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1.
Viruses ; 16(5)2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793640

RESUMO

The HIV-1 Rev protein expressed in the early stage of virus replication is involved in the nuclear export of some forms of virus RNA. Naturally occurring polymorphisms in the Rev protein could influence its activity. The association between the genetic features of different virus variants and HIV infection pathogenesis has been discussed for many years. In this study, Rev diversity among HIV-1 group M clades was analyzed to note the signatures that could influence Rev activity and, subsequently, clinical characteristics. From the Los Alamos HIV Sequence Database, 4962 Rev sequences were downloaded and 26 clades in HIV-1 group M were analyzed for amino acid changes, conservation in consensus sequences, and the presence of clade-specific amino acid substitutions (CSSs) and the Wu-Kabat protein variability coefficient (WK). Subtypes G, CRF 02_AG, B, and A1 showed the largest amino acid changes and diversity. The mean conservation of the Rev protein was 80.8%. In consensus sequences, signatures that could influence Rev activity were detected. In 15 out of 26 consensus sequences, an insertion associated with the reduced export activity of the Rev protein, 95QSQGTET96, was identified. A total of 32 CSSs were found in 16 clades, wherein A6 had the 41Q substitution in the functionally significant region of Rev. The high values of WK coefficient in sites 51 and 82, located on the Rev interaction surface, indicate the susceptibility of these positions to evolutionary replacements. Thus, the noted signatures require further investigation.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Produtos do Gene rev do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/classificação , Produtos do Gene rev do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene rev do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Filogenia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência Consenso
2.
Carbohydr Res ; 540: 109138, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703662

RESUMO

High-mannose-type glycan structure of N-glycoproteins plays important roles in the proper folding of proteins in sorting glycoprotein secretion and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 (G1M9)-type N-glycan is one of the most important signaling molecules in the ER. However, current chemical synthesis strategies are laborious, warranting more practical approaches for G1M9-glycopeptide development. Wang et al. reported the procedure to give G1M9-Asn-Fmoc through chemical modifications and purifications from 40 chicken eggs, but only 3.3 mg of G1M9-glycopeptide was obtained. Therefore, better methods are needed to obtain more than 10 mg of G1M9-glycopeptide. In this study, we report the preparation of G1M9-glycopeptide (13.2 mg) linking Asn-Gly-Thr triad as consensus sequence from 40 chicken eggs. In this procedure, λ-carrageenan treatment followed by papain treatment was used to separate the Fc region of IgY antibody that harbors high-mannose glycans. Moreover, cotton hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was adapted for easy purification. The resulting G1M9-Asn(Fmoc)-Gly-Thr was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. G1M9-Asn(Fmoc)-Gly, G1M9-Asn(Fmoc), and G1M9-OH were also detected by mass spectroscopy. Here, our developed G1M9-tripeptide might be useful for the elucidation of glycoprotein functions as well as the specific roles of the consensus sequence.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Gema de Ovo , Oligossacarídeos , Animais , Gema de Ovo/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/síntese química , Asparagina/química , Manose/química , Treonina/química , Sequência Consenso , Glicina/química , Glicopeptídeos/química
3.
Protein Sci ; 33(6): e5011, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747388

