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1.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 25(4): 77, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589761

RESUMO

Keratin has the potential to function as the gel matrix in an ophthalmic formulation for the encapsulation of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin. The quality of this formulation was thoroughly evaluated through various analyses, such as in vitro release assessment, rheological examination, intraocular retention studies in rabbits, assessment of bacteriostatic efficacy, and safety evaluations. It is worth mentioning that the gel demonstrated shear thinning properties and exhibited characteristics of an elastic solid, thereby confirming its structural stability. The gel demonstrated a notable affinity for mucosal surfaces in comparison to traditional azithromycin aqueous solutions. In vitro release testing revealed that drug release transpired via diffusion mechanisms, following a first-order kinetic release pattern. Additionally, the formulated gel exhibited remarkable antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bacteriostatic evaluations. Lastly, safety assessments confirmed that the gel eye drops induced minimal irritation and displayed no apparent cytotoxicity, indicating their good safety and biocompatibility for ocular application. Thus, these findings indicated that the prepared azithromycin gel eye drops complied with the requisite standards for ophthalmic preparations.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Animais , Coelhos , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Queratinas/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Géis/química , Soluções Oftálmicas/química
2.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 52(2): 48-50, mar. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231091

RESUMO

This report is a case of anaphylaxis in an adolescent due to allergy to gibberellin-regulated proteins mediated by cofactors, in probable relation to a pollen/food allergy syndrome. It should also emphasizes the importance of obtaining a faithful clinical history, especially when it comes to adolescent patients as they tend to initiate toxic habits.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Giberelinas , Citrus sinensis/toxicidade , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Pacientes Internados , Exame Físico , Hipersensibilidade , Alergia e Imunologia
4.
J Emerg Med ; 66(2): 91-96, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conjunctivitis is a frequent symptom in pediatric emergency departments; however, the etiology of conjunctivitis is difficult to clinically differentiate. OBJECTIVE: Our study objective was to evaluate the test performance characteristics of leukocyte esterase (LE) test strips in diagnosing bacterial conjunctivitis. METHODS: Patients aged from 3 months through 21 years presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of conjunctivitis were prospectively enrolled from September 2018 to March 2020. A swab of the affected eye was applied to the LE test strip and another swab was sent for culture processing. The primary outcome was the association between LE test results and eye culture results. RESULTS: We enrolled 189 patients. Overall, 117 eye cultures (62%) were positive. The sensitivity and specificity of LE testing was 96% (95% CI 90-98%) and 14% (95% CI 7-25%), respectively. Positive predictive value was 64% (95% CI 57-71%) and negative predictive value was 67% (95% CI 39-87%). CONCLUSIONS: The LE test strip had limited ability to differentiate bacterial conjunctivitis from other etiologies.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Conjuntivite , Criança , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(1): e0260123, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38054719

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius is a human-adapted pathogen and the causative agent of Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF), an invasive disease with high mortality, that sporadically manifests in children previously suffering conjunctivitis. Phase variation is a rapid and reversible switching of gene expression found in many bacterial species, and typically associated with outer-membrane proteins. Phase variation of cytoplasmic DNA methyltransferases has been shown to play important roles in bacterial gene regulation and can act as epigenetic switches, regulating the expression of multiple genes as part of systems called phasevarions (phase-variable regulons). This study characterized two alleles of the ModA phasevarion present in H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius, ModA13, found in non-BPF causing strains and ModA16, unique to BPF causing isolates. Phase variation of ModA13 and ModA16 led to genome-wide changes to DNA methylation resulting in altered protein expression. These changes did not affect serum resistance in H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius strains.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Infecções por Haemophilus , Criança , Humanos , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Variação de Fase , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/microbiologia
6.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 241(2): 231-246, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977204

