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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(5)2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the levels of demand for family planning satisfied (DFPS) have increased in many countries, cultural norms remain a significant barrier in low- and middle-income countries. In the context of multireligious African countries, our objective was to investigate intersectional inequalities in DFPS by modern or traditional contraceptives according to religion and women's empowerment. METHODS: Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Surveys carried out between 2010 and 2021 in African countries. Countries with at least 10% of Muslims and Christians were selected to analyse inequalities in family planning. The religious groups were characterised by wealth, area of residence, women's age and women's empowerment. The mean level of empowerment was estimated for each religious group, and multilevel Poisson regression was used to assess whether DFPS varied based on the level of women's empowerment among Muslims and Christians. RESULTS: Our study sample of 14 countries comprised 35% of Muslim and 61% of Christian women. Christians had higher levels of empowerment across all three domains compared with Muslims and women with no/other religion. DFPS was also higher among Christians (57%) than among Muslims (36%). Pooled analysis indicated a consistent association between DFPS and women's empowerment, with higher prevalence ratios among Muslims than Christians, especially in the decision-making domain. CONCLUSIONS: The gap between Muslims and Christians in DFPS significantly reduced as the level of empowerment increased. It highlights the importance of understanding and addressing cultural factors sensibly and respectfully to satisfy the demand for family planning services.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Empoderamento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Islamismo , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301905, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38630659

RESUMO

This paper evaluates the direct and indirect impacts (and their interactions) of individual and social ethics from (primary, secondary, tertiary) education and religion (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism) on health and happiness in alternative religious contexts (majority and minority religions) and for alternative education policies (gross enrolment and per-student expenditure). It also specifies the time lag for the short-run indirect impact (and its size) of happiness on health and the long-run equilibria of both happiness and health. The statistical results show that there is no religious or secular ethics with beneficial impacts on both happiness and health at both the individual and social levels. Next, education policies have similar impacts on both happiness and health in all religious contexts, while most religious ethics have larger beneficial impacts on health and happiness if coupled with social and individual education policies, respectively. Combined statistical and analytical results show that the largest short-run indirect impact of happiness on health occurs after 4 years, where 1 out of 10 points of happiness produces approximately 3 additional years of healthy life expectancy at birth. Next, the long-run equilibria of both happiness and health are globally stable and are achieved after 8 years through oscillation dynamics.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Religião , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Islamismo , Budismo
3.
Breastfeed Med ; 19(5): 333-339, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546168

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe the breastfeeding attitudes and subjective norms of breastfeeding among African American Christians from the New England region. Study Design and Methods: A study was conducted using an online survey. Participants were recruited from four Christian churches in the New England region during the summer of 2021. Responses from direct questions about exclusive breastfeeding histories were tabulated. Open-ended question responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two results were merged to make the conclusions. Results: Participants (n = 101) aged 18-44 years (62.3%), college graduates (72.3%), and Catholics (71.4%) responded. Participants were willing to recommend six months of exclusive breastfeeding practice to relatives (89.9%) and friends/peers (87.9%) and support relatives (94.0%) and friends/peers (94.8%) to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Breastfeeding attitude themes included beneficial and natural and receiving breastfeeding support. Subjective norms of breastfeeding themes included receiving support for breastfeeding; Christian leadership, teachings, and communal engagements; and gaps in Christian influence. Conclusion: The African American Christian community may be an emergent agent of breastfeeding social support for African American Christian women who chose to breastfeed. Health professionals should collaborate with African American Christian leadership to initiate programs to promote breastfeeding among African American Christian women in the United States.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Aleitamento Materno , Cristianismo , Apoio Social , Humanos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/psicologia , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , New England , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Masculino , Recém-Nascido
4.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 50(2): 368-389, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450580

RESUMO

Given the religious groundings that support the practice of gender identity change efforts (GICE), we sought to explore the beliefs of Christian religious leaders about this practice and their understanding of marginalized gender identities. Nineteen religious leaders mainly from diverse Mainline Christian Protestant traditions were interviewed. Queer theory-informed thematic analysis revealed two themes related to participants' beliefs about transgender and nonbinary identities: (1) Transgender and nonbinary identities are normative and authentic and (2) God created gender diversity. The analyses also highlighted two themes reflecting the pastors' beliefs about GICE: (1) GICE is harmful and (2) Therapy should affirm transgender and nonbinary identities. Finally, the thematic analysis exploring participants' messages for couple and family therapists could be organized into two themes: (1) Christian religious beliefs do not justify the use of GICE and (2) Therapists should be helpful and not harmful. Implications for couple and family therapists are also discussed.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Cristianismo
5.
J Christ Nurs ; 41(2): 103-105, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436340

