Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.047
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e228274, jan.-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1392982

RESUMO

Parents are responsible for their children's health care, and their oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and habits can affect their children's oral health. Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their children's oral health. Methods: In this study, a sample of 398 parents of 4- to 6-year-old children completed a self-designed questionnaire. The parents' oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices were assessed. Children's oral health was evaluated using decayed, missing, and filled tooth index (dmft). Data were analyzed using the SPSS version 23.0 with a p < 0.05 as statistically significant. Categorical data were reported as frequency (%), and continuous data were reported as mean ± SD. Moreover, Spearman's correlation, multiple regression, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal Wallis test, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used. Results: Most of the parents had a satisfactory level of knowledge and positive attitudes regarding their children's oral health. The knowledge and attitude scores were higher among parents with higher education (p<0.001), and the knowledge score was higher among mothers (p=0.004). Also, the attitude score was correlated with the number of decayed, missed, and filled teeth of children (p=0.01, p=0.04, and p=0.007, respectively). However, there was no significant relationship between dmft and the parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices using multiple regression. The mean dmft of children was 6.86 ± 3.56, and most of the parents had poor oral health-related practices. Conclusion: The parents' level of knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, but they had poor oral health practices. Moreover, there was no significant relationship between children's oral health and their parents' level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Educating programs and strategies are needed to enhance parents' oral health-related attitudes and knowledge and, more importantly, change their oral health practices


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Criança , Saúde Bucal , Educação em Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimento
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 85-92, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073382

RESUMO

In this paper, we identify and describe early signs of a shift towards 3rd generation UD, of which "nonclusive design" is an essential part. The paper explores the significance of such a shift using examples of the built and designed environment and of signage. Nonclusive design means design that resists categorisations of bodies/roles and that does not come with predefined or presupposed limits in terms of who it is meant for. We outline seven themes characterising the shift towards nonclusive design: 1) from included to undefined users, 2) from person to function, 3) from adaptism to variation, 4) from separation to convergence, 5) from reactive to proactive, 6) from unaware to aware, and 7) from explicit to tacit. Nonclusive design directs attention to context instead of the individual, focusing on possibilities, functions and facilities. It has a convergent character, highlighting variation and unity rather than separation. Nonclusive design presupposes awareness, knowledge and proactive development void of adaptism. It incorporates human variation without reiterating patterns of norm-deviation. We argue that the continued growth of UD demands, is part of, and contributes to a shift in culture, with nonclusive, intersectional thinking as a key future driver. In such a culture, 3rd generation UD can contribute as a common guiding mindset, as a source for innovation, as a way to listen for diversity in all its forms, and as a way to lead towards a sustainable society.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Design Universal , Humanos
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 298: 8-12, 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073447

