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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2303336121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588432

RESUMO

Climate change projections for coral reefs are founded exclusively on sea surface temperatures (SST). While SST projections are relevant for the shallowest reefs, neglecting ocean stratification overlooks the striking differences in temperature experienced by deeper reefs for all or part of the year. Density stratification creates a buoyancy barrier partitioning the upper and lower parts of the water column. Here, we mechanistically downscale climate models and quantify patterns of thermal stratification above mesophotic corals (depth 30 to 50 m) of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Stratification insulates many offshore regions of the GBR from heatwaves at the surface. However, this protection is lost once global average temperatures exceed ~3 °C above preindustrial, after which mesophotic temperatures surpass a recognized threshold of 30 °C for coral mortality. Bottom temperatures on the GBR (30 to 50 m) from 2050 to 2060 are estimated to increase by ~0.5 to 1 °C under lower climate emissions (SSP1-1.9) and ~1.2 to 1.7 °C under higher climate emissions (SSP5-8.5). In short, mesophotic coral reefs are also threatened by climate change and research might prioritize the sensitivity of such corals to stress.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Mudança Climática , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Temperatura , Água , Ecossistema
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17257, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572701

RESUMO

Countries are expanding marine protected area (MPA) networks to mitigate fisheries declines and support marine biodiversity. However, MPA impact evaluations typically assess total fish biomass. Here, we examine how fish biomass disaggregated by adult and juvenile life stages responds to environmental drivers, including sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and human footprint, and multiple management types at 139 reef sites in the Mesoamerican Reef (MAR) region. We found that total fish biomass generally appears stable across the region from 2006 to 2018, with limited rebuilding of fish stocks in MPAs. However, the metric of total fish biomass masked changes in fish community structure, with lower adult than juvenile fish biomass at northern sites, and adult:juvenile ratios closer to 1:1 at southern sites. These shifts were associated with different responses of juvenile and adult fish to environmental drivers and management. Juvenile fish biomass increased at sites with high larval connectivity and coral cover, whereas adult fish biomass decreased at sites with greater human footprint and SST anomalies. Adult fish biomass decreased primarily in Honduran general use zones, which suggests insufficient protection for adult fish in the southern MAR. There was a north-south gradient in management and environmental drivers, with lower coverage of fully protected areas and higher SST anomalies and coastal development in the south that together may undermine the maintenance of adult fish biomass in the southern MAR. Accounting for the interplay between environmental drivers and management in the design of MPAs is critical for increasing fish biomass across life history stages.


Los países están ampliando las redes de áreas marinas protegidas (AMP) para mitigar la disminución de las pesquerías y apoyar la biodiversidad marina. Sin embargo, las evaluaciones de impacto de las AMP típicamente estudian la biomasa total de peces. Aquí, examinamos cómo la biomasa de peces desagregada por etapas de vida adultas y juveniles responde a factores ambientales como anomalías de la temperatura superficial del mar (SST) e impacto humano, y múltiples tipos de manejo en 139 sitios de arrecifes en el sistema arrecifal mesoamericano (SAM). Encontramos que la biomasa total de peces en general parece estable en toda la región entre 2006 y 2018, con una recuperación limitada de las poblaciones de peces en las AMP. Sin embargo, la métrica de biomasa total de peces enmascaró los cambios en la estructura de la comunidad de peces, con una biomasa de peces adultos más baja que juveniles en los sitios del norte, y proporciones adulto:juvenil más cercana a 1:1 en los sitios del sur. Estos cambios fueron asociados con diferentes respuestas de peces juveniles y adultos a variables ambientales y de manejo. La biomasa de peces juveniles aumentó en sitios con alta conectividad larvaria y cobertura coralina, mientras que la biomasa de peces adultos disminuyó en sitios con mayor impacto humano y anomalías en la SST. La biomasa de peces adultos disminuyó principalmente en las zonas de uso general (GUZ) hondureñas, lo cual sugiere una protección insuficiente para peces adultos en el sur del SAM. Hubo un gradiente norte­sur en el manejo y los factores ambientales, con menor cobertura de áreas totalmente protegidas y mayores anomalías de SST y desarrollo costero en el sur. En conjunto esto puede degradar el mantenimiento de la biomasa de peces adultos en el sur del SAM. La interacción entre factores ambientales y el manejo en el diseño de las AMP es fundamental para aumentar la biomasa de peces en todas las etapas del ciclo de vida.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Recifes de Corais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biomassa , Peixes/fisiologia , Pesqueiros
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7893, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570549