RESUMO

A protein sequence encodes its energy landscape-all the accessible conformations, energetics, and dynamics. The evolutionary relationship between sequence and landscape can be probed phylogenetically by compiling a multiple sequence alignment of homologous sequences and generating common ancestors via Ancestral Sequence Reconstruction or a consensus protein containing the most common amino acid at each position. Both ancestral and consensus proteins are often more stable than their extant homologs-questioning the differences between them and suggesting that both approaches serve as general methods to engineer thermostability. We used the Ribonuclease H family to compare these approaches and evaluate how the evolutionary relationship of the input sequences affects the properties of the resulting consensus protein. While the consensus protein derived from our full Ribonuclease H sequence alignment is structured and active, it neither shows properties of a well-folded protein nor has enhanced stability. In contrast, the consensus protein derived from a phylogenetically-restricted set of sequences is significantly more stable and cooperatively folded, suggesting that cooperativity may be encoded by different mechanisms in separate clades and lost when too many diverse clades are combined to generate a consensus protein. To explore this, we compared pairwise covariance scores using a Potts formalism as well as higher-order sequence correlations using singular value decomposition (SVD). We find the SVD coordinates of a stable consensus sequence are close to coordinates of the analogous ancestor sequence and its descendants, whereas the unstable consensus sequences are outliers in SVD space.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Ribonuclease H/química , Ribonuclease H/genética , Ribonuclease H/metabolismo , Sequência Consenso , Alinhamento de Sequência , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Modelos Moleculares , Dobramento de Proteína , Conformação Proteica
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3924, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724518

RESUMO

An effective HIV-1 vaccine must elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against highly diverse Envelope glycoproteins (Env). Since Env with the longest hypervariable (HV) loops is more resistant to the cognate bnAbs than Env with shorter HV loops, we redesigned hypervariable loops for updated Env consensus sequences of subtypes B and C and CRF01_AE. Using modeling with AlphaFold2, we reduced the length of V1, V2, and V5 HV loops while maintaining the integrity of the Env structure and glycan shield, and modified the V4 HV loop. Spacers are designed to limit strain-specific targeting. All updated Env are infectious as pseudoviruses. Preliminary structural characterization suggests that the modified HV loops have a limited impact on Env's conformation. Binding assays show improved binding to modified subtype B and CRF01_AE Env but not to subtype C Env. Neutralization assays show increases in sensitivity to bnAbs, although not always consistently across clades. Strikingly, the HV loop modification renders the resistant CRF01_AE Env sensitive to 10-1074 despite the absence of a glycan at N332.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , HIV-1 , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Células HEK293 , Sequência Consenso , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Epitopos/imunologia
5.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 71(1): 60, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify by in silico methods tropomyosin consensus B and T epitopes of shrimp species, house dust mites, insects, and nematodes associated with allergic diseases in tropical countries. METHODS: In silico analysis included tropomyosin from mites (Der p 10, Der f 10, Blo t 10), insects (Aed a 10, Per a 7, Bla g 7), shrimp (Lit v 1, Pen m 1, Pen a 1), and nematode (Asc l 3) all sequences were taken from the UniProt database. Linear IgE epitopes were predicted with AlgPred 2.0 and validated with BepiPred 3.0. MHC-II binding T cell epitopes were predicted using the IEDB server, which implements nine predictive methods (consensus method, combinatorial library, NN-align-2.3, NN- align-2.2, SMM-align, Sturniolo, NetMHCIIpan 3.1, and NetMHCIIpan 3.2) these predictions focused on 10 HLA-DR and 2 HLA-DQ alleles associated with allergic diseases. Subsequently, consensus B and T epitopes present in all species were identified. RESULTS: We identified 12 sequences that behaved as IgE-epitopes and B-cell epitopes, three of them: 160RKYDEVARKLAMVEA174, 192ELEEELRVVGNNLKSLEVSEEKAN215, 251KEVDRLEDELV261 were consensus in all species. Eleven peptides (T-epitopes) showed strong binding (percentile rank ≤ 2.0) to HLA-DRB1*0301, *0402, *0411, *0701, *1101, *1401, HLA-DQA1*03:01/DQB1*03:02, and HLA- DQA1*05:01/DQB1*02:01. Only two T-epitopes were consensus in all species: 167RKLAMVEADLERAEERAEt GEsKIVELEEELRV199, and 218EEeY KQQIKT LTaKLKEAEARAEFAERSV246. Subsequently, we identified 2 B and T epitope sequences and reached a consensus between species 167RKLAMVEA174 and 192ELEEELRV199. CONCLUSIONS: These data describe three sequences that may explain the IgE cross-reactivity between the analyzed species. In addition, the consensus B and T epitopes can be used for further in vitro investigations and may help to design multiple-epitope protein-based immunotherapy for tropomyosin-related allergic diseases.


