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1.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 347, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ascomycete fungus Anisogramma anomala causes Eastern Filbert Blight (EFB) on hazelnut (Corylus spp.) trees. It is a minor disease on its native host, the American hazelnut (C. americana), but is highly destructive on the commercially important European hazelnut (C. avellana). In North America, EFB has historically limited commercial production of hazelnut to west of the Rocky Mountains. A. anomala is an obligately biotrophic fungus that has not been grown in continuous culture, rendering its study challenging. There is a 15-month latency before symptoms appear on infected hazelnut trees, and only a sexual reproductive stage has been observed. Here we report the sequencing, annotation, and characterization of its genome. RESULTS: The genome of A. anomala was assembled into 108 scaffolds totaling 342,498,352 nt with a GC content of 34.46%. Scaffold N50 was 33.3 Mb and L50 was 5. Nineteen scaffolds with lengths over 1 Mb constituted 99% of the assembly. Telomere sequences were identified on both ends of two scaffolds and on one end of another 10 scaffolds. Flow cytometry estimated the genome size of A. anomala at 370 Mb. The genome exhibits two-speed evolution, with 93% of the assembly as AT-rich regions (32.9% GC) and the other 7% as GC-rich (57.1% GC). The AT-rich regions consist predominantly of repeats with low gene content, while 90% of predicted protein coding genes were identified in GC-rich regions. Copia-like retrotransposons accounted for more than half of the genome. Evidence of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) was identified throughout the AT-rich regions, and two copies of the rid gene and one of dim-2, the key genes in the RIP mutation pathway, were identified in the genome. Consistent with its homothallic sexual reproduction cycle, both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs were found. We identified a large suite of genes likely involved in pathogenicity, including 614 carbohydrate active enzymes, 762 secreted proteins and 165 effectors. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the genomic structure, composition, and putative gene function of the important pathogen A. anomala. It provides insight into the molecular basis of the pathogen's life cycle and a solid foundation for studying EFB.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Corylus , Corylus/genética , Ascomicetos/genética , Fenótipo , Tamanho do Genoma
2.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 70(2): 137-142, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430030

RESUMO

Türkiye is leading country for hazelnut production and hazelnut orchards are widely established in Black Sea belt. Akçakoca district belongs to Duzce province is accepted as one of the most important production areas. In this research, volatile aroma components in nuts (kernels) of Çakildak, Kara, Sari (Mincane), Tombul and Yomra hazelnut varieties grown in Akçakoca district were determined by SPME/GC-MS. The analysis revealed the presence a total of 55 different volatile aroma components. These analyzes identified the presence of 39 descriptive volatile aroma compounds with significant differences between varieties. Çakildak variety differed from the other varieties in terms of Isopentyl alcohol and Ethyl acetate components. At the same time, some volatile aroma compounds are commonly detected among the all varieties. This study has shown that the climate and soil conditions of Akçakoca cause the emergence of unique taste profiles through the effect of hazelnut varieties on volatile aroma components. The findings emphasize that regional diversity and local ecosystem factors play a critical role in determining flavor in hazelnut kernels. This study also emphasizes that variety selection is a critical factor in ensuring sustainability in hazelnut cultivation and that determining volatile aroma components is an important indicator in this selection.


Assuntos
Corylus , Odorantes/análise , Ecossistema , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6864, 2024 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514765

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is widespread and seriously threatens public health worldwide. This study aimed to investigate AFB1 in imported hazelnut samples in northwest of Iran (Eastern Azerbaijan Province) using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorescent Detector (HPLC-FLD). In all tested samples AFB1 was detected. The mean concentration of AFB1 was 4.20 µg/kg and ranged from 3.145 to 8.13 µg/kg. All samples contained AFB1 levels within the maximum acceptable limit except for one sample. Furthermore, the human health risk assessment of AFB1 from consuming imported hazelnuts by Iranian children and adults was evaluated based on the margin of exposure (MoE) and quantitative liver cancer risk approaches. The MoE mean for children was 2529.76, while for adults, it was 8854.16, indicating a public health concern. The present study found that the risk of developing liver cancer among Iranian children was 0.11100736 per 100,000 people, and in the Iranian adult population was 0.0314496 cancers per 100,000 people. Since environmental conditions potentially affect aflatoxin levels in nuts, countries are advised to monitor aflatoxin contents in imported nuts, especially from countries with a conducive climate for mold growth.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Corylus , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Azerbaijão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Medição de Risco , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5618, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454094