RESUMO

Bacterial conjunctivitis is a leading cause of infectious conjunctivitis in children and second most common cause in adults. Although often self-limiting, it can lead to complications like corneal scarring and systemic infections in high-risk groups including newborns and immunocompromised patients. Thus, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for these vulnerable populations. Common bacterial causes are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Clinical features alone do not reliably identify the causative pathogen. Microbiological testing is necessary for persistent or severe cases. Topical antibiotics like azithromycin or fluorochinolones are usually prescribed. However, gonococcal and chlamydial conjunctivitis warrant systemic antibiotics due to their potential for severe complications. Increasing antibiotic resistance might even necessitate tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Screening and treating pregnant women is an effective prevention strategy by reducing perinatal transmission (especially of gonococcal and chlamydial infections). In summary, while often self-limiting, potential complications and rising antibiotic resistance underscore the importance of timely diagnosis and treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Preventive measures including maternal screening are crucial public health initiatives to curb the risks associated with this common eye infection.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Conjuntivite , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico
7.
J Investig Med ; 72(3): 305-311, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38142266

RESUMO

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is a plant with known antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. Homeopathic drops containing chamomile extract are often used for ear pain and chronic ear infections. We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of over-the-counter eardrops containing chamomile against organisms causing bacterial conjunctivitis and otitis externa. Liquid cultures of Streptococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed to increasing concentrations of eardrops containing chamomile extract. Liquid cultures of S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were exposed to increasing concentrations of chamomile eye drops for 5, 10, 15, and 45 min. Colony forming units (CFUs) were assessed after 18 h. Viability assays for these organisms were performed using the resazurin microdilution assay. We observed a reduction in the number of P. aeruginosa CFUs when the bacteria were exposed to any of the three concentrations of the chamomile drops as early as 5 min, with maximal reduction upon exposure to the 30% concentration at 45 min. Reduction in S. aureus CFUs, on the other hand, was observed for all three concentrations as maximal in the 5 min of exposure. We observed a marked reduction in the number of S. aureus CFUs upon exposure to any of the three preparations of chamomile-containing eye drops, which was almost immediate at 10% concentration. Streptococcus pneumoniae reduction happened at 5 min and continued through the 45-min observation period for all three concentrations. Our findings suggest that over-the-counter ear drops containing chamomile extract could potentially be used as a non-prescription treatment for mild cases of otitis externa and bacterial conjunctivitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Otite Externa , Extratos Vegetais , Humanos , Camomila , Otite Externa/microbiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
8.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 257: 143-153, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37482371

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To summarize key findings from a Cochrane review of the benefits and safety of antibiotic therapy compared with placebo (or vehicle) for acute bacterial conjunctivitis. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We included placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared topical antibiotics with placebo. We followed Cochrane methods for trial selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment, and evidence synthesis. RESULTS: Twenty-one RCTs involving 8805 participants with acute bacterial conjunctivitis were included. Fifteen (71%) RCTs examined fluoroquinolone (FQ) drops, 3 tested macrolides, alone or in combination with steroids, and another 3 compared other non-FQ antibiotics. Intention-to-treat estimates suggested that compared with placebo, antibiotics may increase clinical recovery by 26% (risk ratio [RR]: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.46) at the end of therapy (5 RCTs, 1474 participants). Modified intention-to-treat estimates, in which only participants with laboratory-confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis were analyzed, indicated that antibiotics were associated with 53% higher likelihood of microbiological cure as compared with placebo (RR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.34-1.74; 10 RCTs, 2827 participants). Non-FQs (RR: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.36-12.00), but not FQs (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54-0.90), were likely to increase treatment-associated ocular complications such as eye pain, discomfort, and allergic reactions; the certainty of level of evidence was very low. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate level certainty of evidence suggested that antibiotics may increase the likelihood of clinical recovery and microbiological clearance compared with placebo. Very low-level certainty of evidence suggested that antibiotics may be associated with potential harm in patients with acute bacterial conjunctivitis, but the potential risk of bias from study design, inconsistency in outcome measurement, and reporting limit the evidence to very low certainty.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16110, 2023 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752183

RESUMO

In this survey, the symptomatic leaves of Clivia miniata were collected from a greenhouse in Karaj city of Iran. The isolation and morphological investigation showed Scytalidium-like fungus associated with leaf blight symptom. The phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer along with partial sequences of rDNA large subunit and translation elongation factor 1-α (tef-1α) genomic regions confirmed the identification of the recovered isolate as Neoscytalidium dimidiatum. The pycnidial morph of the fungus didn't observe both in vitro and in vivo. The pathogenicity test on C. miniata and C. nobilis was also conducted to fulfill the Koch's postulates. To our Knowledges, this is the first report of N. dimidiatum causing leaf blight disease on C. miniata and C. nobilis worldwide, as well as these host plants are new for N. dimidiatum in the world.