OBJETIVO: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar mediante métodos in silico epítopes B y T consenso de tropomiosina de especies de camarón, ácaros del polvo doméstico, insectos y nematodos asociados a enfermedades alérgicas en países tropicales. MÉTODOS: El análisis in silico incluyó tropomiosina de ácaros (Der p 10, Der f 10, Blo t 10), insectos (Aed a 10, Per a 7, Bla g 7), camarones (Lit v 1, Pen m 1, Pen a 1), y nematodo (Asc l 3). Todas las secuencias se tomaron de la base de datos UniProt. Los epítopes IgE lineales se predijeron con AlgPred 2.0 y se validaron con BepiPred 3.0. Los epítopes de células T de unión a MHC-II se predijeron utilizando el servidor IEDB, que implementa nueve métodos predictivos (método de consenso, biblioteca combinatoria, NN-align-2.3, NN-align-2.2, SMM-align, Sturniolo, NetMHCIIpan 3.1 y NetMHCIIpan 3.2). Estas predicciones se centraron en diez alelos HLA-DR y 2 HLA-DQ asociados con enfermedades alérgicas. Posteriormente, se identificaron epítopes consenso B y T presentes en todas las especies. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 12 secuencias que se comportaron como epítopes de IgE y, también, como epítopes de células B. Tres de ellas: 160RKYDEVARKLAMVEA174, 192ELEEELRVVGNNLKSLEVSEEKAN213 y 251KEVDRLEDELV261, fueron consenso en todas las especies. Once péptidos mostraron una fuerte unión (rango percentil ≤ 2,0) a HLA-DRB1*0301, *0402, *0411, *0701, *1101, *1401 y a HLA HLA-DQA1*03:01/DQB1*03:02, o HLA-DQA1*05:01/DQB1*02:01. Solo se encontraron dos secuencias: 167RKLAMVEADLERAEERAEtGEsKIVELEEELRV199 con fuerte afinidad por HLA-DQA1*03:01/DQB1*03:02, y HLA-DQA1*05:01/DQB1*02:01. Se identificaron dos secuencias que son epítopos B y T, y son consenso entre especies: 167RKLAMVEA174 y 192ELEEELRV199. CONCLUSIONES: Estos datos describen tres secuencias que pueden explicar la reactividad cruzada de IgE entre las especies analizadas. Además, los epítopos B y T consenso se pueden usar para investigaciones in vitro adicionales, y pueden ayudar a diseñar inmunoterapia basada en proteínas de múltiepítopes para enfermedades alérgicas relacionadas con la tropomiosina.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Hipersensibilidade , Tropomiosina , Animais , Sequência Consenso , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Insetos/imunologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Tropomiosina/imunologia , Tropomiosina/genética , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Ácaros/imunologia , Crustáceos/imunologia , Nematoides/imunologia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301069, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669259

RESUMO

Nearly 300 million individuals live with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB), for which no curative therapy is available. As viral diversity is associated with pathogenesis and immunological control of infection, improved methods to characterize this diversity could aid drug development efforts. Conventionally, viral sequencing data are mapped/aligned to a reference genome, and only the aligned sequences are retained for analysis. Thus, reference selection is critical, yet selecting the most representative reference a priori remains difficult. We investigate an alternative pangenome approach which can combine multiple reference sequences into a graph which can be used during alignment. Using simulated short-read sequencing data generated from publicly available HBV genomes and real sequencing data from an individual living with CHB, we demonstrate alignment to a phylogenetically representative 'genome graph' can improve alignment, avoid issues of reference ambiguity, and facilitate the construction of sample-specific consensus sequences more genetically similar to the individual's infection. Graph-based methods can, therefore, improve efforts to characterize the genetics of viral pathogens, including HBV, and have broader implications in host-pathogen research.