RESUMO

The hazel allergen Cor a 1 is a PR-10 protein, closely related to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Hazel allergies are caused by cross-reactive IgE antibodies originally directed against Bet v 1. Despite the importance of PR-10 proteins in allergy development, their function and localization in the plant remain largely elusive. Therefore, the presence of Cor a 1 mRNA and proteins was investigated in different tissues, i.e., the female flower, immature and mature nuts, catkins, and pollen. Four yet unknown Cor a 1 isoallergens, i.e., Cor a 1.0501-1.0801, and one new Cor a 1.03 variant were discovered and characterized. Depending on the isoallergen, the occurrence and level of mRNA expression varied in different tissues, suggesting different functions. Interestingly, Cor a 1.04 previously thought to be only present in nuts, was also detected in catkins and pollen. The corresponding Cor a 1 genes were expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified proteins were analysed by CD and NMR spectroscopy. Immunoblots and ELISAs to determine their allergenic potential showed that the new proteins reacted positively with sera from patients allergic to birch, hazel and elder pollen and were recognized as novel isoallergens/variants by the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee.


Assuntos
Corylus , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Idoso , Alérgenos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Betulaceae/metabolismo , Betula/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Antígenos de Plantas/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8092-8102, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536005

RESUMO

American-European (Corylus americana × Corylus avellana) hazelnut hybrids are being developed for the Midwest-growing region of the United States. However, an inadequate understanding of the compounds that impact the consumer acceptance of hazelnuts limits breeding programs. Nontargeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) chemical profiles of 12 roasted hybrid hazelnut samples and the corresponding consumer flavor liking scores were modeled by orthogonal partial least squares with good fit and predictive ability (R2Y > 0.9, Q2 > 0.9) to identify compounds that impact nut liking. The five most predictive compounds (1-5) were negatively correlated to flavor liking, selected as putative markers, purified by multidimensional preparative LC/MS, structurally elucidated (nuclear magnetic resonance, MS), quantified, and validated for sensory relevance. Compound 1 was identified as 1″-O-3'-b-glucofuranosyl-1'-O-1-b-glucofuranosyl-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethan-4-one. Compounds 2 and 4 were identified as rotamers of 2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl) acetic acid 3-O-6'-galactopyranosyl-2″-(2″oxoindolin-3″yl) acetate, whereas compounds 3 and 5 were identified as rotamers of 1″-O-1'-b-glucofuranosyl-9-O-6'-b-glucopyranosyl-2″-(2″-oxoindolin-3″yl) acetate. Sensory evaluation determined that all compounds were characterized by bitterness and/or astringency. The sensory threshold values of compounds 1-5 were determined to be below the concentrations reported in 91, 83, 41, 25, and 41% of all 12 hybrid hazelnut samples, respectively, indicating they contributed to aversive flavor attributes.


Assuntos
Corylus , Estados Unidos , Corylus/química , Melhoramento Vegetal , Paladar , Acetatos
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(3): 287, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378878