Assuntos
Amaryllidaceae , Ascomicetos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Ceratoconjuntivite , Infecções por Moraxellaceae , Filogenia , Ascomicetos/genética , Causalidade
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 15581, 2023 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37731029

RESUMO

Agricultural products are vital to the sustainability of the economies of developing countries. Most developing countries' economies such as Ethiopia heavily rely on agriculture. On a global scale, the pepper crop is one of the most important agricultural products in terms of human food security. However, it is susceptible to a variety of diseases which include blight leaf disease, gray leaf spot, common rust, fruit rot disease, powdery mildew symptoms on pepper leaf, and other related diseases that are all common today. Currently, more than 34 different pepper diseases have been discovered, resulting in a 33% average yield loss in pepper cultivation. Conventionally, farmers detect the disease using visual observation but this has its own demerits as it is usually not accurate and usually time consuming. In the past, a number of researchers have presented various methods for classifying pepper plant disease, especially using image processing and deep learning techniques. However, earlier studies have shown that binary classification requires improvement as some classes were more challenging to identify than others. In this study, we propose a concatenated neural network of the extracted features of VGG16 and AlexNet networks to develop a pepper disease classification model using fully connected layers. The development of the proposed concatenated CNN model includes steps such as dataset collection, image preprocessing, noise removal, segmentation, feature extraction, and classification. Finally, the proposed concatenated CNN model was evaluated, providing a training classification accuracy of 100%, validation accuracy of 97.29%, and testing accuracy of 95.82%. In general, it can be concluded from the findings of the study that the proposed concatenated model is suitable for identifying pepper leaf and fruit diseases from digital images of pepper.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Eczema , Piper nigrum , Humanos , Frutas , Agricultura , Redes Neurais de Computação
11.
PeerJ ; 11: e15906, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750077

RESUMO

Background: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease affecting wheat spikes caused by some Fusarium species and leads to cases of severe yield reduction and seed contamination. Identifying resistance genes/QTLs from wheat germplasm may help to improve FHB resistance in wheat production. Methods: Our study evaluated 205 elite winter wheat cultivars for FHB resistance. A high-density 90K SNP array was used for genotyping the panel. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) from cultivars from three different environments was performed using a mixed linear model (MLM). Results: Sixty-six significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified (P < 0.001) on fifteen chromosomes that explained the phenotypic variation ranging from 5.4 to 11.2%. Some important new MTAs in genomic regions involving FHB resistance were found on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 5B, 6A, and 7B. Six MTAs at 92 cM on chromosome 7B were found in cultivars from two different environments. Moreover, there were 11 MTAs consistently associated with diseased spikelet rate and diseased rachis rate as pleiotropic effect loci and D_contig74317_533 on chromosome 5D was novel for FHB resistance. Eight new candidate genes of FHB resistance were predicated in wheat in this study. Three candidate genes, TraesCS5D02G006700, TraesCS6A02G013600, and TraesCS7B02G370700 on chromosome 5DS, 6AS, and 7BL, respectively, were perhaps important in defending against FHB by regulating intramolecular transferase activity, GTP binding, or chitinase activity in wheat, but further validation in needed. In addition, a total of five favorable alleles associated with wheat FHB resistance were discovered. These results provide important genes/loci for enhancing FHB resistance in wheat breeding by marker-assisted selection.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Fusarium , Ceratoconjuntivite , Infecções por Moraxellaceae , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Triticum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(19): 22892-22902, 2023 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37154428

RESUMO

Ocular formulations should provide an effective antibiotic concentration at the site of infection to treat bacterial eye infections. However, tears and frequent blinking accelerate the drug clearance rate and limit drug residence time on the ocular surface. This study describes a biological adhesion reticulate structure (BNP/CA-PEG) consisting of antibiotic-loaded bioadhesion nanoparticles (BNP/CA), with an average 500-600 nm diameter, and eight-arm NH2-PEG-NH2 for local and extended ocular drug delivery. This retention-prolonging effect is a function of the Schiff base reaction between groups on the surface of BNP and amidogen on PEG. BNP/CA-PEG showed significantly higher adhesion properties and better treatment efficacy in an ocular rat model with conjunctivitis in comparison to non-adhesive nanoparticles, BNP, or free antibiotics. Both in vivo safety experiment and in vitro cytotoxicity test verified the biocompatibility and biosafety of the biological adhesion reticulate structure, indicating a promising translational prospect for further clinical use.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Nanopartículas , Ratos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Chemotherapy ; 68(4): 228-232, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37231886