Assuntos
Sequência Consenso , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Sequência Consenso/genética , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Variação Genética , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
7.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 28, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38449049

RESUMO

The prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 (PRRSV1) isolates has continued to increase in Chinese swine herds in recent years. However, no effective control strategy is available for PRRSV1 infection in China. In this study, we generated the first infectious cDNA clone (rHLJB1) of a Chinese PRRSV1 isolate and subsequently used it as a backbone to construct an ORF2-6 chimeric virus (ORF2-6-CON). This virus contained a synthesized consensus sequence of the PRRSV1 ORF2-6 gene encoding all the envelope proteins. The ORF2-6 consensus sequence shared > 90% nucleotide similarity with four representative strains (Amervac, BJEU06-1, HKEU16 and NMEU09-1) of PRRSV1 in China. ORF2-6-CON had replication efficacy similar to that of the backbone rHLJB1 virus in primary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) and exhibited cell tropism in Marc-145 cells. Piglet inoculation and challenge studies indicated that ORF2-6-CON is not pathogenic to piglets and can induce enhanced cross-protection against a heterologous SD1291 isolate. Notably, ORF2-6-CON inoculation induced higher levels of heterologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against SD1291 than rHLJB1 inoculation, which was concurrent with a higher percentage of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLNs), providing the first clue that porcine Tfh cells are correlated with heterologous PRRSV nAb responses. The number of SD1291-strain-specific IFNγ-secreting cells was similar in ORF2-6-CON-inoculated and rHLJB1-inoculated pigs. Overall, our findings support that the Marc-145-adapted ORF2-6-CON can trigger Tfh cell and heterologous nAb responses to confer improved cross-protection and may serve as a candidate strain for the development of a cross-protective PRRSV1 vaccine.


Assuntos
Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Animais , Suínos , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , China , Sequência Consenso
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(12): 6454-6462, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477968

RESUMO

In this study, the phenomenon of the stability-activity trade-off, which is increasingly recognized in enzyme engineering, was explored. Typically, enhanced stability in enzymes correlates with diminished activity. Utilizing Rosa roxburghii copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (RrCuZnSOD) as a model, single-site mutations were introduced based on a semirational design derived from consensus sequences. The initial set of mutants was selected based on activity, followed by combinatorial mutation. This approach yielded two double-site mutants, D25/A115T (18,688 ± 206 U/mg) and A115T/S135P (18,095 ± 1556 U/mg), exhibiting superior enzymatic properties due to additive and synergistic effects. These mutants demonstrated increased half-lives (T1/2) at 80 °C by 1.2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, and their melting temperatures (Tm) rose by 3.4 and 2.5 °C, respectively, without any loss in activity relative to the wild type. Via an integration of structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, we elucidated the underlying mechanism facilitating the concurrent enhancement of both thermostability and enzymatic activity.


Assuntos
Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Engenharia de Proteínas , Estabilidade Enzimática , Temperatura , Sequência Consenso
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338947

RESUMO

The extended cleavage specificities of two hematopoietic serine proteases originating from the ray-finned fish, the spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), have been characterized using substrate phage display. The preference for particular amino acids at and surrounding the cleavage site was further validated using a panel of recombinant substrates. For one of the enzymes, the gar granzyme G, a strict preference for the aromatic amino acid Tyr was observed at the cleavable P1 position. Using a set of recombinant substrates showed that the gar granzyme G had a high selectivity for Tyr but a lower activity for cleaving after Phe but not after Trp. Instead, the second enzyme, gar DDN1, showed a high preference for Leu in the P1 position of substrates. This latter enzyme also showed a high preference for Pro in the P2 position and Arg in both P4 and P5 positions. The selectivity for the two Arg residues in positions P4 and P5 suggests a highly specific substrate selectivity of this enzyme. The screening of the gar proteome with the consensus sequences obtained by substrate phage display for these two proteases resulted in a very diverse set of potential targets. Due to this diversity, a clear candidate for a specific immune function of these two enzymes cannot yet be identified. Antisera developed against the recombinant gar enzymes were used to study their tissue distribution. Tissue sections from juvenile fish showed the expression of both proteases in cells in Peyer's patch-like structures in the intestinal region, indicating they may be expressed in T or NK cells. However, due to the lack of antibodies to specific surface markers in the gar, it has not been possible to specify the exact cellular origin. A marked difference in abundance was observed for the two proteases where gar DDN1 was expressed at higher levels than gar granzyme G. However, both appear to be expressed in the same or similar cells, having a lymphocyte-like appearance.