RESUMO

Digital medicines management is a high priority in Norwegian e-health strategies. A key challenge is the existence of multiple electronic information sources and systems, which require multi-professional cooperation. Lack of communication, understanding and collaboration between pharmacies, hospitals and community caregivers is also a challenge. Communities of practices (CoPs) have been used to establish arenas for discussing issues challenging the workflow to reach a common agreement on successful work practices for electronic medicines management. The purpose of this paper is to explore: How can we establish communities of practice (CoPs) to gather new knowledge on the facilitators and challenges for electronic medicines management practices in Norway? The results show engagement in establishing the CoPs and a willingness for joint enterprise. The establishment of the CoPs was performed simply based on established forms of collaboration. For CoPs to be effective, established alliances need to be expanded and renewed to form new group dynamics and thus a basis for new knowledge about electronic medicines management.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Conhecimento , Eletrônica , Humanos , Noruega
4.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 58, 2022 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Farmers' knowledge has a role in maintaining barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genetic resource, which plays an important role in food security, and provides socio-cultural value to the Ethiopian farmers. However, farmers' knowledge has been ignored in the decision-making process in Misha, Gumer, and Hetosa districts, Ethiopia. METHODS: In this study, a semi-structured interview guide was used to carry out comprehensive house-to-house interviews with 357 purposively selected farmers to document their knowledge of barley cultivation, utilization and conservation practices. RESULTS: The majority of farmers (57.1%) grow barley on 0.5-0.75 hectares. Farmers identified and described 68 barley varieties with various local names, which were given to barley based on different characteristics such as plant height, spikelet length, row type, seed size and color, yield, place of origin, and use-values. Farmers are familiar with the nature, characteristics, end-uses, and preparation of different well-appreciated local meals and drinks. Farmers noticed that the number of barley local varieties has been decreasing in recent years. Introduction of improved varieties was perceived by all farmers as the main cause for the decrease in the number of barley local varieties in their localities. Another factor for the reduction in local barley varieties, according to 24.2% of farmers, was soil fertility degradation. Most of the farmers (65.7%) use their own barley seeds, which they select and save for the next growing season for specific attributes. They have their own indigenous knowledge that they have acquired through experience by growing, selecting, and conserving barley for the last 20-30 years or more. CONCLUSION: The majority of farmers gave attention to commercial cultivars due to their better market value. Thus, the introduction of improved cultivars has imposed on local varieties. The indigenous knowledge that the famers acquired through experience could be considered an advantage for the conservation of barley genetic resources by using farmers' participatory approach to widen cultivation and to improve barley local varieties for future use.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Etiópia , Fazendeiros , Hordeum/genética , Humanos , Conhecimento , Sementes
5.
Cogn Sci ; 46(9): e13199, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070855
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15174, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071152

RESUMO

Local knowledge and uses of forage resources are highly dynamic, and can be mediated by multiple factors, such as seasonality, floristic diversity and the morphophysiological characteristics of plants. We investigate how seasonality and vegetation cover mediate the use of forage resources. The study was carried out with agro-pastoralists from two areas of Brazilian semiarid region. To select the areas, we used the normalized difference vegetation index. We selected one area with low vegetation cover (Area I) and another with high vegetation cover (Area II). Respondents were selected using the snowball technique. Using semi-structured interviews, we collect the information about forage use in the dry and rainy seasons, preferences of ruminants and specific characteristics of plant species. A total of 57 informants were interviewed in the two areas. We used the Chi-square test to assess differences in the richness of species cited between areas, seasons (dry/rainy), origins (exotic/native) and strate (herbaceous/woody). Our results revealed that agro-pastoralists living in the area with the highest vegetation cover (Area II) cited a greater number of species. We found that the use and selection of species is guided by a series of functional characters, related to palatability and nutritional value, which change between seasons. These results highlight the vast knowledge of ecological characteristics of species and diet of ruminants acquired by agro-pastoralists during field experience, with seasonality defining the use of species. Different from what we expected, the richness of exotic species mentioned did not differ between areas. This diversity of information contributes to a better understanding of the use of forage resources and indicates the importance of including local experiences as strategies to ensure proper use and provide insights for the conservation of local resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Plantas , Brasil , Conhecimento , Madeira
7.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 14(8): 929-932, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: No pharmacy program, however well-resourced, has sufficient time or resources to teach students all current, practice-relevant knowledge. And while the volume of potential pharmacy education curriculum content increases exponentially each year, available time for direct instruction continues to decline. Given these constraints, pharmacy curricula must focus on promoting deep learning of the most critical, fundamental, broadly applicable, and lasting knowledge. Yet, in terms of didactic knowledge, pharmacy education currently has no agreed upon, evidence-based criteria for determining which foundational concepts are most important to teach nor any research-based assessment tools to demonstrate how well students have learned those core concepts. PERSPECTIVE: This lack of consensus regarding core conceptual knowledge makes disparities in learning outcomes both more likely to occur and less likely to be detected or addressed. Over the past 30 years, several scientific disciplines undergirding pharmacy have developed research-based lists of core concepts and related concept inventories, demonstrating their transformative educational potential. Core concepts are big, fundamental ideas that experts agree are critical for all students in their discipline to learn, remember, understand, and apply. Concept inventories are research-based, psychometrically validated, multiple-choice tests designed to uncover learners' prior knowledge and potential misconceptions and determine their depth of understanding of disciplinary core concepts. IMPLICATIONS: This commentary proposes adapting and applying this evidence-based core concepts approach to enhance pharmacy education's overall effectiveness and efficiency and outlines an ongoing, multinational research initiative to identify and define essential pharmacy concepts to be taught, learned, and assessed.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia , Currículo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Estudantes
8.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4102959, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36059422

