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1.
Curr Biol ; 34(13): R623-R625, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981426

RESUMO

The fly Drosophila yakuba has lost an ancestral component of the male courtship song: this is due to ontogenetic death of effector neurons in the ventral nerve cord, a result of the D. yakuba sex-determining gene dsx producing a male isoform, dsxM, with cell-death-promoting activity similar to that of the female isoform, dsxF, in D. melanogaster.


Assuntos
Corte , Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
2.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 150, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate detection of pheromones is crucial for chemical communication and reproduction in insects. In holometabolous flies and moths, the sensory neuron membrane protein 1 (SNMP1) is essential for detecting long-chain aliphatic pheromones by olfactory neurons. However, its function in hemimetabolous insects and its role for detecting pheromones of a different chemical nature remain elusive. Therefore, we investigated the relevance of SNMP1 for pheromone detection in a hemimetabolous insect pest of considerable economic importance, the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria, which moreover employs the aromatic pheromone phenylacetonitrile (PAN) to govern reproductive behaviors. RESULTS: Employing CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene editing, a mutant locust line lacking functional SNMP1 was established. In electroantennography experiments and single sensillum recordings, we found significantly decreased electrical responses to PAN in SNMP1-deficient (SNMP1-/-) locusts. Moreover, calcium imaging in the antennal lobe of the brain revealed a substantially reduced activation of projection neurons in SNMP1-/- individuals upon exposure to PAN, indicating that the diminished antennal responsiveness to PAN in mutants affects pheromone-evoked neuronal activity in the brain. Furthermore, in behavioral experiments, PAN-induced effects on pairing and mate choice were altered in SNMP1-/- locusts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the importance of SNMP1 for chemical communication in a hemimetabolous insect pest. Moreover, they show that SNMP1 plays a crucial role in pheromone detection that goes beyond long-chain aliphatic substances and includes aromatic compounds controlling reproductive behaviors.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Proteínas de Membrana , Animais , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Gafanhotos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Feromônios/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Corte , Acetonitrilas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo
3.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(7): 2547-2582, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839703

RESUMO

Intrinsic (i.e., personality traits) and extrinsic mate value (i.e., resources, physical attractiveness) preferences play a crucial role in (online) relationship formation. The role of mate values in dating applications was unclear and was addressed in a multi-method study. A first content analytical study examined the prevalence of mate values (MVs) on Tinder profiles (Study 1) and two subsequent cross-sectional studies explored the relationships between dating app use, various swiping behaviors, sexual satisfaction (Studies 2-3), need satisfaction with matches (Study 3), having a committed relationship versus casual sex motivation for using dating apps and users' gender. The content analysis of 307 Tinder profiles indicated that resources and physical attractiveness were most salient in biographies and pictures, respectively. The first cross-sectional study (nfullsample = 325, ndating app users = 133) revealed no significant relationships between dating app frequency/swiping frequency, intrinsic and extrinsic MV preferences, and sexual satisfaction. The second cross-sectional study (n = 323) showed no significant relationships between picture-based or biography-based swiping, intrinsic and extrinsic MV preferences, and need satisfaction with matches. Gender differences emerged in the presentation of MVs on Tinder (Study 1) and general MV preferences (Study 2-3), but not in the relationships between different types of dating app use/swiping and MV preferences (Study 2-3). A committed relationship and a casual sex motivation played a role in the relationships between different types of swiping behaviors and MV preferences, and between MV preferences, and sexual satisfaction/need satisfaction with matches.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Relações Interpessoais , Corte/psicologia , Motivação
4.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 86, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male courtship investment may evolve in response to the male's expectation of future mating opportunities or the degree of female control during mating interactions. We used a comparative approach to test this hypotheses by assessing the courtship and mating behaviors of five widow spider species (genus Latrodectus) under common laboratory conditions. We predicted male investment in courtship would be higher in species where males mate only once because of high cannibalism rates (monogyny, L. geometricus, L. hasselti, L. mirabilis), compared to species with rare cannibalism (L. mactans, L. hesperus) in which males should reserve energy for future mating opportunities. Increased male investment, measured as courtship duration, might also evolve with increased female control over mating outcomes if females prefer longer courtships. We tested this by assessing the frequency of copulations, timing of sexual cannibalism, and the degree of female-biased size dimorphism, which is expected to be negatively correlated with the energetic cost of rebuffing male mating attempts. RESULTS: Copulation frequency was consistently lower in species with extreme female-skewed size dimorphism, and where sexual cannibalism was more prevalent, suggesting the importance of female control for mating outcomes. We confirmed significant interspecific variation in average courtship duration, but contrary to predictions, it was not predicted by male mating system, and there was no consistent link between courtship duration and sexual size dimorphism. CONCLUSION: We show that the degree of sexual dimorphism is not only correlated with sexual cannibalism, but also with mating success since restriction of male copulation frequency by female Latrodectus affects paternity. However, predictions about male mating system or female control affecting courtship duration were not supported. We propose that the form of female control over mating and cannibalism, and male responses, might be more informative for understanding the evolution of courtship duration. For example, male tactics to avoid female aggression may drive lower courtship duration in species like L. mirabilis. Nonetheless, our results differ from inferences based on published studies of each species in isolation, illuminating the need for standardized data collection for behavioural comparative studies.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Aranhas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Aranhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Corte , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2024): 20240358, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835281