Assuntos
Peixes , Serina Proteases , Animais , Serina Proteases/genética , Granzimas , Endopeptidases , Sequência Consenso , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
Biochemistry ; 63(3): 348-354, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206322

RESUMO

Proteins' extraordinary performance in recognition and catalysis has led to their use in a range of applications. However, proteins obtained from natural sources are oftentimes not suitable for direct use in industrial or diagnostic setups. Natural proteins, evolved to optimally perform a task in physiological conditions, usually lack the stability required to be used in harsher conditions. Therefore, the alteration of the stability of proteins is commonly pursued in protein engineering studies. Here, we achieved a substantial thermal stabilization of a bacterial Zn(II)-dependent phospholipase C by consensus sequence design. We retrieved and analyzed sequenced homologues from different sources, selecting a subset of examples for expression and characterization. A non-natural consensus sequence showed the highest stability and activity among those tested. Comparison of the stability parameters of this stabilized mutant and other natural variants bearing similar mutations allows us to pinpoint the sites most likely to be responsible for the enhancement. Point mutations in these sites alter the unfolding process of the consensus sequence. We show that the stabilized version of the protein retains full activity even in harsh oil degumming conditions, making it suitable for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Zinco , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas/metabolismo , Mutação , Sequência Consenso
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(3): e2312029121, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194446

RESUMO

Understanding natural protein evolution and designing novel proteins are motivating interest in development of high-throughput methods to explore large sequence spaces. In this work, we demonstrate the application of multisite λ dynamics (MSλD), a rigorous free energy simulation method, and chemical denaturation experiments to quantify evolutionary selection pressure from sequence-stability relationships and to address questions of design. This study examines a mesophilic phylogenetic clade of ribonuclease H (RNase H), furthering its extensive characterization in earlier studies, focusing on E. coli RNase H (ecRNH) and a more stable consensus sequence (AncCcons) differing at 15 positions. The stabilities of 32,768 chimeras between these two sequences were computed using the MSλD framework. The most stable and least stable chimeras were predicted and tested along with several other sequences, revealing a designed chimera with approximately the same stability increase as AncCcons, but requiring only half the mutations. Comparing the computed stabilities with experiment for 12 sequences reveals a Pearson correlation of 0.86 and root mean squared error of 1.18 kcal/mol, an unprecedented level of accuracy well beyond less rigorous computational design methods. We then quantified selection pressure using a simple evolutionary model in which sequences are selected according to the Boltzmann factor of their stability. Selection temperatures from 110 to 168 K are estimated in three ways by comparing experimental and computational results to evolutionary models. These estimates indicate selection pressure is high, which has implications for evolutionary dynamics and for the accuracy required for design, and suggests accurate high-throughput computational methods like MSλD may enable more effective protein design.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Ribonuclease H , Escherichia coli/genética , Filogenia , Simulação por Computador , Sequência Consenso , Ribonuclease H/genética
12.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 109, 2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the many cheap and fast ways to generate genomic data, good and exact genome assembly is still a problem, with especially the repeats being vastly underrepresented and often misassembled. As short reads in low coverage are already sufficient to represent the repeat landscape of any given genome, many read cluster algorithms were brought forward that provide repeat identification and classification. But how can trustworthy, reliable and representative repeat consensuses be derived from unassembled genomes? RESULTS: Here, we combine methods from repeat identification and genome assembly to derive these robust consensuses. We test several use cases, such as (1) consensus building from clustered short reads of non-model genomes, (2) from genome-wide amplification setups, and (3) specific repeat-centred questions, such as the linked vs. unlinked arrangement of ribosomal genes. In all our use cases, the derived consensuses are robust and representative. To evaluate overall performance, we compare our high-fidelity repeat consensuses to RepeatExplorer2-derived contigs and check, if they represent real transposable elements as found in long reads. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate useful, reliable and trustworthy consensuses from short reads by a combination from read cluster and genome assembly methods in an automatable way. CONCLUSION: We anticipate that our workflow opens the way towards more efficient and less manual repeat characterization and annotation, benefitting all genome studies, but especially those of non-model organisms.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Sequência Consenso , Análise por Conglomerados , Genômica
13.
J Biotechnol ; 379: 53-64, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070779