RESUMO

As one of the three main courses from primary school to senior high school, improving the quality of English teaching in and out of class has become the top priority of colleges and universities. English knowledge points are complex, and domestic scholars have studied vocabulary knowledge and grammatical awareness from various perspectives, but there is still a lack of research on the correlation between vocabulary knowledge, grammatical awareness, and cloze test scores of senior high school students. Therefore, this paper carries out empirical research from the depth of English vocabulary, English grammar, reading comprehension, cloze test, and composition, aiming at exploring the relationship between teaching quality and English knowledge points. Classroom teaching quality evaluation is the basic content of education quality evaluation, which not only needs to evaluate the effect of class hours but also needs a student's long-term learning effect. In order to improve the quality of classroom English teaching, enrich the content of classroom English, and ultimately make the quality of students' learning to a higher level, the combination model of the teaching quality evaluation index is established by combining the decision tree with the knowledge point rule association method and the evaluation results are verified by association rule analysis. This paper selects the effective indicators that affect the evaluation of English teaching quality, determines the weight of the indicators by using the analytic hierarchy process, effectively constructs the combination model of the decision tree and rule association method, and establishes the evaluation model of students' English learning ability in the classroom. Taking students as the main object and combining them with the requirements of digital teaching, the evaluation index system is formed, the index weight is determined by using the analytic hierarchy process, and the classroom teaching quality evaluation model based on the decision tree and English knowledge point correlation analysis is constructed to truly reflect the teaching level of teachers, and the correlation analysis is carried out between English teachers' own quality and students' learning effects and knowledge points. By testing the model performance of English vocabulary depth, reading comprehension, grammar, writing, and other knowledge points, we can well evaluate and analyze students' mastery of English learning and the correlation of English knowledge points.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Linguística , Leitura , Vocabulário
9.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273083, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048882

RESUMO

The creation of global research partnerships is critical to produce shared knowledge for the implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Sustainability science promotes the coproduction of inter- and transdisciplinary knowledge, with the expectation that studies will be carried out through groups and truly collaborative networks. As a consequence, sustainability research, in particular that published in high impact journals, should lead the way in terms of ethical partnership in scientific collaboration. Here, we examined this issue through a quantitative analysis of the articles published in Nature Sustainability (300 papers by 2135 authors) and Nature (2994 papers by 46,817 authors) from January 2018 to February 2021. Focusing on these journals allowed us to test whether research published under the banner of sustainability science favoured a more equitable involvement of authors from countries belonging to different income categories, by using the journal Nature as a control. While the findings provide evidence of still insufficient involvement of Low-and-Low-Middle-Income-Countries (LLMICs) in Nature Sustainability publications, they also point to promising improvements in the involvement of such authors. Proportionally, there were 4.6 times more authors from LLMICs in Nature Sustainability than in Nature articles, and 68.8-100% of local Global South studies were conducted with host country scientists (reflecting the discouragement of parachute research practices), with local scientists participating in key research steps. We therefore provide evidence of the promising, yet still insufficient, involvement of low-income countries in top sustainability science publications and discuss ongoing initiatives to improve this.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Publicações , Conhecimento
11.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 49(5): 428-435, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to develop and implement an interactive, evidence-based pressure injury (PI) education program and evaluate the impact on frontline hospice nursing staff knowledge and practice. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The QI setting was a 12-bed inpatient hospice unit in a tertiary care Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Nineteen licensed and unlicensed hospice nursing staff participated in this pre-/postworkshop project. APPROACH: Chart audit determined baseline PI incidence and prevalence on the inpatient hospice unit. Interviews with key leaders informed the need to develop and implement innovative PI education opportunities. A literature review determined existing standards regarding the benefits of PI education for nursing staff but did not reveal measurable targets in hospice settings. We developed a PI education intervention based on Kolcaba's Theory of Comfort framework and a Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) performance improvement model. Education was delivered in 7 workshops, lasting 2 hours each. Knowledge, practice, and comfort for inpatient hospice nursing staff were evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks following the final refresher visit. Workshop satisfaction was collected once using standard program evaluation forms after final workshop delivery. OUTCOMES: We observed a significant improvement in staff PI knowledge (P = .001) and practice (P = .001) after initial workshop attendance and repeat engagement (P = .001). There was a large magnitude of effect for overall knowledge change (d = 1.04); similarly PI care planning and practice showed a large magnitude of effect and significant improvement (P = .001, d = 2.64). Staff comfort with job duties was stable with low effect size (mean 4.52, d = 0.04), and satisfaction with the workshop education was high (100% agreement with trainer effectiveness). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: We found that frontline hospice nursing staff knowledge and practice improved after attendance at our evidence-based PI education program. Results of this QI project have stimulated ongoing discussion on how to sustain this program in our hospice setting.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Treinamento por Simulação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Melhoria de Qualidade
12.
Rech Soins Infirm ; 148(1): 5-7, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102076

