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1.
Biomolecules ; 12(4)2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454107

RESUMO

Allergen immunotherapy is a promising treatment for allergic diseases that induce immune tolerance through the administration of specific allergens. In this study, we investigate the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in asthmatic patients with SAR-JCP and the dynamics of the parameters before and after treatment in a real-world setting. This was a prospective single-center observational study. Patients with asthma and SAR-JCP (n = 24) were recruited for this study and assessed using symptom questionnaires before SLIT and a year after the SLIT. In addition, a respiratory function test, forced oscillation technique, and blood sampling test were performed during the off-season before and after SLIT. The one-year SLIT for asthma patients with SAR-JCP significantly improved not only allergic rhinitis symptoms, but also asthma symptoms during the JCP dispersal season, and significantly improved airway resistance during the off-season. The change in the asthma control test and the visual analog scale score during the season before and after SLIT was negatively and positively correlated with the change in peripheral blood γδ T cells off-season before and after SLIT, respectively. It was suggested that improvement in asthma symptoms during the JCP dispersal season after SLIT was associated with reduced peripheral blood γδ T cells.


Assuntos
Asma , Cryptomeria , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Asma/terapia , Humanos , Pólen , Estudos Prospectivos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia
2.
J Med Invest ; 69(1.2): 97-100, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35466153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of SLIT with tablets containing JCP antigens on nasal symptoms and sleep disturbance in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis during pollen dispersal season. METHODS: A total of 128 patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis were categorized into four groups:19 one-year SLIT with tablets group, 16 two-year SLIT with drops group, 19 antihistamine group, and 74 untreated group. The scores of nasal symptoms and sleep disturbance were evaluated based on the Japanese guidelines for allergic rhinitis and the Athens Insomnia Scale. RESULTS: The scores of nasal symptoms and sleep disturbance at the peak cedar pollen period in the two-year SLIT with drop group and the one-year SLIT with tablets group were significantly lower than those in untreated group. Additionally, these scores were significantly lower in the one-year SLIT with tablets group than those in the antihistamine group. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that SLIT with JCP tablets improved both nasal symptoms and sleep disturbances at peak pollen period in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. SLIT with JCP tablets for one year was more effective than SLIT with JCP drops for two years and prophylactic treatment with antihistamines. J. Med. Invest. 69 : 97-100, February, 2022.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Alérgenos , Humanos , Pólen , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Sono , Comprimidos
3.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 50(2): 89-92, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) usually manifests as an itching sensation in the mouth and throat immediately after eating fresh fruits and vegetables. However, some patients with PFAS experience systemic symptoms including anaphylaxis. In Europe, cypress gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) has been noted to cause allergenicity and exhibit cross-reactivity with peach GRP. Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), classified in the cypress family, is the primary causative substance among all environmental allergens in Japan. However, studies on the prevalence of GRP sensitization in patients with cedar pollinosis are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of GRP sensitization in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. METHODS: We enrolled 52 patients who had requested sublingual immunotherapy treatment with mild-to-severe rhinitis during spring, and had a JCP-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels of >0.7 UA/mL. Peach GRP was purified using affinity chromatography with a monoclonal antibody column. Specific IgE levels to peach GRP were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples exhibiting absorbance at 450 nm of over mean plus three standard deviations of the negative control value were defined as positive. Sera from three patients with severe peach allergy were used as positive controls. RESULTS: Eleven sera from 52 patients with JCP-induced allergic rhinitis were positive for peach GRP. CONCLUSION: Twenty percent of patients with cedar pollinosis were sensitized to peach GRP. Well-powered studies are needed to clarify whether these patients are at an increased risk for systemic symptoms or whether they primarily demonstrate only localized symptoms.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Alérgenos , Giberelinas , Humanos , Pólen
5.
J Med Econ ; 25(1): 220-229, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35072591

