMA-ScR and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. The databases searched were Scopus, SPORTDiscus, SciELO, LILACS, and BDTD. The eligibility criteria were defined based on the elements of population, context, and concept, without restrictions on the period, language, and type of publication. Twenty-four papers were included, from 1997 to 2020, totalling 29 tests/instruments for the assessment of the tactical domain, with the majority of studies having an European sample. Twelve terms were used to nominate the tactical component, regardless of the assessment method and approach. Six tests met eight or nine criteria in the critical appraisal: TCTOF, TACSIS Spanish version, Semi-Structured Interview, TCTP-OE, GPET, and FUTSAT. Thus, it is concluded that studies and tests for the assessment of the tactical domain of young soccer players are recent and mainly European; there is no consensus about the adopted terminology; and few tests met the majority of the quality criteria. Therefore, we suggest: a) the construction/adaptation of tests with samples from other continents; b) the use of the proposed criteria; and c) that the terms tactical knowledge and tactical performance are adopted.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Conhecimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Futebol/psicologia , Humanos
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1802031, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504895

RESUMO

Background: Testicular cancer is a malignant tumor of the testicles, the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and testosterone. It is one of the most common cancers in young men. This form of cancer can be easily diagnosed by self-examination of testicles and is curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Due to lack of knowledge on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination techniques, patients can potentially miss early detection. This study is aimed at assessing the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among male college students pursuing a Bachelor's degree. Methods: A web-based cross-sectional analytical study was adopted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among male college students pursuing a Bachelor's degree and living in Bharatpur Metropolitan City in the Chitwan District of Nepal. The snowball sampling technique was employed to identify the eligible participants. Collected data were entered in SPSS version 22 and analyzed by using the Chi-square test, Pearson's correlation, and binary logistic regression. Results: Out of 402 respondents, majority (56.7%) had poor knowledge regarding testicular cancer and testicular self-examination and only 11.4% had performed testicular self-examination. The majority (67.2%) of the respondents had shown an unfavorable attitude towards testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). There was a significant association between the level of knowledge and marital status 4.516 (1.962-10.397) and ethnicity 2.606 (1.443-4.709). Likewise, age 0.396 (0.191-0.821) and marital status 0.347 (0.156-0.775) have been significantly associated with testicular self-examination practice. Regarding favorable attitude, age 0.362 (0.186-0.706) and sources of information from mass media 2.346 (1.328-4.143) have been associated significantly. Conclusion: The study finding shows that the knowledge on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination was low. Due to lack of knowledge and trainings, the potential opportunities for early detection of testicular cancer are missed substantially. Periodic testicular self-examination is vital for early detection of testicular cancer. Hence, it is crucial to implement massive educational campaigns and trainings on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination techniques among young male groups.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoexame/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nepal , Autoexame/métodos , Autoexame/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/psicologia , Testículo/patologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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