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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15566, 2024 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971926

RESUMO

Understanding the combined effects of risk factors on all-cause mortality is crucial for implementing effective risk stratification and designing targeted interventions, but such combined effects are understudied. We aim to use survival-tree based machine learning models as more flexible nonparametric techniques to examine the combined effects of multiple physiological risk factors on mortality. More specifically, we (1) study the combined effects between multiple physiological factors and all-cause mortality, (2) identify the five most influential factors and visualize their combined influence on all-cause mortality, and (3) compare the mortality cut-offs with the current clinical thresholds. Data from the 1999-2014 NHANES Survey were linked to National Death Index data with follow-up through 2015 for 17,790 adults. We observed that the five most influential factors affecting mortality are the tobacco smoking biomarker cotinine, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), plasma glucose, sex, and white blood cell count. Specifically, high mortality risk is associated with being male, active smoking, low GFR, elevated plasma glucose levels, and high white blood cell count. The identified mortality-based cutoffs for these factors are mostly consistent with relevant studies and current clinical thresholds. This approach enabled us to identify important cutoffs and provide enhanced risk prediction as an important basis to inform clinical practice and develop new strategies for precision medicine.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Aprendizado de Máquina , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fatores de Risco , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cotinina/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos , Mortalidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Causas de Morte
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2421246, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38990571

RESUMO

Importance: With the prevalence of e-cigarette use (vaping) increasing worldwide, there are concerns about children's exposure to secondhand vapor. Objective: To compare nicotine absorption among children who are (1) exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke only or (2) exposed to secondhand vapor only with (3) those exposed to neither. Design, Setting, and Participants: The US Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a repeat cross-sectional survey. Participants are interviewed in their homes and, several days after, visit a mobile examination center to provide biological specimens. This study uses data from a nationally representative sample of US households from 2017 to 2020. Participants were children aged 3 to 11 years with serum cotinine levels incompatible with current firsthand nicotine use (ie, <15 µg/L). The final analysis was conducted on January 9, 2024. Exposures: Reported exposure to secondhand smoke or vapor indoors in the past 7 days (only secondhand smoke, only secondhand vapor, or neither). Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, family income, body weight, and height. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was serum cotinine concentration, an objective biomarker of nicotine absorption. Geometric mean cotinine levels and 95% CIs were calculated using log-normal tobit regression, accounting for the complex survey design and weights. Results: The mean (SD) age of the 1777 children surveyed was 7.4 (2.6) years, 882 (49.6%) were female, and 531 (29.9%) had family incomes below the poverty level. Nicotine absorption, as indexed by serum cotinine level, was highest among children only exposed to secondhand smoke (0.494 µg/L µg/L; 95% CI, 0.386-0.633 µg/L), followed by those exposed only to secondhand vapor (0.081 µg/L; 95% CI, 0.048-0.137 µg/L), equating to 83.6% (95% CI, 71.5%-90.5%; P < .001) lower nicotine absorption. Among children with no reported secondhand exposure, the geometric mean cotinine level was 0.016 µg/L (95% CI, 0.013-0.021 µg/L), or 96.7% (95% CI, 95.6%-97.6%; P < .001) lower than for those with exposure to secondhand smoke. Results were similar after covariate adjustment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US children, nicotine absorption was much lower in children who were exposed to secondhand vapor vs secondhand smoke, but higher than in those exposed to neither. These findings suggest that switching from smoking to vaping indoors may substantially reduce, but not eliminate, children's secondhand exposure to nicotine and other noxious substances.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Nicotina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Nicotina/sangue , Nicotina/análise , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Cotinina/sangue , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Vapor do Cigarro Eletrônico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vaping/sangue , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15781, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982174