RESUMO

The baculovirus-insect cell expression system allows addition of O-fucose to EGF-like domains of glycoproteins, following the action of the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 named POFUT1. In this study, recombinant Spodoptera frugiperda POFUT1 from baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells was compared to recombinant Mus musculus POFUT1 produced by CHO cells. Contrary to recombinant murine POFUT1 carrying two hybrid and/or complex type N-glycans, Spodoptera frugiperda POFUT1 exhibited paucimannose N-glycans, at least on its highly evolutionary conserved across Metazoa NRT site. The abilities of both recombinant enzymes to add in vitro O -fucose to EGF-like domains of three different recombinant mammalian glycoproteins were then explored. In vitro POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation experiments, followed by click chemistry and blot analyses, showed that Spodoptera frugiperda POFUT1 was able to add O-fucose to mouse NOTCH1 EGF-like 26 and WIF1 EGF-like 3 domains, similarly to the murine counterpart. As proved by mass spectrometry, full-length human WNT Inhibitor Factor 1 expressed by Sf9 cells was also modified with O-fucose. However, Spodoptera frugiperda POFUT1 was unable to modify the single EGF-like domain of mouse PAMR1 with O-fucose, contrary to murine POFUT1. Absence of orthologous proteins such as PAMR1 in insects may explain the enzyme's difficulty in adding O-fucose to a domain that it never encounters naturally.


Assuntos
Fucosiltransferases , Proteínas Recombinantes , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Spodoptera/enzimologia , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/metabolismo , Fucosiltransferases/química , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Células Sf9 , Glicosilação , Sequência Consenso , Fucose/metabolismo , Domínios Proteicos
14.
Nature ; 624(7991): 355-365, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38092919

RESUMO

Single-cell analyses parse the brain's billions of neurons into thousands of 'cell-type' clusters residing in different brain structures1. Many cell types mediate their functions through targeted long-distance projections allowing interactions between specific cell types. Here we used epi-retro-seq2 to link single-cell epigenomes and cell types to long-distance projections for 33,034 neurons dissected from 32 different regions projecting to 24 different targets (225 source-to-target combinations) across the whole mouse brain. We highlight uses of these data for interrogating principles relating projection types to transcriptomics and epigenomics, and for addressing hypotheses about cell types and connections related to genetics. We provide an overall synthesis with 926 statistical comparisons of discriminability of neurons projecting to each target for every source. We integrate this dataset into the larger BRAIN Initiative Cell Census Network atlas, composed of millions of neurons, to link projection cell types to consensus clusters. Integration with spatial transcriptomics further assigns projection-enriched clusters to smaller source regions than the original dissections. We exemplify this by presenting in-depth analyses of projection neurons from the hypothalamus, thalamus, hindbrain, amygdala and midbrain to provide insights into properties of those cell types, including differentially expressed genes, their associated cis-regulatory elements and transcription-factor-binding motifs, and neurotransmitter use.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Epigenômica , Vias Neurais , Neurônios , Animais , Camundongos , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sequência Consenso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hipotálamo/citologia , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Vias Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Rombencéfalo/citologia , Análise de Célula Única , Tálamo/citologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
Nature ; 624(7991): 433-441, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38030726