RESUMO

Communication governs the formation and maintenance of social relationships. The interpretation of communication signals depends not only on the signal's content but also on a receiver's individual experience. Experiences throughout life may interact to affect behavioural plasticity, such that a lack of developmental sensory exposure could constrain adult learning, while salient adult social experiences could remedy developmental deficits. We investigated how experiences impact the formation and direction of female auditory preferences in the zebra finch. Zebra finches form long-lasting pair bonds and females learn preferences for their mate's vocalizations. We found that after 2 weeks of cohabitation with a male, females formed pair bonds and learned to prefer their partner's song regardless of whether they were reared with ('normally reared') or without ('song-naive') developmental exposure to song. In contrast, females that heard but did not physically interact with a male did not prefer his song. In addition, previous work has found that song-naive females do not show species-typical preferences for courtship song. We found that cohabitation with a male ameliorated this difference in preference. Thus, courtship and pair bonding, but not acoustic-only interactions, strongly influence preference learning regardless of rearing experience, and may dynamically drive auditory plasticity for recognition and preference.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Aprendizagem , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Ligação do Par , Comportamento Social , Corte
6.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 28(3): 345-367, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880499

RESUMO

Previous research has demonstrated that interpersonal dynamics are fractal, and that conflict is a key control parameter that drives fractal complexity. The present study aimed to extend this line of research to examine the putative fractal structure of conflict dynamics over time, and the role that this self-organizing fractal structure may play in the resilience of romantic relationships. An experience sampling methodology was used to assess levels of conflict, satisfaction, and commitment in the dating relationships of undergraduate students, three times per day for 30 days. Hypothesis 1 was supported, with conflict ratings over time generally conforming to an inverse power-law distribution (IPL) distribution. Hypothesis 2 was supported as well, with better IPL fits measured as variance accounted for (R2), predicting higher levels of satisfaction and commitment over the 30 days. Hypothesis 3 showed mixed support, with moderate network linkages (i.e., soft assembly) between conflict and satisfaction and commitment predicting higher IPL fits (the linkage of satisfaction and commitment did not predict IPL fit as predicted). Hypothesis 4 predicted that IPL fit would interact with mean conflict, buffering the impacts of conflict on mean satisfaction and commitment across the 30 days. This hypothesis was not supported; however, several statistical factors may have obscured the buffering effects of higher IPL fit and so results may be inconclusive. These methodological factors, and others, are discussed along with the potential theoretical and practical implications of the current results.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Relações Interpessoais , Satisfação Pessoal , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Feminino , Adulto , Fractais , Resiliência Psicológica , Corte , Adolescente
7.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(6): 2361-2376, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844742

RESUMO

This linkage study examined the prevalence of traditional gender expressions in the textual and visual profile cues on mobile dating applications (MDA) (nbiographies = 396, npictures = 1352) of 396 young adults' (Mage = 22.39 years, SD = 2.86, 73% women) with attention to users' gender, sexual orientation, and platform type. For 184 users (Mage = 22.10 years, SD = 2.91, 75% women) media content data were linked to self-report survey data. Results showed that individuals aligned their self-presentations with traditional gender roles and expectations, and this link depended on their gender. No significant differences according to individuals' sexual orientation or platform type were found. Individuals' (hyper-) gender orientation also related to engagement in traditional gender expressions. Specifically, women with a stronger feminine gender orientation expressed more traditional femininity in their MDA profiles. For men, no significant associations between (aspects of) a masculine gender orientation and expressing traditional masculinity in their MDA profiles were found. Future research should further disentangle selective gendered self-presentations.