RESUMO

The Anthropocene rise in global temperatures is facilitating the expansion of tropical species into historically non-native subtropical locales, including coral reef fish. This redistribution of species, known as tropicalization, has serious consequences for economic development, livelihoods, food security, human health, and culture. Measuring the tropicalization of subtropical reef fish assemblages is difficult due to expansive species ranges, temporal distribution shifts with the movement of isotherms, and many dynamic density-dependent factors affecting occurrence and density. Therefore, in locales where tropical and subtropical species co-occur, detecting tropicalization changes relies on regional analyses of the relative densities and occurrence of species. This study provides a baseline for monitoring reef fish tropicalization by utilizing extensive monitoring data from a pivotal location in southeast Florida along a known transition between tropical and subtropical ecotones to define regional reef fish assemblages and use benthic habitat maps to spatially represent their zoogeography. Assemblages varied significantly by ecoregion, habitat depth, habitat type, and topographic relief. Generally, the southern assemblages had higher occurrences and densities of tropical species, whereas the northern assemblages had a higher occurrence and density of subtropical species. A total of 108 species were exclusive to regions south of the Bahamas Fracture Zone (BFZ) (South Palm Beach, Deerfield, Broward-Miami) and 35 were exclusive to the north (North Palm Beach, Martin), supporting the BFZ as a pivotal location that affects the coastal biogeographic extent of tropical marine species in eastern North America. Future tropicalization of reef fish assemblages are expected to be evident in temporal deviance of percent occurrence and/or relative species densities between baseline assemblages, where the poleward expansion of tropical species is expected to show the homogenization of assemblage regions as adjacent regions become more similar or the regional boundaries expand poleward. Ecoregions, habitat depth, habitat type, and relief should be incorporated into the stratification and analyses of reef fish surveys to statistically determine assemblage differences across the seascape, including those from tropicalization.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Fraturas Ósseas , Animais , Humanos , Ecossistema , Peixes , Florida , Bahamas
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7859, 2024 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570591

RESUMO

Local adaptation can increase fitness under stable environmental conditions. However, in rapidly changing environments, compensatory mechanisms enabled through plasticity may better promote fitness. Climate change is causing devastating impacts on coral reefs globally and understanding the potential for adaptive and plastic responses is critical for reef management. We conducted a four-year, three-way reciprocal transplant of the Caribbean coral Siderastrea siderea across forereef, backreef, and nearshore populations in Belize to investigate the potential for environmental specialization versus plasticity in this species. Corals maintained high survival within forereef and backreef environments, but transplantation to nearshore environments resulted in high mortality, suggesting that nearshore environments present strong environmental selection. Only forereef-sourced corals demonstrated evidence of environmental specialization, exhibiting the highest growth in the forereef. Gene expression profiling 3.5 years post-transplantation revealed that transplanted coral hosts exhibited profiles more similar to other corals in the same reef environment, regardless of their source location, suggesting that transcriptome plasticity facilitates acclimatization to environmental change in S. siderea. In contrast, algal symbiont (Cladocopium goreaui) gene expression showcased functional variation between source locations that was maintained post-transplantation. Our findings suggest limited acclimatory capacity of some S. siderea populations under strong environmental selection and highlight the potential limits of coral physiological plasticity in reef restoration.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Região do Caribe , Transcriptoma , Aclimatação/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2902, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575584