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In my experience of caring for a lesbian couple suffering a miscarriage, I disengaged my bias about their sexual orientation and compassionately cared for their needs. After praying with the couple, I felt a deep connection with them and a palpable peace. Joy shone on their faces and they verbally expressed gratitude. God used me as a caring presence. Christian nurses are vessels for God's love to bring peace and healing.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Cristianismo , Emoções , Amor
6.
J Christ Nurs ; 41(2): E18-E31, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436350

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The "Spirit of the Second Mile Nursing" (SSMN) has been cultivated in nurses who graduated from McCormick Faculty of Nursing, Thailand. These nurses were taught and they practice to care for clients, family members, and colleagues with compassion, consideration, love, enthusiasm, and willingness throughout the program. This study aimed to explore the SSMN concept using a Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM). The findings show that the SSMN concept is based on "Loving and Giving for others" principles. It consisted of three categories: the Spirit of the Second Mile nurse characteristics, nursing care, and consequences of the SSMN. Knowledge from this study provides nurses with a better understanding of the SSMN concept within the context of a Thai and American Christian view.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Humanos , Emoções , Docentes , Família
7.
J Christ Nurs ; 41(2): E32-E37, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436351

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The influence of Western Christian missionary nurses has been recorded in the history and development of nursing in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Christianity on Chinese nursing ethics. This documentary research used content analysis to investigate Christian value trends over 13 years (1920-1932) as reflected in a major bilingual Chinese nursing journal.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Ética em Enfermagem , Humanos , China , Missionários
8.
J Relig Health ; 63(3): 2243-2258, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381253

RESUMO

It is well known that informal workers in developing countries are exposed to occupational health problems (OHPs), and they work unsafely. However, little is known about how their religious beliefs influence their safety behavior at the workplace. This study explores the interaction between the automobile artisans' religious beliefs and their workplace safety behavior. Forty three male artisans (either Christian: n = 17; or Muslim: n = 26) were purposively interviewed. Even though their religious teachings are against risk-taking, the artisans took risks at their workplace. Specific programs like seminars and various outreaches for workers in religious settings influence their perception of OHP prevention. Religious organizations have a role to play in OHP prevention.


Assuntos
Saúde Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Adulto , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Automóveis , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cristianismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Setor Informal
9.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 23(1): ar7, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38215392

RESUMO

The tension between religion and science as a long-standing barrier to science education has led researchers to explore ways of improving the experiences of Christian students in biology who can experience their Christianity as stigmatized in academic biology environments. As undergraduate science classes become student-centered, interactions among students increase, and Christians may feel a need to conceal their religious identities during peer discussions. In this interview study, we used the social psychology framework of concealable stigmatized identities to explore 30 Christian students' experiences during peer interactions in undergraduate biology courses to find potential ways to improve those experiences. We found that students felt their religious identity was salient during peer interactions in biology, and students thought revealing their religious identity to peers in their biology courses could be beneficial, yet few actually did so. Additionally, though most students anticipated stigma, comparatively few had experienced stigma from other students in their biology courses, despite the prior documented cultural stigma against Christians in biology. These results indicate a need for future studies exploring the impact of learning environments in which students are given the opportunity to share their religious identities with one another, which could reduce their anticipated and perceived stigma.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Estudantes , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Biologia/educação
10.
Int J Legal Med ; 138(1): 229-238, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36764944

RESUMO

The Turin Shroud (TS) is a Christian relic interpreted to be the burial cloth of Jesus of Nazareth. It exhibits red discolorations that have been interpreted as blood stains and that are the subjects of a highly controversial discussion. We conducted experiments to identify theoretically possible explanations for the stains attributed to the crown of thorns, the lance wound and the belt of blood. In the experiments with a focus on the stains attributed to the crown of thorns, a very similar stain pattern as on the TS could be provoked by simulating the following sequence of events: blood from antemortem scalp wounds is covering hair and face; blood is coagulating and/or drying; blood components are mobilised by postmortem washing and oiling. A stain pattern very similar to the belt of blood on the TS was successfully provoked by simulating the following sequence of events: The body is lying in a supine position, blood or bloodied water flowing from a wound at the right lateral chest wall; the body is rotated to the left side; the Shroud is tucked under the back; the body is rotated back to a supine position and laid onto the Shroud. The so-called serum ring surrounding the stain attributed to the lance wound could be reproduced by sequential application of serum and whole blood samples or of pleural effusion and whole blood samples onto cotton cloth. It is obvious that any attempt to interpret the assumed blood stain pattern on the TS has serious limitations. Nevertheless, it seems remarkable that we were able to reproduce findings that appear to be very similar to stains on the TS.