Assuntos
Papel de Gênero , Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculinidade , Feminilidade , Identidade de Gênero , Relações Interpessoais , Corte/psicologia
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0293252, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593121

RESUMO

Motor and cognitive aging can severely affect life quality of elderly people and burden health care systems. In search for diagnostic behavioral biomarkers, it has been suggested that walking speed can predict forms of cognitive decline, but in humans, it remains challenging to separate the effects of biological aging and lifestyle. We examined a possible association of motor and cognitive decline in Drosophila, a genetic model organism of healthy aging. Long term courtship memory is present in young male flies but absent already during mid life (4-8 weeks). By contrast, courtship learning index and short term memory (STM) are surprisingly robust and remain stable through mid (4-8 weeks) and healthy late life (>8 weeks), until courtship performance collapses suddenly at ~4.5 days prior to death. By contrast, climbing speed declines gradually during late life (>8 weeks). The collapse of courtship performance and short term memory close to the end of life occur later and progress with a different time course than the gradual late life decline in climbing speed. Thus, during healthy aging in male Drosophila, climbing and courtship motor behaviors decline differentially. Moreover, cognitive and motor performances decline at different time courses. Differential behavioral decline during aging may indicate different underlying causes, or alternatively, a common cause but different thresholds for defects in different behaviors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Corte , Instinto , Drosophila/genética , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética
9.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 89(3): 393-406, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648760

RESUMO

Courtship suppression is a behavioral adaptation of the fruit fly. When majority of the females in a fly population are fertilized and non-receptive for mating, a male, after a series of failed attempts, decreases its courtship activity towards all females, saving its energy and reproductive resources. The time of courtship decrease depends on both duration of unsuccessful courtship and genetically determined features of the male nervous system. Thereby, courtship suppression paradigm can be used for studying molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. p-Cofilin, a component of the actin remodeling signaling cascade and product of LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1), regulates Drosophila melanogaster forgetting in olfactory learning paradigm. Previously, we have shown that limk1 suppression in the specific types of nervous cells differently affects fly courtship memory. Here, we used Gal4 > UAS system to induce limk1 overexpression in the same types of neurons. limk1 activation in the mushroom body, glia, and fruitless neurons decreased learning index compared to the control strain or the strain with limk1 knockdown. In cholinergic and dopaminergic/serotoninergic neurons, both overexpression and knockdown of limk1 impaired Drosophila short-term memory. Thus, proper balance of the limk1 activity is crucial for normal cognitive activity of the fruit fly.


Assuntos
Corte , Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Quinases Lim , Memória , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Masculino , Quinases Lim/metabolismo , Quinases Lim/genética , Feminino , Corpos Pedunculados/metabolismo , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal
10.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(4): e22114, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38659314

RESUMO

The insect cuticle plays a key role in maintaining the insect's physiological function and behavior. Herein, the yellow-y protein is required to produce black melanin, and is expressed in a pattern that correlates with the distribution of this pigment. However, yellow-y can also have other functions, for instance, in insect behavior, but not much is known. In this study, we have studied the yellow-y gene in one important model and pest species, namely the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), which is to our knowledge the first time reported. In essence, we identified the yellow-y gene (BgY-y) and characterized its function by using RNA interference (RNAi). Silencing of BgY-y gene led to different developmental abnormalities (body weight and wings) in both genders. Specifically, there was an abundant decrease in melanin, turning the body color in pale yellow and the cuticle softer and more transparent. Interestingly, we also observed that the knockdown of BgY-y impaired the male cockroaches to display a weaker response to female-emitted contact sex pheromones, and also that the oviposition ability was weakened in the RNAi females. This study comprehensively analyzed the biological functions of the yellow-y gene in German cockroaches from the perspectives of development, body color, courtship behavior and oviposition, and as a consequence, this may opens new avenues to explore it as a novel pest control gene.


Assuntos
Blattellidae , Proteínas de Insetos , Oviposição , Pigmentação , Interferência de RNA , Animais , Blattellidae/genética , Blattellidae/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pigmentação/genética , Corte , Melaninas/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal
11.
Behav Brain Funct ; 20(1): 5, 2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493127

RESUMO

Fruit fly courtship behaviors composed of a series of actions have always been an important model for behavioral research. While most related studies have focused only on total courtship behaviors, specific courtship elements have often been underestimated. Identifying these courtship element details is extremely labor intensive and would largely benefit from an automatic recognition system. To address this issue, in this study, we established a vision-based fly courtship behavior recognition system. The system based on the proposed image processing methods can precisely distinguish body parts such as the head, thorax, and abdomen and automatically recognize specific courtship elements, including orientation, singing, attempted copulation, copulation and tapping, which was not detectable in previous studies. This system, which has high identity tracking accuracy (99.99%) and high behavioral element recognition rates (> 97.35%), can ensure correct identification even when flies completely overlap. Using this newly developed system, we investigated the total courtship time, and proportion, and transition of courtship elements in flies across different ages and found that male flies adjusted their courtship strategy in response to their physical condition. We also identified differences in courtship patterns between males with and without successful copulation. Our study therefore demonstrated how image processing methods can be applied to automatically recognize complex animal behaviors. The newly developed system will largely help us investigate the details of fly courtship in future research.