RESUMO

Microbial diversity has been extensively explored in reef-building corals. However, the functional roles of coral-associated microorganisms remain poorly elucidated. Here, we recover 191 bacterial and 10 archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the coral Acropora kenti (formerly A. tenuis) and adjacent seawater, to identify microbial functions and metabolic interactions within the holobiont. We show that 82 MAGs were specific to the A. kenti holobiont, including members of the Pseudomonadota, Bacteroidota, and Desulfobacterota. A. kenti-specific MAGs displayed significant differences in their genomic features and functional potential relative to seawater-specific MAGs, with a higher prevalence of genes involved in host immune system evasion, nitrogen and carbon fixation, and synthesis of five essential B-vitamins. We find a diversity of A. kenti-specific MAGs encode the biosynthesis of essential amino acids, such as tryptophan, histidine, and lysine, which cannot be de novo synthesised by the host or Symbiodiniaceae. Across a water quality gradient spanning 2° of latitude, A. kenti microbial community composition is correlated to increased temperature and dissolved inorganic nitrogen, with corresponding enrichment in molecular chaperones, nitrate reductases, and a heat-shock protein. We reveal mechanisms of A. kenti-microbiome-symbiosis on the Great Barrier Reef, highlighting the interactions underpinning the health of this keystone holobiont.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Microbiota , Resiliência Psicológica , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Antozoários/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Metagenoma/genética , Nitrogênio , Recifes de Corais , Simbiose/genética
6.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 410, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575730

RESUMO

Climate change is restructuring natural ecosystems. The direct impacts of these events on biodiversity and community structure are widely documented, but the impacts on the genetic variation of populations remains largely unknown. We monitored populations of Acropora coral on a remote coral reef system in northwest Australia for two decades and through multiple cycles of impact and recovery. We combined these demographic data with a temporal genetic dataset of a common broadcast spawning corymbose Acropora to explore the spatial and temporal patterns of connectivity underlying recovery. Our data show that broad-scale dispersal and post-recruitment survival drive recovery from recurrent disturbances, including mass bleaching and mortality. Consequently, genetic diversity and associated patterns of connectivity are maintained through time in the broader metapopulation. The results highlight an inherent resilience in these globally threatened species of coral and showcase their ability to cope with multiple disturbances, given enough time to recover is permitted.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Resiliência Psicológica , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Ecossistema , Recifes de Corais , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(4): e16610, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576217

RESUMO

Coral reef ecosystems are now commonly affected by major climate and disease disturbances. Disturbance impacts are typically recorded using reef benthic cover, but this may be less reflective of other ecosystem processes. To explore the potential for reef water-based disturbance indicators, we conducted a 7-year time series on US Virgin Island reefs where we examined benthic cover and reef water nutrients and microorganisms from 2016 to 2022, which included two major disturbances: hurricanes Irma and Maria in 2017 and the stony coral tissue loss disease outbreak starting in 2020. The disease outbreak coincided with the largest changes in the benthic habitat, with increases in the percent cover of turf algae and Ramicrusta, an invasive alga. While sampling timepoint contributed most to changes in reef water nutrient composition and microbial community beta diversity, both disturbances led to increases in ammonium concentration, a mechanism likely contributing to observed microbial community shifts. We identified 10 microbial taxa that were sensitive and predictive of increasing ammonium concentration. This included the decline of the oligotrophic and photoautotrophic Prochlorococcus and the enrichment of heterotrophic taxa. As disturbances impact reefs, the changing nutrient and microbial regimes may foster a type of microbialization, a process that hastens reef degradation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Antozoários , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Animais , Ecossistema , Ilhas Virgens Americanas , Recifes de Corais , Água
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17248, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581126