RESUMO

Soil respiration (RS) is one of the largest terrestrial sources of CO2 causing global warming and may vary according to land use and vegetation type. Türkiye is in the first place in the world in terms of area of hazelnut orchards that are generally converted from natural forests. The aim of this study was the comparison of the effects of cultural practices (pruning, fertilizing, and pruning+fertilizing) on RS in hazelnut orchards and that of the adjacent natural oak forest. Every trial site had a statistically similar annual mean RS, which ranged from 0.15 to 1.55 g C m-2 day-1. The RS on the sites was different only in the spring season and was similar in the other seasons. The RS of the pruned and fertilized hazelnut orchard (Hpf) in the spring was 58% greater than the unmaintained hazelnut orchard (Hc) and oak forest and 28% greater than the only fertilized hazelnut orchard (Hf). The RS of Hpf was also greater than other sites in most monthly measurements. While the positive correlation between soil moisture and RS was on an annual basis (r = 0.44), it was higher in summer (r = 0.61) and autumn (r = 0.55) seasons. The negative correlation between soil temperature and RS in the summer and autumn seasons evolved positively in winter. The results of the study suggest that the maintenance practices applied in the hazelnut garden could increase RS in the spring when soil moisture and temperature are optimal but have no effect in other seasons or on an annual basis.


Assuntos
Corylus , Quercus , Solo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Temperatura , Respiração , Estações do Ano , China , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3019, 2024 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321176

RESUMO

Mixing animal waste and agricultural waste in certain proportions forms agricultural compost through appropriate air, time, and water supply. One of their use areas is directly used as fertilizer, and the other one is used as a material that can partially or completely replace P (peat) in the PGM (plant growth media). In this study, the initial mixtures with an appropriate C/N ratio and moisture content, which were created by mixing cow manure, chicken manure, hazelnut husk, hazelnut pruning wastes, vegetable and fruit wastes, and dry leaves, were composted for 180 days. The physicochemical properties of the mature composts were determined. Their effects on the fruit yield (weight of fruits) and plant height of pepper seedlings were evaluated in pot and field experiments. N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), Cu (copper), and Zn (zinc) content were the highest in C4 (2.59%, 1.12%, 83.11 mg/kg, and 605.3 mg/kg). K (potassium) and Mn (manganese) content in C3 (1.79% and 750.5 mg/kg) and Fe (iron) content in C1 (4025 mg/kg) were determined to be the highest. There was no phytotoxic effect of all composts on Lepidium sativum seeds. Except for pH and organic matter, C1 45%, C1 20%, C4 45%, C4 20%, and P 90% met the requirements for ideal media. The mean height of eight-week seedlings increased in media of C1 20%, C1 45%, C2 20%, C2 45%, and C4 20%, but decreased in media of C3 90%. In field studies, while the highest yield was determined in C3 as 1530 g/plant, the lowest yield was 765.5 g/plant in control. The highest mean height was observed in C3 at 76.33 cm; the lowest was 63.03 cm in control.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Compostagem , Corylus , Animais , Plântula , Esterco , Solo/química
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2192, 2024 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38272946

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the association between iris color and refractive errors in children aged 6-12 years. This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained from the first phase of the Shahroud Schoolchildren Eye Cohort Study. The target population was 6 to12 year-old students living in urban and rural areas. Iris colors were classified by comparing eye colors with close-up images of iris colors. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ - 0.5 diopter and hyperopia was defined as SE ≥ 2 diopter in cycloplegic refraction. The association of iris color with hyperopia and myopia was investigated by fitting two separate multiple logistic regression models adjusted for place of residence, age, sex, and times for outdoor activity and near work. Among the 5394 participates with the mean age of 9.7 year, the prevalence of myopia and hyperopia was 4.8% and 4.7% respectively. The number and proportion (in parentheses) of amber, light blue, light brown, dark brown, gray, green and hazel iris colors were 19(0.4%), 26(0.5%), 645(12.0%), 4517(83.7%), 4(0.1%), 59(1.1%), and 124(2.3%) respectively. Compared to dark brown, the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (in parentheses) of myopia were 4.8(1.2-18.7), 0.8(0.1-5.8), 1.0(0.7-1.5), 0.4(0.1-2.7) and 0.6(0.2-1.8) for amber, light blue, light brown, green and hazel iris colors in multiple logistic regression model. No significant association was observed between iris colors and hyperopia. This study shows that amber iris is significantly associated with higher odds of myopia. These children should be further monitored and examined. More studies with higher sample size in all iris colors are recommended.