RESUMO

AIMS: Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) is a form of seasonal allergic rhinitis that affects 38.8% of the Japanese population. Particularly severe and most severe symptoms among JCP patients can lead to impairments of paid work productivity and unpaid work activities. Indeed, the current standard of care (SoC) is not always able to relieve these symptoms. Omalizumab, a novel JCP treatment recently approved in Japan, provides an effective add-on therapy to the SoC. This study estimates the effect of omalizumab on paid and unpaid work activities (i.e. its social impact) in patients with severe and most severe JCP symptoms in Japan. METHODS: The impact of omalizumab was estimated through a one-year static cohort model using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Allergy Specific (WPAI-AS) questionnaire derived from a clinical trial on omalizumab enrolling patients with severe and most severe JCP symptoms, which had been conducted in Japan. This effect was quantified using Japanese official statistics on employment and time use. The human capital approach and the proxy good approach were employed to monetize paid and unpaid work activities, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was implemented to account for modeling structural uncertainties. RESULTS: Our results show that the use of omalizumab might reduce the paid and unpaid work productivity losses due to severe and most severe JCP by nearly one-third. In the severe symptom period of three weeks, 36.6 million hours of lost paid and unpaid work hours could be avoided, which sums up to a monetized productivity loss of 728.3 million USD. CONCLUSIONS: Omalizumab could provide substantial benefits in terms of paid and unpaid work activities in patients with severe and most severe JCP. Our results also highlight the importance of considering unpaid work in estimating productivity costs due to poor health.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Eficiência , Emprego , Humanos , Omalizumab/uso terapêutico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 172: 167-179, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091196

RESUMO

Plants subjected to biotic or abiotic stresses produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS). If ROS cannot be cleared in time, they cause a series of harmful reactions in plants. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a key enzyme that removes ROS from plant cells and plays a vital role in plant stress resistance. However, to date, no studies on APX homologs in Cryptomeria fortunei have been reported. In this study, we isolated complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding APXfrom C. fortunei needles, which is referred to as CfAPX, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length CfAPX sequence was 1226 bp in length and included a 750-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 249 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that APXs of different plant species have been highly evolutionarily conserved. CfAPX was shown to belong to the cytoplasmic subgroup and was more closely related to GbAPX of the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. CfAPX showed no transcriptional activity in yeast cells but was highly expressed in cones. To better handle abiotic stresses, compared with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana, 35S::CfAPX transgenic Arabidopsis strongly expressed CfAPX, presented increased antioxidant enzyme activities, ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, chlorophyll levels and fluorescence parameter and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents. In addition, CfAPX expression in C. fortunei was mostly upregulated under stress. In summary, CfAPX confers abiotic stress responses to plants, which provides a scientific basis for subsequent breeding for increased stress resistance in C. fortunei.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Cryptomeria , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/genética , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico , Cryptomeria/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
7.
Allergol Int ; 71(2): 207-213, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The total naso-ocular symptom score (TSS) is widely used as an endpoint to evaluate the severity of seasonal allergic rhinitis. However, it is not a generic preference-based measure. We sought to develop an algorithm for mapping between the TSS and health utility in Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP). We also performed a cost-utility analysis of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for JCP by using this algorithm. METHODS: Patients with JCP filled out the TSS questionnaire and EQ-5D-5L simultaneously during the pollen season in 2019 and in 2020. We estimated a direct utility mapping model by regressing responses to individual TSS questions directly onto utility. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of active SLIT to a placebo was determined by examining the drug expense and the estimated quality-adjusted life year (QALY) using a dataset from a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. RESULTS: A total of 238 records were included for analysis. The estimated utility decreased with increasing severity of rhinitis. Patients with comorbid asthma showed lower utility. A negative and significant correlation was seen between the TSS and utility in both 2019 and 2020. The estimated equations were: Y(utility) = -0.0161∗X(TSS) + 1.005 in non-asthmatic JCP patients. The ICER of active SLIT to the placebo was estimated to be 4,049,720 and 6,011,218 JPY/QALY in the first and second year, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to reasonably predict utility from the total naso-ocular symptom score by using regression models. In the estimated algorithm, pre-seasonal SLIT for JCP is cost-effective.


Assuntos
Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Cryptomeria , Humanos , Pólen , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0254599, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843472