RESUMO

Tobacco smoke exposure has been demonstrated to impede bone remodeling and diminish bone density, yet research regarding its correlation with parathyroid hormone (PTH) remains limited. This study aims to investigate the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure and serum PTH levels in adults aged 20 years and older. This study included 7,641 participants from two cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, United States, 2003- 2006). Reflect tobacco smoke exposure through serum cotinine levels, and use an adjusted weighted multivariate linear regression model to test the independent linear relationship between serum cotinine and PTH. Stratified analysis was conducted to validate the sensitivity of the conclusions. Smooth curve fitting and threshold effect analysis were performed to assess the non-linear relationship. After comprehensive adjustment using weighted multivariate regression analysis, a negative correlation was found between serum cotinine and PTH levels. The interaction p-values in subgroup analyses were all greater than 0.05. Moreover, smooth curve fitting indicated a non-linear relationship between serum cotinine and PTH, with a turning point observed. Our research indicates that tobacco smoke exposure is negatively correlated and independent of serum parathyroid hormone levels, indicating that long-term tobacco smoke exposure may lead to parathyroid dysfunction in adults.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cotinina/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 38(18): e9864, 2024 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972852

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recent data suggest that passive smoking has a risk comparable to active smoking. Passive smoking is considered dangerous in children and is suspected as a cause of asthma. However, some reports are opposing such claims, indicating the need for solid results and large-scale studies. This scientific work aims to develop a method for the determination of nicotine (NCOT) and major nicotine's metabolite cotinine (COT) in urine samples, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). METHODS: Analysis was performed using a gas chromatograph Agilent Technologies 7890A with an MS 5975C inert XL, EI/CI MSD with Triple-Axis detector. For sample preparation, liquid-liquid extraction was applied after an optimization study with different extraction media. Eventually, 1 mL of dichloromethane was selected for the extraction of 0.5 mL of urine. Suitable chromatographic conditions were found for the rapid and accurate determination of NCOT and COT. Injection of 2 µL was performed using GC-MS, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis was performed with the following ions (m/z): 162 (quantifier ion) and 84, 133, 161 qualifier ions for NCOT, and 176 (quantifier ion) and 98, 118, 119, 147 qualifier ions for COT. Nicotine-D4 (NCOT-D4) and cotinine-D3 (COT-D3) were used as internal standards with quantifier ions 101 and 166, respectively. The retention time (Rt) for NCOT was 7.557 min and 9.743 min for COT. RESULTS: The method was validated following international principles, assessing characteristics such as absolute recovery, carryover, linearity, specificity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, and stability. The method showed a linear dynamic range from 0.5 to 50 ng/mL, and the limits of detection and quantification were for both NCOT and COT 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Validation results were found satisfactory. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 60 clinical pediatric samples obtained from Aristotle University's pediatric clinic to check for possible exposure to smoke. Concentration levels ranged between 0.5 and 16.2 ng/mL for NCOT and between 1.0 and 25.1 ng/mL for COT. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, sensitive, accurate, and simple method was developed and used as a tool for the confirmation of passive smoking in children. It is the first method applied to the analysis of such samples belonging to nonsmokers of young age. The total runtime of the GC-MS analysis was short (20 min), and the pretreatment protocol was simple, giving the ability for analysis of a large number of samples on a daily routine basis.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Nicotina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Cotinina/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Nicotina/urina , Nicotina/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limite de Detecção , Criança
5.
Ren Fail ; 46(1): 2356024, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Smoking has been suggested as a modifiable and cardiovascular risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although long-term smoking has been associated with CKD, the potential relationship between its metabolite hydroxycotinine and CKD has not been clarified. METHODS: A total of 8,544 participants aged 20 years and above from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017 - March 2020 were enrolled in our study. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/(min*1.73 m2). Serum hydroxycotinine was measured by an isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric (ID HPLC-APCI MS/MS) method with a lower limit of detections (LLOD) at 0.015 ng/mL. The non-linear relationship was explored with restricted cubic splines (RCS). Pearson's correlation coefficient and a multivariate logistic regression model were used for correlation analysis. RESULTS: Serum hydroxycotinine and eGFR were negatively correlated in both non-CKD group (r= -0.05, p < 0.001) and CKD group (r= -0.04, p < 0.001). After serum hydoxycotinine dichotominzed with LLOD, serum hydroxycotinine ≥ 0.015 ng/mL was negatively correlated with eGFR not only in non-CKD group (r = -0.05, p < 0.001) but also in CKD group (r = -0.09, p < 0.001). After adjusting for comprehensive confounders, results from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that participants with serum hydroxycotinine ≥ 0.015 ng/mL had increased odds of CKD (OR = 1.505, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Serum hydroxycotinine might be positively associated with CKD. Further study is warranted to find the right concentration of hydroxycotinine to measure the CKD.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fatores de Risco , Modelos Logísticos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cotinina/análogos & derivados
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1541, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dose-response and nonlinear relationships of cigarette exposure with sleep disturbances and depression are warranted, and the potential mechanism of sex hormones in such associations remains unclear. METHODS: Cigarette exposure, trouble sleeping, and depression were assessed by standard questionnaires, and the levels of cotinine and sex steroid hormones were determined among 9900 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Multiple linear regression, logistic regression, and mediation models were conducted to evaluate the associations between smoking, sex steroid hormones, trouble sleeping, and depression. RESULTS: With never smokers as a reference, current smokers had a higher prevalence of trouble sleeping (OR = 1.931, 95% CI: 1.680, 2.219) and depression (OR = 2.525, 95% CI: 1.936, 3.293) as well as testosterone level (ß = 0.083, 95% CI: 0.028, 0.140). Pack-years of smoking and cigarettes per day were positively associated with the prevalence of trouble sleeping and depression as well as testosterone level (Ptrend <0.05). The restricted cubic spline model showed linear relationships of cotinine with trouble sleeping, depression, and testosterone. The positive associations of cigarettes per day with trouble sleeping and depression were greater in females than that in males (Pmodification <0.05). However, the potential role of sex hormones was not observed in the association of cotinine with trouble sleeping or depression (Pmediation >0.05). CONCLUSION: Smoking may induce sex hormone disturbance and increase the risk of sleep problems and depression symptoms, and ceasing smoking may reduce the risk of such complications.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Depressão , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Cotinina/sangue , Cotinina/análise , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Testosterona/sangue , Idoso
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(23): e38339, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847666