Assuntos
Manchas de Sangue , Humanos , Corantes , Cristianismo , Autopsia , Vestuário
12.
Hist Psychol ; 27(1): 54-74, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37668592

RESUMO

This article situates Joseph Nicolosi's first book, Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality, in historical context. Nicolosi, a Catholic clinical psychologist, was one of the most vocal practitioners of sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE) from the early 1990s until his death in 2017, and in these decades, the Christian Right became a key supporter of SOCE. In this article, I argue that two features of Nicolosi's book appealed to the Christian Right. First, Nicolosi relied on psychoanalytic thought to pathologize not only same-sex sexual desires but also poor parenting. The use of psychoanalytic thought was of particular interest to conservative Christians who believed that American fathers had forfeited their role as strong patriarchs. Second, Nicolosi's approach to therapy, which included changing one's dress and mannerisms and assertiveness training, stressed that same-sex desires could be eliminated through behavioral reconditioning. Nicolosi's psychological eclecticism, a common feature for mental health practitioners at the end of the twentieth century, has not been emphasized in prior scholarship on reparative therapy. Importantly, the psychological eclecticism practiced by Nicolosi became common within the Christian Right after the publication of Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality. By offering a close reading of Reparative Therapy of Male Homosexuality, this article demonstrates the interrelationship between one of the core texts of the ex-gay movement and the psychological and religious thought of the Christian Right at the turn of the twenty-first century. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Psicanálise , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estados Unidos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Cristianismo , Catolicismo
13.
J Relig Health ; 63(1): 46-62, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37584894

RESUMO

Theological perspectives have been given short shrift in the literature on religion and health research. This study demonstrates how including different schools of mainline Western Protestant theological thought (evolutionist, correlationist, and dialectical) in the scientific process could contribute to clarifying controversies. The issue is not just theoretical: Theology can even challenge assumptions on elicitability and reproducibility. Theology perceives spirituality as a dialogue with the Total Other, thus making each encounter with the transcendent (not just the individuality of the person) unique and unpredictable. By accepting setbacks on a journey with wide-ranging aspirations, theology redefines health as the momentum of constant striving toward the divine spirit. Since these theological insights relate to interventions that affect patients' intimacy, attempting to recognize the (albeit implicit) spiritual-theological standpoint of the patient and the self-and how these relate to authentic traditions of spirituality-appears to be an essential prerequisite for ethical spiritual intervention.


Assuntos
Terapias Espirituais , Espiritualidade , Humanos , Teologia , Protestantismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Religião , Cristianismo
14.
J Relig Health ; 63(1): 725-740, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37843743

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic posed risks to the health and wellness of individuals and communities. Qualitative interviews based on the health belief model were conducted to gain insight into the perspectives of 17 leaders serving in rural Christian, Catholic, Jewish, and Muslim communities in the USA regarding their communities' responses during the pandemic. Nine themes emerged from the narrative data using phenomenological thematic analysis: Some people are more susceptible, Test of faith, Fear and anxiety, Staying connected, Will people follow the protocols? Science and faith can co-exist, Responsibility to self and others, We've had to adjust, and We've had to dispense of that. The religious leaders provided support and hope, adapted religious and social activities, and used faith and religious tenets as foundational principles to encourage compliance with health recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , População Rural , Cristianismo , Islamismo
15.
Am J Health Promot ; 38(1): 112-123, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Faith leaders often serve as health-related role models yet many struggle with obesity and self-care engagement. The purpose of this scoping review was to examine how the faith leader literature has defined self-care and examined obesity and obesity-related chronic disease. DATA SOURCE: Studies were identified through database (eg, PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO), backward, and grey literature (eg, dissertations) searches. INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Studies published in English with participants who were 18 years or older and examined leaders across all faiths. Studies also included an examination of self-care behaviors among faith leaders within the context of obesity or obesity-related chronic diseases. DATA EXTRACTION/SYNTHESIS: Data synthesis was qualitative and informed by the six-step framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley (2005) as well as updated recommendations by Daudt et al (2013). Of the 418 studies identified and screened, 20 met the eligibility criteria. RESULTS: Studies were primarily cross-sectional and participants Christian faith-leaders in the US. Most studies did not define self-care or incorporate theory, but focused on vegetarian diets and physical activity engagement. Other self-care related behaviors (eg, sleep, days off), some unique to faith leaders (eg, sabbatical), were included but not systematically. CONCLUSIONS: Research with more diverse faith leaders and that uses theory is needed to guide development of strategies for engaging this population in self-care to reduce obesity and related chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Obesidade , Autocuidado , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Obesidade/terapia , Cristianismo , Doença Crônica
16.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 49(1 Pt A): 102045, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37634672