RESUMO

The effects of climate change on forest ecosystems take on increasing importance more than ever. Information on plant traits is a powerful predictor of ecosystem dynamics and functioning. We reviewed the major ecological traits, such as foliar gas exchange and nutrients, xylem morphology and drought tolerance, of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa, which are major timber species in East Asia, especially in Japan, by using a recently developed functional trait database for both species (SugiHinokiDB). Empirically, C. obtusa has been planted under drier conditions, whereas C. japonica, which grows faster but thought to be less drought tolerant, has been planted under wetter conditions. Our analysis generally support the empirical knowledge: The maximum photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, foliar nutrient content and soil-to-foliage hydraulic conductance were higher in C. japonica than in C. obtusa. In contrast, the foliar turgor loss point and xylem pressure corresponding to 50% conductivity, which indicate drought tolerance, were lower in C. obtusa and are consistent with the drier habitat of C. obtusa. Ontogenetic shifts were also observed; as the age and height of the trees increased, foliar nutrient concentrations, foliar minimum midday water potential and specific leaf area decreased in C. japonica, suggesting that nutrient and water limitation occurs with the growth. In C. obtusa, the ontogenetic shits of these foliar traits were less pronounced. Among the Cupressaceae worldwide, the drought tolerance of C. obtusa, as well as C. japonica, was not as high. This may be related to the fact that the Japanese archipelago has historically not been subjected to strong dryness. The maximum photosynthetic rate showed intermediate values within the family, indicating that C. japonica and C. obtusa exhibit relatively high growth rates in the Cupressaceae family, and this is thought to be the reason why they have been selected as economically suitable timber species in Japanese forestry. This study clearly demonstrated that the plant trait database provides us a promising opportunity to verify out empirical knowledge of plantation management and helps us to understand effect of climate change on plantation forests by using trait-based modelling.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/fisiologia , Cryptomeria/fisiologia , Secas , Ecossistema , Florestas , Mudança Climática , Bases de Dados Factuais , Árvores
10.
Arerugi ; 70(8): 955-964, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of adjuvant sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose in patients with pollinosis-associated asthma. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients with cedar pollinosis-associated asthma who initiated pharmacotherapy with or without adjuvant SLIT therapy from December 2014 to December 2016 and who continued treatment for 3 years. Changes in ICS dose (fluticasone propionate or its equivalent), antihistamine use, leukotriene antagonist use and intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) use over the 3-year period were compared. RESULTS: The study included 36 and 35 patients in the add-on SLIT and standard treatment groups, respectively. At 3 years, the add-on SLIT group showed a significant decline in ICS dose (p = 0.024). Although leukotriene antagonist use and INCS use did not differ between the two groups, the percentage of patients using antihistamines at 3 years was significantly lower in the add-on SLIT group than in the standard treatment group (p = 0.009); one in three patients on adjuvant SLIT therapy was able to discontinue ICS treatment. Patients who discontinued ICS treatment were younger (44.6±13.3 years vs. 55.0±14.1 years, p = 0.042), had a higher FEV1% predicted (109.9±14.4 vs. 94.8±18.6, p = 0.02), and were on a lower treatment step (2.1±0.7 vs. 3.0±0.8, p = 0.002) than those who did not. CONCLUSION: The addition of SLIT to standard pharmacotherapy resulted in a significant reduction in ICS dose at 3 years.


Assuntos
Asma , Cryptomeria , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Corticosteroides , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16186, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376731

RESUMO

Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar or sugi) is one of the most important coniferous tree species in Japan and breeding programs for this species have been launched since 1950s. Genome editing technology can be used to shorten the breeding period. In this study, we performed targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in C. japonica. First, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was tested using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transgenic embryogenic tissue lines. Knock-out efficiency of GFP ranged from 3.1 to 41.4% depending on U6 promoters and target sequences. The GFP knock-out region was mottled in many lines, indicating genome editing in individual cells. However, in 101 of 102 mutated individuals (> 99%) from 6 GFP knock-out lines, embryos had a single mutation pattern. Next, we knocked out the endogenous C. japonica magnesium chelatase subunit I (CjChlI) gene using two guide RNA targets. Green, pale green, and albino phenotypes were obtained in the gene-edited cell lines. Sequence analysis revealed random deletions, insertions, and replacements in the target region. Thus, targeted mutagenesis using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to modify the C. japonica genome.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cryptomeria/genética , Edição de Genes , Liases/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutagênese , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Cryptomeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vetores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Japão , Liases/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(11): 4103-4116.e14, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japanese cedar (JC) pollinosis is a common allergic rhinitis in Japan. JC pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets are licensed for the treatment of JC pollinosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the disease-modifying effects of JC pollen SLIT tablets over 5 years (2014-2019), comprising a 3-year treatment period and 2-year follow-up. METHODS: A total of 1042 patients with JC pollinosis (aged 5-64 years) were included in the study. An optimal dose-finding study was performed in the first 15 months, after which 240 patients in the placebo (P) group and 236 patients in the optimal active dose (A) group (5000 Japanese allergy units) were re-randomized to receive P or A for an additional 18 months (designated AA, AP, PA, and PP groups). Clinical efficacy was evaluated by the total nasal symptom and medication score (TNSMS) during the peak symptom period of each JC pollen season over 3 years of treatment and 2 years of observation after treatment cessation. RESULTS: The AA, AP, and PA groups exhibited significantly reduced TNSMS; however, the largest relative reduction was seen in the AA group both during the treatment period (third season, 46.3% vs PP, P < .001) and during the 2-year follow-up period (fourth and fifth seasons, 45.3% and 34.0% vs PP, respectively; P < .001). The most common adverse drug reactions were mild reactions at the administration site. CONCLUSIONS: JC pollen SLIT tablets show sustained clinical efficacy during 3 years of treatment and sustained disease-modifying effects for at least 2 years after treatment cessation.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Alérgenos , Humanos , Pólen , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(10): 2089-2092, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410303