RESUMO

Both human populations and marine biodiversity are concentrated along coastlines, with growing conservation interest in how these ecosystems can survive intense anthropogenic impacts. Tropical urban centres provide valuable research opportunities because these megacities are often adjacent to mega-diverse coral reef systems. The Pearl River Delta is a prime exemplar, as it encompasses one of the most densely populated and impacted regions in the world and is located just northwest of the Coral Triangle. However, the spatial and taxonomic complexity of this biodiversity, most of which is small, cryptic in habitat and poorly known, make comparative analyses challenging. We deployed standardized settlement structures at seven sites differing in the intensity of human impacts and used COI metabarcoding to characterize benthic biodiversity, with a focus on metazoans. We found a total of 7184 OTUs, with an average of 665 OTUs per sampling unit; these numbers exceed those observed in many previous studies using comparable methods, despite the location of our study in an urbanized environment. Beta diversity was also high, with 52% of the OTUs found at just one site. As expected, we found that the sites close to point sources of pollution had substantially lower diversity (44% less) relative to sites bathed in less polluted oceanic waters. However, the polluted sites contributed substantially to the total animal diversity of the region, with 25% of all OTUs occurring only within polluted sites. Further analysis of Arthropoda, Annelida and Mollusca showed that phylogenetic clustering within a site was common, suggesting that environmental filtering reduced biodiversity to a subset of lineages present within the region, a pattern that was most pronounced in polluted sites and for the Arthropoda. The water quality gradients surrounding the PRD highlight the unique role of in situ studies for understanding the impacts of complex urbanization pressures on biodiversity.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais
9.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2224, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472196

RESUMO

Climate change impact syntheses, such as those by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, consistently assert that limiting global warming to 1.5 °C is unlikely to safeguard most of the world's coral reefs. This prognosis is primarily based on a small subset of available models that apply similar 'excess heat' threshold methodologies. Our systematic review of 79 articles projecting coral reef responses to climate change revealed five main methods. 'Excess heat' models constituted one third (32%) of all studies but attracted a disproportionate share (68%) of citations in the field. Most methods relied on deterministic cause-and-effect rules rather than probabilistic relationships, impeding the field's ability to estimate uncertainty. To synthesize the available projections, we aimed to identify models with comparable outputs. However, divergent choices in model outputs and scenarios limited the analysis to a fraction of available studies. We found substantial discrepancies in the projected impacts, indicating that the subset of articles serving as a basis for climate change syntheses may project more severe consequences than other studies and methodologies. Drawing on insights from other fields, we propose methods to incorporate uncertainty into deterministic modeling approaches and propose a multi-model ensemble approach to generating probabilistic projections for coral reef futures.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Mudança Climática , Antozoários/fisiologia , Incerteza , Aquecimento Global , Ecossistema
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4936, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472289

RESUMO

Many countries with tropical reef systems face hard choices preserving coral reefs in the face of climate change on limited budgets. One approach to maximising regional reef resilience is targeting management efforts and resources at reefs that export large numbers of larvae to other reefs. However, this requires reef connectivity to be quantified. To map coral connectivity in the Seychelles reef system we carried out a population genomic study of the Porites lutea species complex using 241 sequenced colonies from multiple islands. To identify oceanographic drivers of this connectivity and quantify variability, we further used a 2 km resolution regional ocean simulation coupled with a larval dispersal model to predict the flow of coral larvae between reef sites. Patterns of admixture and gene flow are broadly supported by model predictions, but the realised connectivity is greater than that predicted from model simulations. Both methods detected a biogeographic dispersal barrier between the Inner and Outer Islands of Seychelles. However, this barrier is permeable and substantial larval transport is possible across Seychelles, particularly for one of two putative species found in our genomic study. The broad agreement between predicted connectivity and observed genetic patterns supports the use of such larval dispersal simulations in reef system management in Seychelles and the wider region.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Seicheles , Antozoários/genética , Genética Populacional , Larva
11.
Mol Ecol ; 33(7): e17307, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444224