RESUMO

FOXP3 is a transcription factor that is essential for the development of regulatory T cells, a branch of T cells that suppress excessive inflammation and autoimmunity1-5. However, the molecular mechanisms of FOXP3 remain unclear. Here we here show that FOXP3 uses the forkhead domain-a DNA-binding domain that is commonly thought to function as a monomer or dimer-to form a higher-order multimer after binding to TnG repeat microsatellites. The cryo-electron microscopy structure of FOXP3 in a complex with T3G repeats reveals a ladder-like architecture, whereby two double-stranded DNA molecules form the two 'side rails' bridged by five pairs of FOXP3 molecules, with each pair forming a 'rung'. Each FOXP3 subunit occupies TGTTTGT within the repeats in a manner that is indistinguishable from that of FOXP3 bound to the forkhead consensus motif (TGTTTAC). Mutations in the intra-rung interface impair TnG repeat recognition, DNA bridging and the cellular functions of FOXP3, all without affecting binding to the forkhead consensus motif. FOXP3 can tolerate variable inter-rung spacings, explaining its broad specificity for TnG-repeat-like sequences in vivo and in vitro. Both FOXP3 orthologues and paralogues show similar TnG repeat recognition and DNA bridging. These findings therefore reveal a mode of DNA recognition that involves transcription factor homomultimerization and DNA bridging, and further implicates microsatellites in transcriptional regulation and diseases.


Assuntos
DNA , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Repetições de Microssatélites , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Consenso , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA/ultraestrutura , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/química , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/ultraestrutura , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mutação , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 15767, 2023 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37737281

RESUMO

Gloeocapsopsis dulcis strain AAB1 is an extremely xerotolerant cyanobacterium isolated from the Atacama Desert (i.e., the driest and oldest desert on Earth) that holds astrobiological significance due to its ability to biosynthesize compatible solutes at ultra-low water activities. We sequenced and assembled the G. dulcis genome de novo using a combination of long- and short-read sequencing, which resulted in high-quality consensus sequences of the chromosome and two plasmids. We leveraged the G. dulcis genome to generate a genome-scale metabolic model (iGd895) to simulate growth in silico. iGd895 represents, to our knowledge, the first genome-scale metabolic reconstruction developed for an extremely xerotolerant cyanobacterium. The model's predictive capability was assessed by comparing the in silico growth rate with in vitro growth rates of G. dulcis, in addition to the synthesis of trehalose. iGd895 allowed us to explore simulations of key metabolic processes such as essential pathways for water-stress tolerance, and significant alterations to reaction flux distribution and metabolic network reorganization resulting from water limitation. Our study provides insights into the potential metabolic strategies employed by G. dulcis, emphasizing the crucial roles of compatible solutes, metabolic water, energy conservation, and the precise regulation of reaction rates in their adaptation to water stress.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Cianobactérias , Dessecação , Cianobactérias/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sequência Consenso , Desidratação
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(16)2023 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37628824

RESUMO

HIV-1 vaccines have been challenging to develop, partly due to the high level of genetic variation in its genome. Thus, a vaccine that can induce cross-reactive neutralization activities will be needed. Studies on the co-evolution of antibodies and viruses indicate that mimicking the natural infection is likely to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). We generated the consensus Env sequence for each time point in subject CH505, who developed broad neutralization activities, and selected five critical time points before broad neutralization was detected. These consensus sequences were designed to express stable Env trimers. Priming with the transmitted/founder Env timer and sequential boosting with these consensus Env trimers from different time points induced broader and more potent neutralizing activities than the BG505 Env trimer in guinea pigs. Analysis of the neutralization profiles showed that sequential immunization of Env trimers favored nAbs with gp120/gp41 interface specificity while the BG505 Env trimer favored nAbs with V2 specificity. The unique features such as consensus sequences, stable Env trimers and the sequential immunization to mimic natural infection likely has allowed the induction of improved neutralization responses.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Imunização , Animais , Cobaias , Vacinação , Anticorpos , Sequência Consenso
18.
Genome Biol ; 24(1): 180, 2023 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37542318