Assuntos
Conhecimento , Humanos
13.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 21(4): ar66, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112622

RESUMO

Bloom's taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives originally developed for general educational purposes. The taxonomy was revised to expand beyond cognitive processes and to include knowledge types as an orthogonal dimension. As Bloom's taxonomy is a tool widely used in biology education by researchers and instructors, it is important to examine the underlying assumptions embedded within how people may implicitly understand and use the taxonomy. In this paper, we empirically examine two major assumptions: the independence of the knowledge-type and cognitive-process dimensions and the use of action verbs as proxies for different cognitive processes. Contingency analysis on 940 assessment items revealed that the knowledge-type and cognitive-process dimensions are related and not independent. Subsequent correspondence analysis identified two principle axes in how the two dimensions are related, with three clusters of knowledge types and cognitive processes. Using the Shannon evenness index, we did not find a clear relationship between question prompt words (including action verbs) and cognitive processes in the assessment items. Based on these results, we suggest that both dimensions of the revised Bloom's taxonomy should be used and that question prompt words or action verbs alone are not sufficient in classifying the embedded learning objectives within assessment items.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Estudantes , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem
14.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 21(4): ar60, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112625

RESUMO

Research on student thinking facilitates the design of instructional materials that build on student ideas. The pieces framework views student knowledge as consisting of independent pieces that students assemble in fluctuating ways based on the context at hand. This perspective affords important insights about the reasons students think the way they do. We used the pieces framework to investigate student thinking about the concept transformations of energy and matter with a specific focus on metabolism. We conducted think-aloud interviews with undergraduate introductory biology and biochemistry students as they solved a metabolism problem set. Through knowledge analysis, we identified two categories of knowledge elements cued during metabolism problem solving: 1) those about the visual representation of negative feedback inhibition; and 2) those pertaining to student focus on different metabolic compounds in a pathway. Through resource graph analysis, we found that participants tend to use knowledge elements independently and in a fluctuating way. Participants generally showed low representational competence. We recommend further research using the pieces perspective, including research on improving representational competence. We suggest that metabolism instructors teach metabolism as a concept, not a collection of example pathways, and explicitly instruct students about the meaning of visual representations associated with metabolism.