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a method for determining cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine in human serum and established a methodology for an in-depth study of tobacco exposure and health. After the proteins in the human serum samples were precipitated with acetonitrile, they were separated on a ZORBAX SB-Phenyl column with a mobile phase of methanol encompassing 0.3% formic acid-water encompassing 0.15% formic acid. The measurement was performed on an API5500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Cotinine, 3-hydroxycotinine, and cotinine-d3 isotope internal standards were held for 2.56 minutes, 1.58 minutes, and 2.56 minutes, respectively. In serum, the linear range was 0.05 to 500 ng·mL-1 for cotinine and 0.50 to 1250 ng·mL-1 for 3-hydroxycotinine. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.05 ng·mL-1 and 0.5 ng·mL-1 for cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were <11%, and the relative errors were within ±â€…7%. Moreover, the mean extraction recoveries of cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine were 98.54% and 100.24%, respectively. This method is suitable for the rapid determination of cotinine and 3-hydroxycotinine in human serum because of its rapidity, sensitivity, strong specificity, and high reproducibility. The detection of cotinine levels in human serum allows for the identification of the cutoff value, providing a basis for differentiation between smoking and nonsmoking populations.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Cotinina/sangue , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Limite de Detecção
8.
Anal Methods ; 16(26): 4387-4394, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38899527