RESUMO

We present RBPNet, a novel deep learning method, which predicts CLIP-seq crosslink count distribution from RNA sequence at single-nucleotide resolution. By training on up to a million regions, RBPNet achieves high generalization on eCLIP, iCLIP and miCLIP assays, outperforming state-of-the-art classifiers. RBPNet performs bias correction by modeling the raw signal as a mixture of the protein-specific and background signal. Through model interrogation via Integrated Gradients, RBPNet identifies predictive sub-sequences that correspond to known and novel binding motifs and enables variant-impact scoring via in silico mutagenesis. Together, RBPNet improves imputation of protein-RNA interactions, as well as mechanistic interpretation of predictions.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Simulação por Computador , Aprendizado Profundo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , RNA , Humanos , Alelos , Viés , Sítios de Ligação , Sequência Consenso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Internet , Mutação , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , RNA/química , RNA/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Sítios de Splice de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(29): e2220762120, 2023 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37432995

RESUMO

Large datasets contribute new insights to subjects formerly investigated by exemplars. We used coevolution data to create a large, high-quality database of transmembrane ß-barrels (TMBB). By applying simple feature detection on generated evolutionary contact maps, our method (IsItABarrel) achieves 95.88% balanced accuracy when discriminating among protein classes. Moreover, comparison with IsItABarrel revealed a high rate of false positives in previous TMBB algorithms. In addition to being more accurate than previous datasets, our database (available online) contains 1,938,936 bacterial TMBB proteins from 38 phyla, respectively, 17 and 2.2 times larger than the previous sets TMBB-DB and OMPdb. We anticipate that due to its quality and size, the database will serve as a useful resource where high-quality TMBB sequence data are required. We found that TMBBs can be divided into 11 types, three of which have not been previously reported. We find tremendous variance in proteome percentage among TMBB-containing organisms with some using 6.79% of their proteome for TMBBs and others using as little as 0.27% of their proteome. The distribution of the lengths of the TMBBs is suggestive of previously hypothesized duplication events. In addition, we find that the C-terminal ß-signal varies among different classes of bacteria though its consensus sequence is LGLGYRF. However, this ß-signal is only characteristic of prototypical TMBBs. The ten non-prototypical barrel types have other C-terminal motifs, and it remains to be determined if these alternative motifs facilitate TMBB insertion or perform any other signaling function.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Proteoma , Humanos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Evolução Biológica , Sequência Consenso
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2643: 391-404, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36952201

RESUMO

Most soluble proteins enclosed in peroxisomes encode either type-1 or type-2 peroxisomal targeting signals (PTS1 or PTS2), which act as postal codes and define the proteins' intracellular destination. Thus, various computational programs have been developed to evaluate the probability of specific peptide sequences for being a functional PTS or to scan the primary sequence of proteins for such signals. Among these prediction algorithms the PTS1-predictor ( https://mendel.imp.ac.at/pts1/ ) has been amply used, but the research logic of this and other PTS1 prediction tools is occasionally misjudged giving rise to characteristic pitfalls. Here, a proper utilization of the PTS1-predictor is introduced together with a framework of additional tests to increase the validity of the interpretation of results. Moreover, a list of possible causes for a mismatch between results of such predictions and experimental outcomes is provided. However, the foundational arguments apply to other prediction tools for PTS1 motifs as well.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Sinais de Orientação para Peroxissomos , Peroxissomos , Sinais de Orientação para Peroxissomos/genética , Sinais de Orientação para Peroxissomos/fisiologia , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Proteico , Sequência Consenso
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