Assuntos
Corylus , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Criança , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Âmbar , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Corantes
9.
Food Chem ; 441: 138294, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218156

RESUMO

This study compares two data processing techniques (fingerprinting and untargeted profiling) to authenticate hazelnut cultivar and provenance based on its unsaponifiable fraction by GC-MS. PLS-DA classification models were developed on a selected sample set (n = 176). As test cases, cultivar models were developed for "Tonda di Giffoni" vs other cultivars, whereas provenance models were developed for three origins (Chile, Italy or Spain). Both fingerprinting and untargeted profiling successfully classified hazelnuts by cultivar or provenance, revealing the potential of the unsaponifiable fraction. External validation provided over 90 % correct classification, with fingerprinting slightly outperforming. Analysing PLS-DA models' regression coefficients and tentatively identifying compounds corresponding to highly relevant variables showed consistent agreement in key discriminant compounds across both approaches. However, fingerprinting in selected ion mode extracted slightly more information from chromatographic data, including minor discriminant species. Conversely, untargeted profiling acquired in full scan mode, provided pure spectra, facilitating chemical interpretability.


Assuntos
Corylus , Corylus/química , Estudos Prospectivos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Geografia , Itália , Análise Discriminante
10.
Molecules ; 29(2)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257230

RESUMO

Hazel leaf, a by-product of hazelnuts, is commonly used in traditional folk medicine in Portugal, Sweden, Iran and other regions for properties such as vascular protection, anti-bleeding, anti-edema, anti-infection, and pain relief. Based on our previous studies, the polyphenol extract from hazel leaf was identified and quantified via HPLC fingerprint. The contents of nine compounds including kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, myricetin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, resveratrol, luteolin, gallic acid and ellagic acid in hazel leaf polyphenol extract (ZP) were preliminary calculated, among which kaempferol was the highest with 221.99 mg/g, followed by chlorogenic acid with 8.23 mg/g. The inhibition of ZP on α-glucosidase and xanthine oxidase activities was determined via the chemical method, and the inhibition on xanthine oxidase was better. Then, the effect of ZP on hyperuricemia zebrafish was investigated. It was found that ZP obviously reduced the levels of uric acid, xanthine oxidase, urea nitrogen and creatinine, and up-regulated the expression ofOAT1 and HPRT genes in hyperuricemia zebrafish. Finally, the targeted network pharmacological analysis and molecular docking of nine polyphenol compounds were performed to search for relevant mechanisms for alleviating hyperuricemia. These results will provide a valuable basis for the development and application of hazel leaf polyphenols as functional ingredients.


Assuntos
Corylus , Hiperuricemia , Animais , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peixe-Zebra , Farmacologia em Rede , Quempferóis , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Xantina Oxidase , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 256(Pt 2): 128538, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38043651

RESUMO

Hazelnut is one of the most popular nuts in the world, rich in nutrients and various active substances. In this study, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was extracted from hazelnut kernels, and its physicochemical properties and absorbability were explored. Hazelnut-SDF exhibited ideal water-holding, oil-holding and swelling capacity, and glucose, cholesterol and cholate absorbing ability. Scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that hazelnut-SDF had typical polysaccharide structure of functional groups. The main monosaccharides were identified as arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, ribose, glucuronic acid, mannose and glucose by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In high-fat diet rats, hazelnut-SDF could improve serum lipid parameters, inhibit lipid accumulation in liver and adipocytes, and regulate the expression level of liver lipid synthesis-related genes. It also could adjust intestinal short chain fatty acids, promote the composition and structure of intestinal microbiota, and significantly balance the abundance of Alloprevotella, Fusicatenibacter, Lactobacillus, Roseburia, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-014 and Clostridiales. The results concluded that oral administration of hazelnut-SDF could alleviate hyperlipidemia and obesity, and might serve as a potential functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Corylus , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ratos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Colesterol/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1713: 464510, 2024 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37983988