Assuntos
Bioquímica , Estudantes , Bioquímica/educação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Resolução de Problemas
15.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 93, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have been conducted to assess physicians' knowledge of legal standards. Nevertheless, prior research has demonstrated a dearth of medical law knowledge. Our study explored physicians' awareness of legal provisions concerning informed consent and confidentiality, which are essential components of the physician-patient relationship of trust. METHODS: A cross-sectional study assessed attending physicians' legal knowledge of informed consent and confidentiality regulations. The study was conducted in nine hospitals in Dolj County, Romania. Physicians were given a questionnaire with ten scenarios and instructed to select the response that best reflected their practice. We assessed the responses of physicians who claimed their practice to be entirely legal. Their legal knowledge was evaluated by comparing their answers to applicable laws. We also calculated a score for the physicians who admitted to committing a legal breach. RESULTS: Of the 305 respondents, 275 declared they never committed any law violation. However, their median correct answer score was 5.35 ± 1.66 out of 10. The specialty was the strongest predictor of legal knowledge, with emergency physicians rating the lowest and non-surgical physicians scoring the highest. Physicians who worked in both private and public sectors were better knowledgeable about legal issues than those who worked exclusively in the public sector. Results indicate that physicians are aware of the patient's right to informed consent but lack comprehensive understanding. While most physicians correctly answered simple questions, only a tiny minority identified the correct solution when confronted with ethical dilemmas. The physicians who acknowledged breaching the law, on the other hand, had a slightly higher knowledge score at 5.45 ± 2.18. CONCLUSION: Legal compliance remains relatively low due to insufficient legal awareness. Physicians display limited awareness of legal requirements governing patient autonomy, confidentiality, and access to health data. Law should be taught in all medical schools, including undergraduate programs, to increase physicians' legal knowledge and compliance.


Assuntos
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Médicos , Confidencialidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Conhecimento
16.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 6(3): e239-e246, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099036

RESUMO

Health literacy is limited among most of the German population. Among vulnerable groups, including people with a migration history, it is necessary to provide support. Thus, the public health department of the city of Frankfurt am Main initiated a project called communal health guides intercultural [Kommunale Gesundheitslotsen interkulturell] where health guides are trained to strengthen the health literacy of people with a migration background as well as of people with poor socioeconomic living conditions. Health guides are trained on specific health topics to pass on their knowledge as multipliers in different target groups. We are introducing two new modules complementing the existing health guide project from conceptualization to evaluation. The first module aims to strengthen health literacy among parents of children younger than age 10 years and the second module addresses inhabitants of community accommodations and aims to improve health communication and information, currently focusing on coronavirus disease 2019 and vaccinations. Another aim of the two modules is to find out the specific information needs of the target populations. The newly added modules aim to reduce health inequities for all citizens of Frankfurt am Main. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2022;6(3):e239-e246.] Plain Language Summary: Health literacy is often limited among the German population. Especially for socially disadvantaged groups, the public health department of the city of Frankfurt am Main would like to provide support. A project called Communal Health Guides Intercultural was initiated. Health leaders are trained to strengthen the health literacy of people who are socially disadvantaged. This project consists of two modules. One module is aimed at parents of children younger than age 10 years; the other module is aimed at residents in community accommodation. The project aims to reduce health inequities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Criança , Humanos , Conhecimento , Saúde Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
17.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(8): 1848-1855, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125173