RESUMO

We present a sensitive and selective lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for cotinine (COT), the primary metabolite of nicotine. COT is widely recognized as a superior biomarker to evaluate tobacco smoke exposure. The LFIA uses a competitive assay format where the COT-BSA capture competes with the target COT in urine samples for binding to the monoclonal antibody against COT (mAb-COT) conjugated with gold nanoparticles (mAb-COT-AuNPs). To improve the sensitivity and selectivity of the LFIA-COT, we focused on optimizing the diameter of AuNPs, the conjugation of mAb-COT, and the concentration of the COT-BSA capture. Our findings reveal that the utilization of 40 nm AuNPs in conjugation with a concentration of 4 mg mL-1 of mAb-COT demonstrated significantly greater efficacy compared to LFAs utilizing 20 nm AuNPs. Under the optimal conditions, the LFIA-COT demonstrated sensitive detection of COT at a level of 150 ng mL-1 within 15 min, as observed by the naked eye. It possesses a linear range of 25 to 200 ng mL-1 of COT, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 11.94 ng mL-1 in human urine samples when the color intensity is analyzed using ImageJ software. Our LFIA described here is simple and requires less time for COT detection. It can be used for the rapid and quantitative detection of COT in urine samples in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Humanos , Cotinina/urina , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Ouro/química , Testes Imediatos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14957, 2024 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38942832

RESUMO

The tobacco alkaloid nicotine is known for its activation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotine is consumed in different ways such as through conventional smoking, e-cigarettes, snuff or nicotine pouches. The use of snuff has been associated with several adverse health effects, such as inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa and oral cavity cancer. We performed a metabolomic analysis of nicotine-exposed THP-1 human monocytes. Cells were exposed to 5 mM of the alkaloid for up to 4 h, and cell extracts and medium subjected to untargeted liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. Raw data processing revealed 17 nicotine biotransformation products. Among these, cotinine and nornicotine were identified as the two major cellular biotransformation products. The application of multi- and univariate statistical analyses resulted in the annotation, up to a certain level of identification, of 12 compounds in the cell extracts and 13 compounds in the medium that were altered by nicotine exposure. Of these, four were verified as methylthioadenosine, cytosine, uric acid, and L-glutamate. Methylthioadenosine levels were affected in both cells and the medium, while cytosine, uric acid, and L-glutamate levels were affected in the medium only. The effects of smoking on the pathways involving these metabolites have been previously demonstrated in humans. Most of the other discriminating compounds, which were merely tentatively or not fully identified, were amino acids or amino acid derivatives. In conclusion, our preliminary data suggest that some of the potentially adverse effects related to smoking may also be expected when nicotine is consumed via snuff or nicotine pouches.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Monócitos , Nicotina , Humanos , Nicotina/metabolismo , Nicotina/análogos & derivados , Metabolômica/métodos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Células THP-1 , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Cotinina/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 316, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38904699