RESUMO

In batch-scale operations, biosorption employing phosphorylated hazelnut shell waste (FHS) revealed excellent lithium removal and recovery efficiency. Scaling up and implementing packed bed column systems necessitates further design and performance optimization. Lithium biosorption via FHS was investigated utilizing a continuous-flow packed-bed column operated under various flow rates and bed heights to remove Li to ultra-low levels and recover it. The Li biosorption capacity of the FHS column was unaffected by the bed height, however, when the flow rate was increased, the capacity of the FHS column decreased. The breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and uptake capacity of the column bed increased with increasing column bed height, whereas they decreased with increasing influent flow rate. At flow rates of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/min, bed volumes (BVs, mL solution/mL biosorbent) at the breakthrough point were found to be 477, 369, and 347, respectively, with the required BVs for total saturation point of 941, 911, and 829, while the total capacity was calculated as 22.29, 20.07, and 17.69 mg Li/g sorbent. In the 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 cm height columns filled with FHS, the breakthrough times were 282, 366, and 433 min, respectively, whereas the periods required for saturation were 781, 897, and 1033 min. The three conventional breakthrough models of the Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, and Modified Dose-Response (MDR) were used to properly estimate the whole breakthrough behavior of the FHS column and the characteristic model parameters. Li's extremely favorable separation utilizing FHS was evidenced by the steep S-shape of the breakthrough curves for both parameters flow rate and bed height. The reusability of FHS was demonstrated by operating the packed bed column in multi-cycle mode, with no appreciable loss in column performance.


Assuntos
Corylus , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Lítio , Água , Adsorção
13.
Food Chem ; 438: 137952, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007952

RESUMO

Hazelnut, one of the most popular tree nuts, is widely found in processed food and even very small amounts can trigger severe allergic reactions in susceptible people. Herein, we developed a sensitive and rapid method based on CRISPR and qPCR capable of detecting low-abundance hazelnut in processed food. The assay, known as CRISPR-based nucleic acid test method (Crinac) can detect 1 % of hazelnut in a mixture and allows the species to be identified in a complex processed sample. The detection process can be completed within 60 min. Contributed to amplification via PCR and CRISPR/Cas12a, enables end-fluorescence measurement for the quantification of hazelnut, thus reducing assay time and eliminating the need for costly real-time fluorescence PCR instruments. The assay based on CRISPR/Cas12 and PCR has potential as a sensitive and reliable analytical tool for the detection of food authenticity.


Assuntos
Corylus , Proteínas de Plantas , Humanos , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Corylus/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
14.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 22(2): 472-483, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37870930

RESUMO

The native, perennial shrub American hazelnut (Corylus americana) is cultivated in the Midwestern United States for its significant ecological benefits, as well as its high-value nut crop. Implementation of modern breeding methods and quantitative genetic analyses of C. americana requires high-quality reference genomes, a resource that is currently lacking. We therefore developed the first chromosome-scale assemblies for this species using the accessions 'Rush' and 'Winkler'. Genomes were assembled using HiFi PacBio reads and Arima Hi-C data, and Oxford Nanopore reads and a high-density genetic map were used to perform error correction. N50 scores are 31.9 Mb and 35.3 Mb, with 90.2% and 97.1% of the total genome assembled into the 11 pseudomolecules, for 'Rush' and 'Winkler', respectively. Gene prediction was performed using custom RNAseq libraries and protein homology data. 'Rush' has a BUSCO score of 99.0 for its assembly and 99.0 for its annotation, while 'Winkler' had corresponding scores of 96.9 and 96.5, indicating high-quality assemblies. These two independent assemblies enable unbiased assessment of structural variation within C. americana, as well as patterns of syntenic relationships across the Corylus genus. Furthermore, we identified high-density SNP marker sets from genotyping-by-sequencing data using 1343 C. americana, C. avellana and C. americana × C. avellana hybrids, in order to assess population structure in natural and breeding populations. Finally, the transcriptomes of these assemblies, as well as several other recently published Corylus genomes, were utilized to perform phylogenetic analysis of sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) in hazelnut, providing evidence of unique molecular pathways governing self-incompatibility in Corylus.