RESUMO

Neisseria meningitidis represents an uncommon pathogen of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. In this brief report, we describe a case of meningococcal conjunctivitis in an immunocompetent adult male, with a review of the literature. The patient went to the outpatient ophthalmology clinic complaining of severe ocular discomfort, burning, and redness for more than 2 weeks and, at slit lamp examination, he was diagnosed with a mild conjunctivitis. Microbiology cultures of ocular swabs revealed the growth of colonies, as pure culture, identified as N. meningitidis of serogroup B. A diagnosis of primary meningococcal conjunctivitis was made and treatment of patient with intramuscular injections of ceftriaxone in addition to topical moxifloxacin eye drops for 2 weeks led to clinical improvement and, finally, to a complete recovery, in accordance with microbiological findings. Ophthalmologists must be aware of the possibility of primary meningococcal conjunctivitis cases, even uncommon, and the need to treat with systemic antibiotics and their close contacts with adequate antibiotic chemoprophylaxis.


Assuntos
Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Conjuntivite , Infecções Meningocócicas , Neisseria meningitidis , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Meningocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Meningocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Conjuntivite/diagnóstico , Conjuntivite/tratamento farmacológico , Conjuntivite/microbiologia
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 282: 109752, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37104939

RESUMO

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), commonly known as pinkeye, has a marked negative impact on the economy of the cattle industry. Moraxella species, including Mor. bovis and Mor. bovoculi, which have been associated with this disease, colonize clinically healthy eyes as well, suggesting that there are intrinsic changes that may occur to the ocular microbiota or the involvement of additional unrecognized organisms that contribute to IBK. To evaluate this, 104 ocular swabs collected from eyes with IBK or clinically healthy eyes from 16 different cattle herds were subjected to 16 S rRNA gene PCR and next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. Organisms detected were similar across the herds and there was no difference in the total number of bacterial groups detected among IBK cases and controls. However, the percentages of the different organisms detected varied between the two groups, including Moraxella spp., with more Moraxella spp. in eyes with IBK than controls. Further, using culture and whole genome NGS, a new species of Moraxella (suggested name Mor. oculobovii) was detected from the eyes of cattle from two farms. This strain is non-hemolytic on blood agar, is missing the RTX operon, and is likely a non-pathogenic strain of the bovine ocular microbiome. Alteration of the ocular microbiota composition may have a predisposing role, enhancing bacterial infection and the occurrence of clinical IBK. Future studies are required to evaluate if these changes are permanent or if there is a shift in the microbiome following recovery from the infection and how antibiotics might affect the microbiome.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa , Ceratoconjuntivite , Infecções por Moraxellaceae , Infecções por Mycoplasma , Animais , Bovinos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/epidemiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite/epidemiologia , Ceratoconjuntivite/veterinária , Ceratoconjuntivite/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/veterinária , Moraxella/genética , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/veterinária , Infecções por Moraxellaceae/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD001211, 2023 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36912752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute bacterial conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva and is one of the most common ocular disorders in primary care. Antibiotics are generally prescribed on the basis that they may speed recovery, reduce persistence, and prevent keratitis. However, many cases of acute bacterial conjunctivitis are self-limited, resolving without antibiotic therapy. This Cochrane Review was first published in The Cochrane Library in 1999, then updated in 2006, 2012, and 2022. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and side effects of antibiotic therapy in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2022, Issue 5), MEDLINE (January 1950 to May 2022), Embase (January 1980 to May 2022), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases in May 2022.   SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which any form of antibiotic treatment, with or without steroid, had been compared with placebo/vehicle in the management of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. This included topical and systemic antibiotic treatments. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of identified studies. We assessed the full text of all potentially relevant studies and determined the included RCTs, which were further assessed for risk of bias using Cochrane methodology. We performed data extraction in a standardized manner and conducted random-effects meta-analyses using RevMan Web. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 eligible RCTs, 10 of which were newly identified in this update. A total of 8805 participants were randomized. All treatments were topical in the form of drops or ointment. The trials were heterogeneous in terms of their eligibility criteria, the nature of the intervention (antibiotic drug class, which included fluoroquinolones [FQs] and non-FQs; dosage frequency; duration of treatment), the outcomes assessed and the time points of assessment. We judged one trial to be of high risk of bias, four as low risk of bias, and the others as raising some concerns. Based on intention-to-treat (ITT) population, antibiotics likely improved clinical cure (resolution of clinical symptoms or signs) by 26% (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.46; 5 trials, 1474 participants; moderate certainty) as compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis showed no differences by antibiotic class (P = 0.67) or treatment duration (P = 0.60). In the placebo group, 55.5% (408/735) of participants had spontaneous clinical resolution by days 4 to 9 versus 68.2% (504/739) of participants treated with an antibiotic. Based on modified ITT population, in which participants were analyzed after randomization on the basis of positive microbiological culture, antibiotics likely increased microbiological cure (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.74; 10 trials, 2827 participants) compared with placebo at the end of therapy; there were no subgroup differences by drug class (P = 0.60). No study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. Patients receiving antibiotics had a lower risk of treatment incompletion than those in the placebo group (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.78; 13 trials, 5573 participants; moderate certainty) and were 27% less likely to have persistent clinical infection (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.81; 19 trials, 5280 participants; moderate certainty). There was no evidence of serious systemic side effects reported in either the antibiotic or placebo group (very low certainty). When compared with placebo, FQs (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.90) but not non-FQs (RR 4.05, 95% CI 1.36 to 12.00) may result in fewer participants with ocular side effects. However, the estimated effects were of very low certainty. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this update suggest that the use of topical antibiotics is associated with a modestly improved chance of resolution in comparison to the use of placebo. Since no evidence of serious side effects was reported, use of antibiotics may therefore be considered to achieve better clinical and microbiologic efficacy than placebo. Increasing the proportion of participants with clinical cure or increasing the speed of recovery or both are important for individual return to work or school, allowing people to regain quality of life. Future studies may examine antiseptic treatments with topical antibiotics for reasons of cost and growing antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Humanos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3356, 2023 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36849528