RESUMO

Upright branching sponges, such as Aplysina cauliformis, provide critical three-dimensional habitat for other organisms and assist in stabilizing coral reef substrata, but are highly susceptible to breakage during storms. Breakage can increase sponge fragmentation, contributing to population clonality and inbreeding. Conversely, storms could provide opportunities for new genotypes to enter populations via larval recruitment, resulting in greater genetic diversity in locations with frequent storms. The unprecedented occurrence of two Category 5 hurricanes in close succession during 2017 in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) provided a unique opportunity to evaluate whether recolonization of newly available substrata on coral reefs was due to local (e.g. re-growth of remnants, fragmentation, larval recruitment) or remote (e.g. larval transport and immigration) sponge genotypes. We sampled A. cauliformis adults and juveniles from four reefs around St. Thomas and two in St. Croix (USVI). Using a 2bRAD protocol, all samples were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results showed that these major storm events favoured sponge larval recruitment but did not increase the genetic diversity of A. cauliformis populations. Recolonization of substratum post-storms via clonality was lower (15%) than expected and instead was mainly due to sexual reproduction (85%) via local larval recruitment. Storms did enhance gene flow among and within reef sites located south of St. Thomas and north of St. Croix. Therefore, populations of clonal marine species with low pelagic dispersion, such as A. cauliformis, may benefit from increased frequency and magnitude of hurricanes for the maintenance of genetic diversity and to combat inbreeding, enhancing the resilience of Caribbean sponge communities to extreme storm events.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Região do Caribe
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6961, 2024 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521859

RESUMO

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been used in a multitude of real-world applications given their predictive capabilities, and algorithms based on gradient descent, such as Backpropagation (BP) and variants, are usually considered for their optimisation. However, these algorithms have been shown to get stuck at local optima, and they require a cautious design of the architecture of the model. This paper proposes a novel memetic training method for simultaneously learning the ANNs structure and weights based on the Coral Reef Optimisation algorithms (CROs), a global-search metaheuristic based on corals' biology and coral reef formation. Three versions based on the original CRO combined with a Local Search procedure are developed: (1) the basic one, called Memetic CRO; (2) a statistically guided version called Memetic SCRO (M-SCRO) that adjusts the algorithm parameters based on the population fitness; (3) and, finally, an improved Dynamic Statistically-driven version called Memetic Dynamic SCRO (M-DSCRO). M-DSCRO is designed with the idea of improving the M-SCRO version in the evolutionary process, evaluating whether the fitness distribution of the population of ANNs is normal to automatically decide the statistic to be used for assigning the algorithm parameters. Furthermore, all algorithms are adapted to the design of ANNs by means of the most suitable operators. The performance of the different algorithms is evaluated with 40 classification datasets, showing that the proposed M-DSCRO algorithm outperforms the other two versions on most of the datasets. In the final analysis, M-DSCRO is compared against four state-of-the-art methods, demonstrating its superior efficacy in terms of overall accuracy and minority class performance.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Aprendizagem
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 922: 171271, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428592

RESUMO

Extreme wildfire events are on the rise globally, and although substantial wildfire emissions may find their way into the ocean, their impact on coral reefs remains uncertain. In a five-week laboratory experiment, we observed a significant reduction in photosynthesis in coral symbionts (Porites lutea) when exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from wildfires. At low PM2.5 level (2 mg L-1), the changes in δ13C and δ15N values in the host and symbiotic algae suggest reduced autotrophy and the utilization of wildfire particulates as a source of heterotrophic nutrients. This adaptive strategy, characterized by an increase in heterotrophy, sustained some aspects of coral growth (total biomass, proteins and lipids) under wildfire stress. Nevertheless, at high PM2.5 level (5 mg L-1), both autotrophy and heterotrophy significantly decreased, resulting in an imbalanced coral-algal nutritional relationship. These changes were related to light attenuation in seawater and particulate accumulation on the coral surface during PM2.5 deposition, ultimately rendering the coral growth unsustainable. Further, the calcification rates decreased by 1.5 to 1.85 times under both low and high levels of PM2.5, primarily affected by photosynthetic autotrophy rather than heterotrophy. Our study highlights a constrained heterotrophic plasticity of corals under wildfire stress. This limitation may restrict wildfire emissions as an alternative nutrient source to support coral growth and calcification, especially when oceanic food availability or autotrophy declines, as seen during bleaching induced by the warming ocean.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Processos Heterotróficos , Recifes de Corais , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Material Particulado/metabolismo
14.
PLoS Biol ; 22(3): e3002542, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502663