RESUMO

Cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine in the human body, is an emerging pollutant in aquatic environments. It causes environmental problems and is harmful to the health of humans and other mammals; however, the mechanisms of its biodegradation have been elucidated incompletely. In this study, a novel Gram-negative strain that could degrade and utilize cotinine as a sole carbon source was isolated from municipal wastewater samples, and its cotinine degradation characteristics and kinetics were determined. Pseudomonas sp. JH-2 was able to degrade 100 mg/L (0.56 mM) of cotinine with high efficiency within 5 days at 30 ℃, pH 7.0, and 1% NaCl. Two intermediates, 6-hydroxycotinine and 6-hydroxy-3-succinoylpyridine (HSP), were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. The draft whole genome sequence of strain JH-2 was obtained and analyzed to determine genomic structure and function. No homologs of proteins predicted in Nocardioides sp. JQ2195 and reported in nicotine degradation Pyrrolidine pathway were found in strain JH-2, suggesting new enzymes that responsible for cotinine catabolism. These findings provide meaningful insights into the biodegradation of cotinine by Gram-negative bacteria.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cotinina , Pseudomonas , Águas Residuárias , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/classificação , Cotinina/metabolismo , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Nicotina/metabolismo , Nicotina/análogos & derivados , Piridinas/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Succinatos
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 132(5): 57010, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) plays a significant role in both human health and global industries. Epidemiological studies of exposed populations demonstrate a dose-dependent association between Mn and neuromotor effects ranging from subclinical effects to a clinically defined syndrome. However, little is known about the relationship between early life Mn biomarkers and adolescent postural balance. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the associations between childhood and adolescent Mn biomarkers and adolescent postural balance in participants from the longitudinal Marietta Communities Actively Researching Exposures Study (CARES) cohort. METHODS: Participants were recruited into CARES when they were 7-9 y old, and reenrolled at 13-18 years of age. At both time points, participants provided samples of blood, hair, and toenails that were analyzed for blood Mn and lead (Pb), serum cotinine, hair Mn, and toenail Mn. In adolescence, participants completed a postural balance assessment. Greater sway indicates postural instability (harmful effect), whereas lesser sway indicates postural stability (beneficial effect). Multivariable linear regression models were conducted to investigate the associations between childhood and adolescent Mn biomarkers and adolescent postural balance adjusted for age, sex, height-weight ratio, parent/caregiver intelligence quotient, socioeconomic status, blood Pb, and serum cotinine. RESULTS: CARES participants who completed the adolescent postural balance assessment (n=123) were 98% White and 54% female and had a mean age of 16 y (range: 13-18 y). In both childhood and adolescence, higher Mn biomarker concentrations were significantly associated with greater adolescent sway measures. Supplemental analyses revealed sex-specific associations; higher childhood Mn biomarker concentrations were significantly associated with greater sway in females compared with males. DISCUSSION: This study found childhood and adolescent Mn biomarkers were associated with subclinical neuromotor effects in adolescence. This study demonstrates postural balance as a sensitive measure to assess the association between Mn biomarkers and neuromotor function. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP13381.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Cabelo , Manganês , Unhas , Equilíbrio Postural , Humanos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Manganês/sangue , Manganês/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Criança , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Cabelo/química , Unhas/química , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Chumbo/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Cotinina/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue
12.
J Phys Chem B ; 128(19): 4577-4589, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696590

RESUMO

The binding affinity of nicotinoids to the binding residues of the α4ß2 variant of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) was identified as a strong predictor of the nicotinoid's addictive character. Using ab initio calculations for model binding pockets of increasing size composed of 3, 6, and 14 amino acids (3AA, 6AA, and 14AA) that are derived from the crystal structure, the differences in binding affinity of 6 nicotinoids, namely, nicotine (NIC), nornicotine (NOR), anabasine (ANB), anatabine (ANT), myosmine (MYO), and cotinine (COT) were correlated to their previously reported doses required for increases in intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds, a metric for their addictive function. By employing the many-body decomposition, the differences in the binding affinities of the various nicotinoids could be attributed mainly to the proton exchange energy between the pyridine and non-pyridine rings of the nicotinoids and the interactions between them and a handful of proximal amino acids, namely Trp156, Trpß57, Tyr100, and Tyr204. Interactions between the guest nicotinoid and the amino acids of the binding pocket were found to be mainly classical in nature, except for those between the nicotinoid and Trp156. The larger pockets were found to model binding structures more accurately and predicted the addictive character of all nicotinoids, while smaller models, which are more computationally feasible, would only predict the addictive character of nicotinoids that are similar to nicotine. The present study identifies the binding affinity of the guest nicotinoid to the host binding pocket as a strong descriptor of the nicotinoid's addiction potential, and as such it can be employed as a fast-screening technique for the potential addiction of nicotine analogs.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Receptores Nicotínicos , Receptores Nicotínicos/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Sítios de Ligação , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Nicotina/química , Nicotina/análogos & derivados , Nicotina/metabolismo , Anabasina/química , Anabasina/metabolismo , Anabasina/análogos & derivados , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/metabolismo , Cotinina/química , Cotinina/metabolismo , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Alcaloides
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 364, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high smoking rate in people with depressive symptoms, there is ongoing debate about relationship between smoking and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Study participants were 57,441 Korean men. We collected their baseline data between 2011 and 2012, and conducted follow-up from 2013 to 2019. They were categorized by smoking status (never: < 100 cigarettes smoking in life time, former: currently quitting smoking, and current smoker: currently smoking), smoking amount (pack/day and pack-year) and urine cotinine excretion. The development of depressive symptoms was determined in CES-D score ≥ 16. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for depressive symptoms in relation to smoking status, smoking amount, and urine cotinine excretion. RESULTS: During 6.7 years of median follow-up, the risk of depressive symptoms increased in order of never (reference), former (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01-1.15) and current smoker (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32). Among current smoker, the risk of depressive symptoms increased proportionally to daily smoking amount (< 1 pack; HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.13-1.29, and ≥ 1 pack; HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23 - 1.45). This pattern of relationship was consistently observed for pack-year in former smoker and current smoker. Additionally, urine cotinine excretion was proportionally associated with the risk of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Exposure to smoking was associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. Dose dependent relationship was observed between smoking amount and the risk of depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Depressão , Fumar , Humanos , Masculino , Depressão/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cotinina/urina , Estudos Longitudinais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11061, 2024 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745032