RESUMO

The first genome assemblies of Gnomoniopsis castaneae (syn. G. smithogilvyi), the causal agent of chestnut brown rot of kernels, shoot blight and cankers, are provided here. Specifically, the complete genome of the Italian ex-type MUT401 isolate was compared to the draft genome of a second Italian isolate (GN01) and to the ICMP 14040 isolate from New Zealand. The three genome sequences were obtained through a hybrid assembly using both short Illumina reads and long Nanopore reads, their coding sequences were annotated and compared with each other and with other Diaporthales. The information offered by the genome assembly of the three isolates represents the base of data for further application related to -omics strategies of the fungus and to develop markers for population studies at a local and global scale.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Genômica , Ascomicetos/genética , Éxons
20.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 21(1): 1-14, ene.-abr. 2023.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1427751

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus epidermidis son los principales agentes etiológicos de las conjuntivitis bacterianas, que al tratarse con antibióticos de manera empírica, incrementan la resistencia antimicrobiana después de exposiciones repetidas. Se están buscando alternativas naturales para el tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas autolimitadas de la conjuntiva. Objetivo: determinar la actividad antimicrobiana de ocho extractos de las plantas frente a bacterias aisladas de pacientes con conjuntivitis bacterianas. Materiales y métodos: se tomaron muestras de 15 pacientes con conjuntivitis bacterianas. Se cultivaron en agar sangre y chocolate durante 24 h a 37 °C y se identificaron mediante el sistema automatizado vitek y pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana por el método de Kirby-Bauer. A cada aislamiento identificado con el género Staphylococcus se le evaluó su susceptibilidad frente a siete extractos: Ocimum basilicum, Sambucus nigra L., Delphinium elatum, Calendula officinalis, Bixa ore-llana (parte aérea y fruto independiente), Clinopodium brownei y Laurus nobilis, con un uso tradicional reportado para el tratamiento de infecciones oculares. Resultados: las bacterias aisladas con más frecuencia fueron S. epidermidis, S. hominis y S. aureus, las cuales presentaron resistencia antimicrobiana a oxacilina, tetraciclinas y eritromicina. Todos los aislamientos fueron inhibidos por los extractos de O. basilicum (cmi: >0.9 mg/mL) y L. nobilis (cmi: hasta 15 mg/mL). Conclusión: los extractos de C. officinalis y D. elatum tuvieron actividad antimicrobiana solo frente a los aislados con mayor sensibilidad antimi-crobiana. Los extractos etanólicos de O. basilicum y L. nobilis pueden ser una alternativa de tratamiento de las infecciones de la conjuntiva.


Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the primary etiological agents of bacterial conjunctivitis which are empirically treated with antibiotics. This results in an increase in antimicrobial resistance due to repeated exposure. Currently, natural treatment alternatives are being sought for self-limited bacterial infections of the conjunctiva. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial activity of eight extracts from Colombian plants against bacteria isolated from patients with bacterial conjunctivitis. Materials and methods: Samples were taken from 15 patients with bacterial conjunctivitis which were grown on blood and chocolate agar for 24 h at 37 °C. These samples were identified by the vitek automated system and antimicrobial susceptibility tests by the Kirby Bauer method. Each isolate identified with the genus Staphylococcus was evaluated for susceptibility to the following eight plant extracts of seven plant: Ocimum basilicum (basil), Sambucus nigra L. (elderberry), Delphinium elatum(belladonna), Calendula officinalis (marigold), Bixa orellana (annatto) (aerial part and independent fruit), Clinopodium brownei (pennyroyal), and Laurus nobilis (laurel), with traditional use previously reported for treating eye infections. Results: The most frequently isolated bacteria were S. epidermidis, S. hominis, and S. aureus, which exhibited antimicrobial resistance mainly to oxacillin, tetracyclines, and erythromycin. All isolates were inhibited by O. basilicum extracts (mic > 0.9 mg/mL) and L. nobilis (mic < 15 mg/mL). Conclusion: The extracts of C. officinalis y D. elatum showed antimicrobial activity only against isolates with higher antimicrobial sensitivity. Ethanolic extracts of O. basilicum y L. nobilis can be used as an alternative treatment for infections of the anterior segment of the eye.


Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis são os principais agentes etiológicos da conjuntivite bacteriana, estes são tratados empiricamente com antibióticos, causando aumento da resistência antimicrobiana após repetidas exposições aos mesmos. Atualmente, estão sendo estudadas alternativas naturais para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas autolimitadas da conjuntiva. Objetivo: determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de oito extratos de sete vegetais contra bactérias isoladas de pacientes com conjuntivite bacteriana. Materiais e métodos: foram retiradas amostras de 15 pacientes com conjuntivite bacteriana. As amostras foram cultivadas em ágar sangue e ágar chocolate por 24 horas a 37°C e os isolados foram identificados pelo sistema automatizado vitek, além de testes de susce-tibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método Kirby Bauer. Cada isolado identificado como sendo pertencente ao gênero Staphylococcus foi avaliado quanto à suscetibilidade a oito extratos vegetais: Ocimum basili-cum (manjericão), Sambucus nigra L. (sabugueiro), Delphinium elatum (belladona), Calendula officinalis(calêndula), Bixa orellana (urucum; parte aérea e fruto independente), Clinopodium brownei (poejo) e Laurus nobilis (louro), anteriormente relatados como uso tradicional para o tratamento de infecções ocu-lares. Resultados: as bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas foram S. epidermidis, S. hominis e S. aureus, que apresentaram resistência antimicrobiana principalmente à oxacilina, tetraciclinas e eritromicina. Todos os isolados foram inibidos por extratos de O. basilicum (cim: >0,9 mg/mL) e L. nobilis (cim: até 15 mg/mL). Conclusão: os extratos de C. officinalis e D. elatum apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana apenas contra os isolados com maior sensibilidade antimicrobiana. Os extratos etanólicos de O. basilicum e L. nobilis podem ser uma alternativa de tratamento para infecções conjuntivais.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pacientes , Staphylococcus , Bactérias , Infecções Bacterianas , Extratos Vegetais , Infecções Oculares , Conjuntivite Bacteriana , Conjuntivite , Antibacterianos
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