RESUMO

Coral reefs provide ecosystem benefits to millions of people but are threatened by rapid environmental change and ever-increasing human pressures. Restoration is becoming a priority strategy for coral reef conservation, yet implementation remains challenging and it is becoming increasingly apparent that indirect conservation and restoration approaches will not ensure the long-term sustainability of coral reefs. The important role of environmental conditions in restoration practice are currently undervalued, carrying substantial implications for restoration success. Giving paramount importance to environmental conditions, particularly during the pre-restoration planning phase, has the potential to bring about considerable improvements in coral reef restoration and innovation. This Essay argues that restoration risk may be reduced by adopting an environmentally aware perspective that gives historical, contemporary, and future context to restoration decisions. Such an approach will open up new restoration opportunities with improved sustainability that have the capacity to dynamically respond to environmental trajectories.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Humanos , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Previsões
15.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299523, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502667

RESUMO

The island of Guam in the west Pacific has seen a significant decrease in coral cover since 2013. Lafac Bay, a marine protected area in northeast Guam, served as a reference site for benthic communities typical of forereefs on the windward side of the island. The staghorn coral Acropora abrotanoides is a dominant and characteristic ecosystem engineer of forereef communities on exposed shorelines. Photoquadrat surveys were conducted in 2015, 2017, and 2019, and a diver-operated hyperspectral imager (i.e., DiveRay) was used to survey the same transects in 2019. Machine learning algorithms were used to develop an automated pipeline to assess the benthic cover of 10 biotic and abiotic categories in 2019 based on hyperspectral imagery. The cover of scleractinian corals did not differ between 2015 and 2017 despite being subjected to a series of environmental disturbances in these years. Surveys in 2019 documented the almost complete decline of the habitat-defining staghorn coral Acropora abrotanoides (a practically complete disappearance from about 10% cover), a significant decrease (~75%) in the cover of other scleractinian corals, and a significant increase (~55%) in the combined cover of bare substrate, turf algae, and cyanobacteria. The drastic change in community composition suggests that the reef at Lafac Bay is transitioning to a turf algae-dominated community. However, the capacity of this reef to recover from previous disturbances suggests that this transition could be reversed, making Lafac Bay an excellent candidate for long-term monitoring. Community analyses showed no significant difference between automatically classified benthic cover estimates derived from the hyperspectral scans in 2019 and those derived from photoquadrats. These findings suggest that underwater hyperspectral imagers can be efficient and effective tools for fast, frequent, and accurate monitoring of dynamic reef communities.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Ecossistema , Guam , Imageamento Hiperespectral
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6437, 2024 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499737

RESUMO

Intra-colonial genetic variability (IGV), the presence of more than one genotype in a single colony, has been increasingly studied in scleractinians, revealing its high prevalence. Several studies hypothesised that IGV brings benefits, but few have investigated its roles from a genetic perspective. Here, using genomic data (SNPs), we investigated these potential benefits in populations of the coral Pocillopora acuta from Reunion Island (southwestern Indian Ocean). As the detection of IGV depends on sequencing and bioinformatics errors, we first explored the impact of the bioinformatics pipeline on its detection. Then, SNPs and genes variable within colonies were characterised. While most of the tested bioinformatics parameters did not significantly impact the detection of IGV, filtering on genotype depth of coverage strongly improved its detection by reducing genotyping errors. Mosaicism and chimerism, the two processes leading to IGV (the first through somatic mutations, the second through fusion of distinct organisms), were found in 7% and 12% of the colonies, respectively. Both processes led to several intra-colonial allelic differences, but most were non-coding or silent. However, 7% of the differences were non-silent and found in genes involved in a high diversity of biological processes, some of which were directly linked to responses to environmental stresses. IGV, therefore, appears as a source of genetic diversity and genetic plasticity, increasing the adaptive potential of colonies. Such benefits undoubtedly play an important role in the maintenance and the evolution of scleractinian populations and appear crucial for the future of coral reefs in the context of ongoing global changes.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Recifes de Corais , Genótipo , Genoma/genética , Genômica
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6620, 2024 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503796