RESUMO

While smoking is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the connection between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and RA in never-smoking adults remains limited and inconsistent. This study aims to explore and quantify this association using serum cotinine levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 14,940 adults who self-report as never smokers, using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999 to 2018. Based on previous literature, SHS exposure was categorized into four groups according to serum cotinine levels. Compared to individuals in the unexposed group (serum cotinine < 0.05 ng/mL), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for RA was 1.37 (95% CI 1.14-1.64, p = 0.001) in the low exposure group (serum cotinine at 0.05 to 0.99 ng/mL) after adjusting for covariates. However, no significant association was found in the moderate exposure group (serum cotinine at 1 to 10 ng/mL) or the heavy exposure group (serum cotinine ≥ 10 ng/mL). Furthermore, we detected a non-linear, positively saturated correlation between the cotinine levels after log2 transformation and RA, with a turning point at approximately - 2.756 ng/mL (OR = 1.163, 95% CI 1.073-1.261, p = 0.0002). The stability of the results was confirmed by subgroup analysis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Cotinina , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Cotinina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Idoso
15.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e073527, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38749695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and serum sex hormone concentrations in female adults (never smokers and former smokers). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2016. OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum sex hormone measures included total testosterone (TT) and oestradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the ratio of TT and E2 and free androgen index (FAI). Isotope dilution-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure serum TT and E2. SHBG was measured using immunoassay. The ratio of TT and E2 and FAI were calculated. SHS exposure was defined as serum cotinine concentration of 0.05-10 ng/mL. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 622 female participants aged ≥20 years were included in the analysis. RESULTS: For never smokers, a doubling of serum cotinine concentration was associated with a 2.85% (95% CI 0.29% to 5.47%) increase in TT concentration and a 6.29% (95% CI 0.68% to 12.23%) increase in E2 in fully adjusted models. The never smokers in the highest quartile (Q4) of serum cotinine level exhibited a 10.30% (95% CI 0.78% to 20.72%) increase in TT concentration and a 27.75% (95% CI 5.17% to 55.17%) increase in E2 compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1). For former smokers, SHBG was reduced by 4.36% (95% CI -8.47% to -0.07%, p for trend=0.049) when the serum cotinine level was doubled, and the SHBG of those in Q4 was reduced by 17.58% (95% CI -31.33% to -1.07%, p for trend=0.018) compared with those in Q1. CONCLUSION: SHS was associated with serum sex hormone concentrations among female adults. In never smokers, SHS was associated with increased levels of TT and E2. In former smokers, SHS was associated with decreased SHBG levels.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Estradiol , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Feminino , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Cotinina/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11424, 2024 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763979