Assuntos
Corte , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Copulação
12.
Arch Sex Behav ; 53(5): 1899-1914, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539031

RESUMO

Asexuality studies are an emerging field in North America and Europe which lack large-scale, qualitative studies. Much existing research focuses on defining and categorizing asexuality, with researchers calling for more focus on the romantic and sexual relationships of asexual people. Drawing from an online survey with 349 participants, this paper describes the perceptions and experiences that asexual people have with dating and relationships. Participants answered 16 open-ended and 9 close-ended questions. After rounds of coding, three themes were selected for examination. These were dating, romantic and/or sexual relationships, and platonic relationships. These results showcase the challenges asexuals face with dating while also demonstrating how asexual people actively dismantle understandings of romantic, sexual, and platonic relationships through their own experiences and perspectives. Overall, this study provides greater legitimacy to the fluidity of asexuality and asexual relationships.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Reprodução Assexuada , Corte/psicologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1736, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443352

RESUMO

Adult fireflies exhibit unique flashing courtship signals, emitted by specialized light organs, which develop mostly independently from larval light organs during the pupal stage. The mechanisms of adult light organ development have not been thoroughly studied until now. Here we show that key homeobox transcription factors AlABD-B and AlUNC-4 regulate the development of adult light organs and bioluminescence in the firefly Aquatica leii. Interference with the expression of AlAbd-B and AlUnc-4 genes results in undeveloped or non-luminescent adult light organs. AlABD-B regulates AlUnc-4, and they interact with each other. AlABD-B and AlUNC-4 activate the expression of the luciferase gene AlLuc1 and some peroxins. Four peroxins are involved in the import of AlLUC1 into peroxisomes. Our study provides key insights into the development of adult light organs and flash signal control in fireflies.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Vaga-Lumes/genética , Corte , Peroxinas
14.
J Exp Biol ; 227(6)2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38511547

RESUMO

Male neotropical orchid bees concoct complex perfume blends by collecting exogenous volatiles from various sources, including orchids. These perfumes, stored in specialized hind-leg pouches and released during courtship, serve as inter-sexual signals. It has been hypothesized that male perfumes honestly indicate aspects of male fitness. If perfume traits such as quantity or complexity increase over individual lifetime, perfumes could reflect age (survival) and cumulative foraging success of males. We conducted a two-season mark-recapture study with Euglossa imperialis in Costa Rica, monitoring the balance of perfume uptake and expenditure over individual male lifetime. We sealed one hind-leg pouch upon initial capture, 'freezing' the perfume status on one side, and compared it with the other side at recapture to assess changes in perfume traits over time. Additionally, we used a novel method to estimate individual age by combining two parameters of wing degradation. Contrary to predictions, young to intermediate-aged bees had the highest quantities of perfume and the highest diversity of detected compounds. At the same time, the change in perfume between recaptures was positive (increase in amount and complexity) in young bees, whereas it was neutral to negative in older bees. Although these findings do not disprove an indicator function of male perfume, they shift the emphasis to non-cumulative fitness components such as sensory acuteness or cognitive capacity as likely targets of selection. Females preferring strong perfume signals in mates would maximize speed of foraging in offspring rather than their lifetime cumulative yield.


Assuntos
Perfumes , Feminino , Abelhas , Masculino , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie , Corte
15.
Nature ; 628(8006): 117-121, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38509376

RESUMO

Vocal learning in songbirds is thought to have evolved through sexual selection, with female preference driving males to develop large and varied song repertoires1-3. However, many songbird species learn only a single song in their lifetime4. How sexual selection drives the evolution of single-song repertoires is not known. Here, by applying dimensionality-reduction techniques to the singing behaviour of zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), we show that syllable spread in low-dimensional feature space explains how single songs function as honest indicators of fitness. We find that this Gestalt measure of behaviour captures the spectrotemporal distinctiveness of song syllables in zebra finches; that females strongly prefer songs that occupy more latent space; and that matching path lengths in low-dimensional space is difficult for young males. Our findings clarify how simple vocal repertoires may have evolved in songbirds and indicate divergent strategies for how sexual selection can shape vocal learning.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Aprendizagem , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Corte , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia
16.
Sci Adv ; 10(11): eadk1273, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478605