Assuntos
Corylus , Corylus/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Cromossomos , Genômica
15.
Allergy ; 79(2): 302-323, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792850

RESUMO

In 2014, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) published the first systematic review that summarized the prevalence of food allergy (FA) and food sensitization in Europe for studies published 2000-2012. However, only summary estimates for tree nut allergy (TNA) were feasible in that work. In the current update of that systematic review, we summarized the prevalence of tree nut allergy/sensitization to individual tree nuts. Six databases were searched for relevant papers published 2012-2021 and 17 eligible studies were added to the 15 studies already identified between 2000 and 2012, giving a total of 32 studies. Of the investigated tree nuts, meta-analysis was possible for hazelnut, walnut, almond, and in few cases, for cashew, and Brazil nut. The lifetime self-reported prevalence was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.1) for hazelnut and 0.4% (0.2-0.9) for walnut. The point self-reported prevalence was 4.0% (2.9-5.2) for hazelnut, 3.4% (2.0-4.9) for Brazil nut, 2.0% (1.1-2.9) for almond, and 1.8% (1.1-2.5) for walnut. Point prevalence of food challenge-confirmed TNA was 0.04% (0.0-0.1) for hazelnut and 0.02% (0.01-0.1) for walnut. Due to paucity of data, we could not identify any meaningful and consistent differences across age groups and European regions.


Assuntos
Corylus , Hipersensibilidade a Noz , Prunus dulcis , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Noz/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Noz/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Nozes , Alérgenos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Corylus/efeitos adversos
16.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 185(3): 237-246, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38071972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hazelnuts are a leading trigger of food allergy. To date, several molecular components of hazelnut are available for component-resolved diagnosis. However, little is known about how simultaneous sensitization to multiple allergens affects the severity of the hazelnut-induced reaction. In a previous study, our group demonstrated a lower risk of systemic reactions to peach in patients sensitized to both Pru p 3 and Pru p 1 than in the patient monosensitized to peach LTP. We aimed to assess whether this was also true in hazelnut allergy in a cohort of adult patients. METHODS: Patients were selected based on a history of symptoms such as urticaria, vomiting, diarrhea, asthma, and anaphylaxis indicative of hazelnut IgE-mediated food allergy and graded according to a clinical severity scale. For all patients, specific IgE was determined for Cor a 1 and Cor a 8 and, for most patients, also Cor a 9. Patients were offered an oral food challenge in open format (OFC) with a cocoa-based roasted hazelnut spread on a voluntary basis in order to prescribe an appropriate diet. RESULTS: A total of two hundred and fourteen patients were recruited. Among these, 43 patients were monosensitized to Cor a 8. One hundred and seventy-one patients were sensitized to Cor a 1 (79.9%), and, among them, 48/171 (28.1%) were also Cor a 8 positive. Cor a 9 was evaluated in 124/214 patients, testing positive in 21/124 (16.9%). Patients monosensitized to Cor a 8 experienced systemic reactions more frequently than those sensitized to Cor a 1 ± Cor a 8 (p < 0.00001), with significantly more severe reactions (p < 0.0005) and testing more frequently positive at OFC (p < 0.0001). Regarding Cor a 9, the sensitized patients were significantly younger (p = 0.0013) and showed reactions of similar severity to patients who tested Cor a 9 negative, and these reactions were milder than in patients monosensitized only to Cor a 8. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Sensitization to Cor a 1 seems to protect from the development of the severe systemic reactions induced by Cor a 8 sensitization, Cor a 9 does not influence the severity of symptoms in adult patients. The OFC with roasted hazelnut may help in dietary guidance.