RESUMO

This short report underlines the importance of collaboration and communication among scientists. The ideals of progress in medicine and in the care of suffering people have represented continuous stimuli allowing to overcome prejudices, religious and political differences. The modern concepts of blood circulation have been established through a close collaboration and exchanges of ideas among scientists coming from different countries, different religious and political backgrounds. In those days Europe was theater of continuous wars based on political and religious contrasts. There were continuous outbreaks of Plague in several countries. Religious contrasts occurred inside the Christianity and between the Christianity and Islam; contrasts which were based on theological disputes associated with economic and expansionist ambitions, resulting in extreme and rigid religious orthodoxy. Despite these difficulties, medical scientists collaborated overcoming the close boundaries of everyday general confrontations. The ambition for advancement in science and for progress with the potential consequent common good inspired a general sense of community and drove to overcome the boundaries based on contrasts. Science, scientific thinking, dedication to research and to improve knowledge represented yesterday and continue to represent today the common ambition to break down cultural, religious and economic walls. The generosity of science is superior to the superstition of contrasts and arrogance. A message we can bring from the past back to the future and back to today.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Cristianismo , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
18.
Cancer Treat Res ; 187: 153-159, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851225

RESUMO

After Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism, Buddhism is the 4th major religion of the world. The Pew Research Center estimates that as of 2020, about 500 million people (or 6.6% of the world's population) practice Buddhism. China has the largest Buddhist population at 254 million, followed by Thailand at 66 million, and then Myanmar and Japan at about 41 million.


Assuntos
Budismo , Islamismo , Humanos , Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Judaísmo
19.
Cancer Treat Res ; 187: 181-202, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851227

RESUMO

The Christian faith is founded on the principle that human life is sacred, a gift from God, the Heavenly Father. Christians live to love and glorify God. Throughout life, they witness a myriad of life events covering the spectrum from euphoric highs to devastating lows. Be it joy or sorrow, faith in God, having been established through a personal relationship with His Son, Jesus Christ of Nazareth as Savior and Lord, sustains and guides every step. The end of life is the closing earthly chapter, often shared with family members, a chaplain, parish pastor, or another spiritual care provider assisting the dying Christian with compassionate and significant conversations. It is a time to complete preparations for the final journey every Christian takes from this life into the glorious eternal life prepared in heaven with God the Heavenly Father, Jesus Christ the Savior, family, and friends who have gone before. This chapter examines various rituals and practices of the Christian faith observed during the end of life, legacy or life review, funeral practices, burial rituals following death, beliefs about the afterlife that inspire and inform the great hopes of Christian living, and bereavement support for grieving.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Morte , Humanos
20.
Cancer Treat Res ; 187: 219-229, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851229

RESUMO

There are approximately 300 million members of the Greek Orthodox Church worldwide. It is the second-largest Christian church. Followers of this religion believe in eternal life. Thus, the church strongly emphasizes a positive outcome in death- "the deceased is alive with God." God is believed to be the healer of our souls and bodies, which is facilitated through prayer and participation in the life of the Church. Traditional medical interventions are generally accepted. Artificial life support is justifiable only when it offers a hope for meaningful recovery. Just as death should not be hastened, the natural dying process should not be prolonged. Timely advance care planning and early treatment goals discussions to help understand how the patient would define quality of life is paramount to setting limitations on what could be considered as nonbeneficial care. The medical team should not assume that all patients of the Greek Orthodox faith will feel the same around end-of-life beliefs and practices. This chapter aims to identify common themes and the historical contextual framework that may influence the way in which medical decision making is made by those who specifically subscribe to the Greek Orthodox faith.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Grécia
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