RESUMO

As a method of evaluating the effect of inactivators on allergens while suppressing the effect of inactivator on the assay, we developed new dot-blot method that combines immunostaining and protein detection methods. This method is useful for evaluating whether the inactivator can inactivate allergens rather than removing them from the assay.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Animais , Cryptomeria , Ácaros
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 99: 108026, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358858

RESUMO

Japanese Cedar (JC) pollinosis is the most common seasonal allergic rhinitis in Japan. Throughout the JC pollen season, patients suffer from the allergic symptoms, resulting in a reduction of quality of life. Allergy immunotherapy (AIT) is an established treatment option for a wide range of allergens that unlike symptomatic treatments (e.g. antihistamines) may provide sustained immune tolerance. However, AIT, especially subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has a fatal anaphylaxis risk due to the use of crude allergen extracts. Consequently, development of allergen derivatives with substantially reduced anaphylactic potential is desirable. An allergen derivative that showed reduced IgE-binding and anaphylactic potential was developed through conjugation of native Cry j 1 (n Cry j 1), a major JC allergen, to the polysaccharide pullulan followed by chemical but non-covalent denaturation. The resulting Cry j 1 allergen derivative, Dn p-Cry j 1, showed reduced IgE-binding and IgE-mediated effector cell activation in vitro using an ELISA competition assay and a mast cell activation model (EXiLE). Reduced anaphylactic potential of Dn p-Cry j 1 in vivo was demonstrated using the rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) assay. The difference in anaphylactic potential of Dn p-Cry j 1 compared to n Cry j 1 in wild-type rats was of the same magnitude as the difference seen in the anaphylaxis reactions obtained with n Cry j 1 in wild-type rats and mast-cell deficient rats, indicating a dramatic reduction in anaphylactic potential of Dn p-Cry j 1. These results indicate that Dn p-Cry j 1 is a promising candidate for next-generation JC AIT.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Glucanos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/terapia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Plantas/química , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Cryptomeria/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucanos/química , Glucanos/imunologia , Humanos , Mastócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Anafilaxia Cutânea Passiva , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Ratos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/sangue , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/diagnóstico , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia
16.
Planta ; 254(2): 31, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283297

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Comparative analysis of miRNAs and their gene targets between the evergreen and yellowish-brown Cryptomeria fortunei phenotypes in cold winters suggests a possible role of miRNA-regulated pathways in needle color. Cryptomeria fortunei (Chinese cedar) is a conifer tree of considerable economic, ornamental and ecological importance. Despite the evergreen nature of C. fortunei, most needles turn yellowish- or reddish-brown in winter. The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating pigment biosynthesis in color-leafed plants have been widely investigated. However, whether or not an miRNA-mediated staged discoloration mechanism exists in evergreen C. fortunei is currently unknown. In this study, we deciphered the microRNAs landscape in overwintering C. fortunei needles using high-throughput sequencing. A total of 517 known and 212 novel miRNA mature/star sequences, including 233 differentially expressed miRNAs, were identified. Based on integrated transcriptome and miRNA analysis, 2702 target unigenes of the miRNAs were predicted and these targets were significantly enriched in pigment-related biosynthesis pathways. A miRNA-target pigment biosynthesis regulatory network was then constructed, and its module miRNA (ath-miR858b, aly-miR858-3p, cme-miR828 and novel33_mature)-MYBs (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) appeared to be a key factor regulating needle discoloration in C. fortunei. These miRNA-MYBs were further confirmed by degradome sequencing. Overall, these findings provide new insight into the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of leaf/needle discoloration in gymnosperms and may contribute to the miRNA-mediated genetic improvement of evergreen C. fortunei needles.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , MicroRNAs , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/genética , Agulhas , RNA de Plantas/genética , Árvores/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298866