RESUMO

Sex-specific behaviors are critical for reproduction and species survival. The sex-specifically spliced transcription factor fruitless (fru) helps establish male courtship behaviors in invertebrates. Forcing male-specific fru (fruM) splicing in Drosophila melanogaster females produces male-typical behaviors while disrupting female-specific behaviors. However, whether fru's joint role in specifying male and inhibiting female behaviors is conserved across species is unknown. We used CRISPR-Cas9 to force FruM expression in female Drosophila virilis, a species in which males and females produce sex-specific songs. In contrast to D. melanogaster, in which one fruM allele is sufficient to generate male behaviors in females, two alleles are needed in D. virilis females. D. virilis females expressing FruM maintain the ability to sing female-typical song as well as lay eggs, whereas D. melanogaster FruM females cannot lay eggs. These results reveal potential differences in fru function between divergent species and underscore the importance of studying diverse behaviors and species for understanding the genetic basis of sex differences.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Corte , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(10): e2310841121, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412134

RESUMO

Connectomics research has made it more feasible to explore how neural circuits can generate multiple outputs. Female sexual drive provides a good model for understanding reversible, long-term functional changes in motivational circuits. After emerging, female flies avoid male courtship, but they become sexually receptive over 2 d. Mating causes females to reject further mating for several days. Here, we report that pC1 neurons, which process male courtship and regulate copulation behavior, exhibit increased CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) activity during sexual maturation and decreased CREB activity after mating. This increased CREB activity requires the neuropeptide Dh44 (Diuretic hormone 44) and its receptors. A subset of the pC1 neurons secretes Dh44, which stimulates CREB activity and increases expression of the TRP channel Pyrexia (Pyx) in more pC1 neurons. This, in turn, increases pC1 excitability and sexual drive. Mating suppresses pyx expression and pC1 excitability. Dh44 is orthologous to the conserved corticotrophin-releasing hormone family, suggesting similar roles in other species.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Copulação/fisiologia , Corte , Hormônios , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
18.
JAMA ; 331(8): 641-642, 2024 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306115

RESUMO

In this narrative medicine essay, a professional writer pens a letter to the surgeon who tried to repair her brother's coronary artery dissection to share her regret that neither she nor the physician discussed his imminent death.


Assuntos
Morte , Revelação da Verdade , Corte
19.
Curr Biol ; 34(5): 1107-1113.e3, 2024 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301649

RESUMO

A fundamental feature of vocal communication is that animals produce vocalizations with different acoustic features in different behavioral contexts (contact calls, territorial calls, courtship calls, etc.). The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a key region that regulates vocal production, and artificial activation of the PAG can elicit the production of multiple species-typical vocalization types.1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 How PAG circuits are organized to regulate the production of different vocalization types remains unknown. On the one hand, studies have found that partial PAG lesions abolish the production of some vocalization types while leaving others intact,3,8,10,11 suggesting that different populations of PAG neurons might control the production of different vocalization types. On the other hand, electrophysiological recordings have revealed individual PAG neurons that increase their activity during the production of multiple vocalization types,12,13,14 suggesting that some PAG neurons may regulate the production of more than one vocalization type. To test whether a single population of midbrain neurons regulates the production of different vocalization types, we applied intersectional methods to selectively ablate a population of midbrain neurons important for the production of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in mice. We find that, although ablation of these PAG-USV neurons blocks USV production in both males and females, these neurons are not required for the production of distress calls. Our findings suggest that distinct populations of midbrain neurons control the production of different vocalization types.


Assuntos
Ultrassom , Vocalização Animal , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiologia , Corte
20.
Curr Biol ; 34(6): 1183-1193.e3, 2024 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377996

RESUMO

Most larval neurons in Drosophila are repurposed during metamorphosis for functions in adult life, but their contribution to the neural circuits for sexually dimorphic behaviors is unknown. Here, we identify two interneurons in the nerve cord of adult Drosophila females that control ovipositor extrusion, a courtship rejection behavior performed by mated females. We show that these two neurons are present in the nerve cord of larvae as mature, sexually monomorphic interneurons. During pupal development, they acquire the expression of the sexual differentiation gene, doublesex; undergo doublesex-dependent programmed cell death in males; and are remodeled in females for functions in female mating behavior. Our results demonstrate that the neural circuits for courtship in Drosophila are built in part using neurons that are sexually reprogrammed from former sex-shared activities in larval life.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Drosophila/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Corte , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
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