RESUMO

Tobacco exposure is known to be associated with a higher prevalence and incidence of liver diseases. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is a typical indicator of tobacco exposure. However, the relationship of serum cotinine levels with hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis remains controversial and these relationships need more research to explored in American teenagers. Cross-sectional data included 1433 participants aged 12-19 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2017 to 2020 were thoroughly used for this study. The linear relationships between serum cotinine levels and the Liver Stiffness Measurement (LSM) and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) were examined using multiple linear regression models. Subgroup analysis, interaction tests, and nonlinear interactions were also carried out. Serum cotinine levels > 2.99 ng/ml [ß = 0.41 (0.07, 0.76), p = 0.018] and 0.05-2.99 ng/ml [ß = 0.24 (0.00, 0.49), p = 0.048] showed a significant positive connection with LSM in multivariate linear regression analysis when compared to serum cotinine levels ≤ 0.05 ng/ml (p for trend = 0.006). Moreover, we discovered an inverted U-shaped association of log2-transformed cotinine with LSM with an inflection point of 4.53 using a two-stage linear regression model. However, according to multiple regression analysis, serum cotinine and CAP did not significantly correlate (p = 0.512). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that smoking cessation and keep away from secondhand smoking may beneficial for liver health in American teenagers.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Fígado Gorduroso , Cirrose Hepática , Humanos , Cotinina/sangue , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Criança , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 71(7): e31007, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38654470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the etiology of childhood cancers, many genetic and environmental factors play a role. One of these factors could be cigarette smoking, and the main source of tobacco smoke exposure of children is parental smoking. However, establishing a causal relationship between parental smoking and childhood cancers has proven challenging due to difficulties in accurately detecting tobacco smoke exposure METHODS: To address this issue, we used hair cotinine analysis and a questionnaire to get information about tobacco smoke exposures of pediatric cancer patients and healthy children. A total of 104 pediatric cancer patients and 99 healthy children participated in our study. Parental smoking behaviors (pre-conceptional, during pregnancy, and current smoking) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures of children are compared. RESULTS: We have found no differences between two groups by means of maternal smoking behaviors. However, the rates of paternal pre-conceptional smoking and smoking during pregnancy were significantly low in cancer patients (p < .05). These data suggest that social desirability bias among fathers of cancer patients may have contributed to this discrepancy. According to questionnaire, cancer patients had significantly lower ETS exposures than healthy children (p < .05). However, ETS exposure assessment through cotinine analysis demonstrated that cancer patients had higher exposure to ETS compared to healthy children (p < .001). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence supporting the potential role of smoking as a risk factor for childhood cancers. This study also revealed that questionnaires could cause biases. We suggest that cotinine analysis along with validated questionnaires can be used to prevent biases in studies of tobacco smoke in the etiology of childhood cancers.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Cabelo , Neoplasias , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Feminino , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Masculino , Cotinina/análise , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cabelo/química , Pré-Escolar , Pais , Gravidez , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adolescente , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 258: 111278, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of administering intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to the medial prefrontal cortex for tobacco use disorder. METHODS: A randomized sham-controlled trial was conducted, with 38 participants receiving 28 sessions of active (n=25) or sham (n=13) iTBS (2 sessions/day, 600 pulses/session, 110% resting motor threshold, AFz target) along with smoking cessation education (Forever Free © booklets) over 14 visits. Primary outcomes included self-reported cigarette consumption and abstinence, verified by urinary cotinine tests. Secondary outcomes included symptoms of tobacco use disorder, negative mood, and safety/tolerability. RESULTS: Both active and sham groups reported reduced cigarette consumption (ß = -0.12, p = 0.015), cigarette craving (ß = -0.16, p = 0.002), and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (ß = -0.05, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant time x group interaction effects for any measure. Similarly, the two groups had no significant differences in urinary cotinine-verified abstinence. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both groups. CONCLUSION: There were no differences in cigarette consumption between the active and sham iTBS groups, both groups decreased cigarette consumption similarly. Further research is needed to compare iTBS to standard high-frequency rTMS and explore the potential differences in efficacy. Despite limitations, this study contributes to experimental design considerations for TMS as a novel intervention for tobacco and other substance use disorders, emphasizing the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the stimulation parameters and target sites.