RESUMO

As ocean temperatures continue to rise, coral bleaching events around the globe are becoming stronger and more frequent. High-resolution temperature data is therefore critical for monitoring reef conditions to identify indicators of heat stress. Satellite and in situ measurements have historically been relied upon to study the thermal tolerances of coral reefs, but these data are quite limited in their spatial and temporal coverage. Ocean circulation models could provide an alternative or complement to these limited data, but a thorough evaluation against in situ measurements has yet to be conducted in any Pacific Islands region. Here we compared subsurface temperature measurements around the nearshore Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) from 2010 to 2017 with temperature predictions from an operational Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to evaluate the potential utility of this model as a tool for coral reef management. We found that overall, the ROMS reanalysis presents accurate subsurface temperature predictions across the nearshore MHI region and captures a significant amount of observed temperature variability. The model recreates several temperature metrics used to identify coral heat stress, including predicting the 2014 and 2015 bleaching events around Hawai'i during the summer and fall months of those years. The MHI ROMS simulation proves to be a useful tool for coral reef management in the absence of, or to supplement, subsurface and satellite measurements across Hawai'i and likely for other Pacific Island regions.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Temperatura , Havaí , Ilhas , Recifes de Corais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Oceanos e Mares
18.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299916, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507354

RESUMO

Sounds from fish and invertebrates in coral reefs can create persistent cacophonies that can be recorded for ecosystem monitoring, including during nighttime hours where visual surveys are typically not feasible. Here we use soundscape measurements in Hawaii to demonstrate that multiple coral reef communities are rapidly responsive to shifts in nighttime ambient light, with sustained changes in biological sound between moonrise and moonset. High frequency pulse train sounds from fish (0.5-1.5 kHz) are found to increase during moonlight hours, while low frequency fish vocalizations (0.1-0.3 kHz) and invertebrate sounds (2-20 kHz) are found to decrease during moonlight hours. These discoveries suggest that the rising and setting of the moon triggers regular shifts in coral reef ecosystem interactions. Future acoustic monitoring of reef health may be improved by comparing soundscapes during moonlight and non-moonlight hours, which may provide early indicators of shifts in the relative abundance of separate reef communities.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Ecossistema , Havaí , Peixes , Invertebrados
19.
Curr Biol ; 34(6): R254-R256, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531321

RESUMO

Blast fishing reduces coral reefs to fields of rubble. A new study of a project to restore blast-fished reefs reveals rapid recovery of reef carbonate budgets and reef health but highlights that further work is needed to restore coral biodiversity.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Ecossistema , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recifes de Corais , Biodiversidade
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2019): 20232447, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531406

RESUMO

As environments are rapidly reshaped due to climate change, phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in the ability of organisms to persist and is considered an especially important acclimatization mechanism for long-lived sessile organisms such as reef-building corals. Often, this ability of a single genotype to display multiple phenotypes depending on the environment is modulated by changes in gene expression, which can vary in response to environmental changes via two mechanisms: baseline expression and expression plasticity. We used transcriptome-wide expression profiling of eleven genotypes of common-gardened Acropora cervicornis to explore genotypic variation in the expression response to thermal and acidification stress, both individually and in combination. We show that the combination of these two stressors elicits a synergistic gene expression response, and that both baseline expression and expression plasticity in response to stress show genotypic variation. Additionally, we demonstrate that frontloading of a large module of coexpressed genes is associated with greater retention of algal symbionts under combined stress. These results illustrate that variation in the gene expression response of individuals to climate change stressors can persist even when individuals have shared environmental histories, affecting their performance under future climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Humanos , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Genótipo , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática
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