RESUMO

Within clinical, biomedical, and translational science, an increasing number of projects are adopting graphs for knowledge representation. Graph-based data models elucidate the interconnectedness among core biomedical concepts, enable data structures to be easily updated, and support intuitive queries, visualizations, and inference algorithms. However, knowledge discovery across these "knowledge graphs" (KGs) has remained difficult. Data set heterogeneity and complexity; the proliferation of ad hoc data formats; poor compliance with guidelines on findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability; and, in particular, the lack of a universally accepted, open-access model for standardization across biomedical KGs has left the task of reconciling data sources to downstream consumers. Biolink Model is an open-source data model that can be used to formalize the relationships between data structures in translational science. It incorporates object-oriented classification and graph-oriented features. The core of the model is a set of hierarchical, interconnected classes (or categories) and relationships between them (or predicates) representing biomedical entities such as gene, disease, chemical, anatomic structure, and phenotype. The model provides class and edge attributes and associations that guide how entities should relate to one another. Here, we highlight the need for a standardized data model for KGs, describe Biolink Model, and compare it with other models. We demonstrate the utility of Biolink Model in various initiatives, including the Biomedical Data Translator Consortium and the Monarch Initiative, and show how it has supported easier integration and interoperability of biomedical KGs, bringing together knowledge from multiple sources and helping to realize the goals of translational science.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Ciência Translacional Biomédica , Conhecimento
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274771, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective knowledge transfer of eLearning objects can hasten the adoption and dissemination of technology in teaching and learning. However, challenges exist which hinder inter-organisational knowledge transfer, particularly across continents. The ACoRD project aimed to transfer knowledge on digital learning development from UK/EU (provider) to Malaysian (receiver) higher education institutions (HEIs). This study explores the challenges encountered during the knowledge transfer process and lessons learned. METHODS: This is a qualitative study involving both the knowledge providers and receivers in focus group discussions (n = 25). Four focus group discussions were conducted in the early (n = 2) and mid-phase (n = 2) of the project by trained qualitative researchers using a topic guide designed to explore experiences and activities representing knowledge transfer in multi-institutional and multi-cultural settings. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and checked. The transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged from this qualitative study: mismatched expectations between providers and receivers; acquiring new knowledge beyond the professional "comfort zone"; challenges in cascading newly acquired knowledge to colleagues and management; individual and organisational cultural differences; and disruption of knowledge transfer during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need to create a conducive platform to facilitate continuous, timely and bi-directional needs assessment and feedback; this should be done in the early phase of the knowledge transfer process. The challenges and strategies identified in this study could guide more effective knowledge transfer between organisations and countries.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Instrução por Computador , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pandemias
19.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274505, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107886

RESUMO

Measuring cultural competence has been difficult for conceptual and practical reasons. Yet, professional guidelines and stated values call for training to improve cultural competence. To develop a strong evidence-base for training and improving cultural competence, professionals need reliable and valid measures to capture meaningful changes in cultural competence training. We developed a measure for cultural competence that could be used in a general population to measure changes in awareness, knowledge, and skills in interacting with culturally diverse others. We built an 81-item scale with items conceptually categorized into awareness, knowledge, and skills and was presented to an expert panel for feedback. For evaluation, a national panel of 204 adults responded to the new scale and other measures associated with cultural competence. Factor analysis revealed four factors with strong reliabilities: Awareness of Self, Awareness of Others, Proactive Skills Development, and Knowledge (as = .87 - .92). The final overall scale, Awareness, Knowledge, Skills-General (ASK-G) had 37 items and strong reliability (a = .94). The ASK-G was then compared to validated scales to provide evidence of concurrent, convergent, and divergent validity. Strong evidence emerged for these. The ASK-G is a promising tool to measure cultural competence in a general population.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural , Conhecimento , Adulto , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274218, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107952

RESUMO

Collective user behavior in social media applications often drives several important online and offline phenomena linked to the spread of opinions and information. Several studies have focused on the analysis of such phenomena using networks to model user interactions, represented by edges. However, only a fraction of edges contribute to the actual investigation. Even worse, the often large number of non-relevant edges may obfuscate the salient interactions, blurring the underlying structures and user communities that capture the collective behavior patterns driving the target phenomenon. To solve this issue, researchers have proposed several network backbone extraction techniques to obtain a reduced and representative version of the network that better explains the phenomenon of interest. Each technique has its specific assumptions and procedure to extract the backbone. However, the literature lacks a clear methodology to highlight such assumptions, discuss how they affect the choice of a method and offer validation strategies in scenarios where no ground truth exists. In this work, we fill this gap by proposing a principled methodology for comparing and selecting the most appropriate backbone extraction method given a phenomenon of interest. We characterize ten state-of-the-art techniques in terms of their assumptions, requirements, and other aspects that one must consider to apply them in practice. We present four steps to apply, evaluate and select the best method(s) to a given target phenomenon. We validate our approach using two case studies with different requirements: online discussions on Instagram and coordinated behavior in WhatsApp groups. We show that each method can produce very different backbones, underlying that the choice of an adequate method is of utmost importance to reveal valuable knowledge about the particular phenomenon under investigation.


Assuntos
Eventos de Massa , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Conhecimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...