Assuntos
Córtex Pré-Frontal , Tabagismo , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Fissura/fisiologia , Cotinina/urina , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 34(7): 1779-1786, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38658224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The impact of environmental chemical exposure on blood pressure (BP) is well-established. However, the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mortality in hypertensive patients in the general population remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cohort study included US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2018. All-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality outcomes were determined by associating them with the National Death Index records. Cox proportional risk models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for SHSE. The cohort included 10,760 adult participants. The mean serum cotinine level was 0.024 ng/mL. During a mean follow-up period of 76.9 months, there were 1729 deaths, including 469 cardiovascular disease deaths recorded. After adjusting for lifestyle factors, BMI, hypertension duration, medication use, and chronic disease presence, the highest SHSE was significantly associated with higher all-cause and CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that higher SHSE is significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality and CVD mortality. Further research is necessary to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Causas de Morte , Hipertensão , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Cotinina/sangue , Prognóstico
20.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 103: 107351, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing cannabis use among pregnant people and equivocal evidence linking prenatal cannabis exposure to adverse outcomes in offspring highlights the need to understand its potential impact on pregnancy and child outcomes. Assessing cannabis use during pregnancy remains a major challenge with potential influences of stigma on self-report as well as detection limitations of easily collected biological matrices. OBJECTIVE: This descriptive study examined the concordance between self-reported (SR) cannabis use and urine drug screen (UDS) detection of cannabis exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy and characterized concordant and discordant groups for sociodemographic factors, modes of use, secondhand exposure to cannabis and tobacco, and alcohol use and cotinine positivity. STUDY DESIGN: The Cannabis Use During Development and Early Life (CUDDEL) Study is an ongoing longitudinal study that recruits pregnant individuals presenting for obstetric care, who report lifetime cannabis use as well as using (n = 289) or not using cannabis (n = 169) during pregnancy. During the first trimester pregnancy visit, SR of cannabis use and a UDS for cannabis, other illicit drugs and nicotine are acquired from eligible participants, of whom 333 as of 05/01/2023 had both. RESULTS: Using available CUDDEL Study data on both SR and UDS (n = 333; age 26.6 ± 4.7; 88.6% Black; 45.4% below federal poverty threshold; 56.5% with paid employment; 89% with high school education; 22% first pregnancy; 12.3 ± 3.6 weeks gestation), we classified pregnant individuals with SR and UDS data into 4 groups based on concordance (k = 0.49 [95% C.I. 0.40-0.58]) between SR cannabis use and UDS cannabis detection during the first trimester: 1) SR+/UDS+ (n = 107); 2) SR-/UDS- (n = 142); 3) SR+/UDS- (n = 44); 4) SR-/UDS+ (n = 40). Those who were SR+/UDS- reported less frequent cannabis use and fewer hours under the influence of cannabis during their pregnancy. Those who were SR-/UDS+ were more likely to have joined the study at a lower gestational age with 62.5% reporting cannabis use during their pregnancy prior to being aware that they were pregnant. Of the 40 SR-/UDS+ women, 14 (i.e., 35%) reported past month secondhand exposure, or blunt usage. In the subset of individuals with SR and UDS available at trimester 2 (N = 160) and 3 (N = 140), concordant groups were mostly stable and > 50% of those in the discordant groups became concordant by the second trimester. Classifying individuals as exposed or not exposed who were SR+ and/or UDS+ resulted in minor changes in group status based on self-report at screening. CONCLUSION: Overall, there was moderate concordance between SR and UDS for cannabis use/exposure during pregnancy. Instances of SR+/UDS- discordancy may partially be attributable to lower levels of use that are not detected on UDS. SR-/UDS+ discordancy may arise from recent use prior to knowledge of pregnancy, extreme secondhand exposure, deception, and challenges with completing questionnaires. Acquiring both self-report and biological detection of cannabis use/exposure allows for the examination of convergent evidence. Classifying those who are SR+ and/or UDS+ as individuals who used cannabis during their first trimester after being aware of their pregnancy resulted in only a minor change in exposure status; thus, relying on self-report screening, at least in this population and within this sociocultural context likely provides an adequate approximation of cannabis use during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Autorrelato , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/urina , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/urina , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Cotinina/urina , Adolescente , Fumar Maconha/urina
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