Assuntos
Corylus , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Hipersensibilidade a Noz , Adulto , Humanos , Corylus/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Plantas , Hipersensibilidade a Noz/diagnóstico , Antígenos de Plantas , Imunoglobulina E , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 258(Pt 2): 128982, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38154718

RESUMO

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are biodegradable particles that have emerged as promising stabilizers for Pickering emulsions. This study investigated the effectiveness of CNCs in forming the Pickering emulsion from hazelnut shells (HS), an agricultural waste. Following the alkaline and bleaching treatments applied to HS, CNCs were obtained from treated hazelnut shell with acid hydrolysis. The physicochemical characteristics of CNCs were investigated using dynamic light scattering, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM. A high crystalline (69.6 %) CNCs with a spherical shape were obtained. Contact angle and interfacial tension tests were conducted and showed that CNCs had amphiphilic nature. Pickering emulsions were investigated for their size, zeta potential, and stability under varying CNC concentrations. The results showed that when CNCs concentration increased from 0.5 to 2.0 wt%, droplet diameter decreased approximately 1.8 times and zeta potential increased. Creaming was not observed during 28 days of storage in a concentration of 2.0 wt% CNCs. The CNC stabilized emulsions exhibited high stability within a range of pH, temperatures, and salt concentrations. This study demonstrated that CNCs extracted from HS as environmentally friendly and cost-effective materials, could serve as a new stabilizer for Pickering emulsions especially for high temperature and low pH sensitive products such as mayonnaise.


Assuntos
Corylus , Nanopartículas , Celulose/química , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Alimentos
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(1): 27, 2023 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38063933

RESUMO

In this study, methylene blue (MB) pollutant in water was removed using produced hazelnut shell loaded semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (HS loaded semi-IPN) adsorbent. The physical and chemical characterizations of the adsorbents were investigated using TGA, DSC, FT-IR, BET, FE-SEM, and EDX. Experimental parameters such as temperature, swelling, dye concentration, contact time, pH solution, and adsorbent dosage for MB adsorption were thoroughly investigated. It was determined that the HS loaded semi-IPN adsorbent removed 92.1% of MB dye. Subsequently, the adsorption properties between the adsorbent and dye were investigated in detail using several different kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic models. As a result of the obtained data, the interaction between adsorbent and dye molecules is discussed. Moreover, studies on the industrial usability of the adsorbent have been carried out, and it has been observed that the adsorbent can be employed even after four cycles.


Assuntos
Corylus , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Águas Residuárias , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Corantes/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Termodinâmica , Cinética , Azul de Metileno/química , Adsorção , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
19.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 205: 108167, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37977029

RESUMO

The increasing interest in European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) cultivation registered in the last years has led to a significant increase in worldwide hazelnut growing areas, also involving regions characterized by a marginal presence of hazelnut orchards. Despite this increasement, world production still relies on the cultivation of few varieties, most of which are particularly suitable to the environment where they have been selected. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new cultivars with high environmental plasticity capable of providing constant and high-quality productions in the new environments and under the climatic change conditions of traditional growing areas. Over the years, many molecular markers for genetic breeding programs have been developed and omics sciences also provided further information about the genetics of this species. These data could be of support to the application of new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs), which would allow the development of cultivars with the desired characteristics in a shorter time than traditional techniques. However, the application of these methodologies is subordinated to the development of effective regeneration protocols which, to date, have been set up exclusively for seed-derived explants. A further aspect to be exploited is represented by the possibility of cultivating hazelnut cells and tissues in vitro to produce secondary metabolites of therapeutic interest. This review aims to consolidate the state of the art on biotechnologies and in vitro culture techniques applied on this species, also describing the various studies that over time allowed the identification of genomic regions that control traits of interest.


Assuntos
Corylus , Corylus/genética , Corylus/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenótipo , Sementes , Biotecnologia
20.
Med Lav ; 114(5): e2023041, 2023 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37878257

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a complex immune-mediated interstitial lung disease (ILD) triggered by inhalation exposure to environmental or occupational antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. Novel exposure sources and antigens are frequently identified. However, the causative agent remains unidentified in nearly half of HP cases. Early diagnosis for nonfibrotic-HP and quitting the exposure may prevent the disease progression to fibrotic forms and related complications. Here, we present two cases of HP associated with mold exposure in hazelnut husks, leaves, and shells in hazelnut agriculture.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca , Corylus , Humanos , Corylus/efeitos adversos , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/etiologia , Agricultura , Exposição por Inalação
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