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) expression analysis is very important for investigating its functions. To date, no research on reference genes (RGs) for miRNAs in gymnosperms, including Cryptomeria fortunei, has been reported. Here, ten miRNAs (i.e., pab-miR159a, cln-miR162, cas-miR166d, pab-miR395b, ppt-miR894, cln-miR6725, novel1, novel6, novel14 and novel16) and three common RGs (U6, 5S and 18S) were selected as candidate RGs. qRT-PCR was used to analyse their expressions in C. fortunei under various experimental conditions, including multiple stresses (cold, heat, drought, salt, abscisic acid and gibberellin) and in various tissues (roots, stems, tender needles, cones and seeds). Four algorithms (delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were employed to assess the stability of candidate RG expression; the geometric mean and RefFinder program were used to comprehensively evaluate RG stability. According to the results, novel16, cln-miR6725, novel1 and U6 were the most stable RGs for studying C. fortunei miRNA expression. In addition, the expression of three target miRNAs (aly-miR164c-5p, aly-miR168a-5p and smo-miR396) was examined to verify that the selected RGs are suitable for miRNA expression normalisation. This study may aid further investigations of miRNA expression/function in the response of C. fortunei to abiotic stress and provides an important basis for the standardisation of miRNA expression in other gymnosperm species.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , China , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
18.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(4): 293-300, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187621

RESUMO

Background: We previously developed a transgenic rice that contains seven linked human predominant T-cell epitopes (7Crp) derived from Japanese cedar (JC) pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2. Oral administration of 80 g of transgenic rice for 20 weeks suppressed allergen-specific T-cell proliferation in participants with JC pollinosis, but their clinical symptoms did not improve. Objective: We examined the clinical efficacy of low-dose (5 g and 20 g) intake of the transgenic rice administered for two successive seasons. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study, transgenic rice seeds (5 g or 20 g) were orally administered to the participants for 24 weeks in each of two successive JC pollen seasons. We analyzed T-cell proliferation and cytokine expression, and monitored symptom and medication scores during the pollen season. Quality of life (QOL) was evaluated by using the Japanese Allergic Rhinitis Quality of Life Standard Questionnaire (JRQLQ). Results: Specific T-cell proliferation after stimulation with 7Crp, Cry j 1, and Cry j 2 was significantly suppressed in the second JC pollen season. No significant differences were found among the three groups (5 g, 20 g, and placebo) with regard to clinical symptoms or medication scores in the first season. However, the medication scores and face scale for overall condition of JRQLQ improved in the 5-g transgenic rice group in the second season, although careful re-examination with a large sample size is necessary to confirm the results. Conclusion: Low-dose oral administration of transgenic rice that contains 7Crp significantly reduced allergen-specific T-cell responses and improved medication scores during the second season of administration. Thus, oral intake of the transgenic rice has the potential to induce immune tolerance to JC pollen allergens when administered for at least two successive seasons.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , Hipersensibilidade , Oryza , Administração Oral , Alérgenos , Antígenos de Plantas , Cryptomeria/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/imunologia , Pólen/imunologia , Qualidade de Vida
19.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 127(2): 165-175.e1, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated inflammatory condition that causes sneezing, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and nasal itch. Although subcutaneous immunotherapy for the treatment of AR has been in use and well established as a treatment modality, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly considered to be the safer and more convenient alternative. Thus, the objective of this review is to describe recent findings pertaining to the use of SLIT tablets (SLIT-T) for AR. DATA SOURCES: A database search (PubMed.gov) for articles published between January 1, 2017, and February 9, 2021, was conducted using the following key words: "allergic rhinitis," AND-ed "sublingual immunotherapy." Included were randomized placebo-controlled trials. Other experimental design studies were excluded. STUDY SELECTIONS: A total of 11 randomized placebo-controlled trials were selected for full-text review and included in the analysis. All studies investigated the use of SLIT on patients with seasonal AR (4 tree pollen, 1 grass pollen, and 1 Japanese cedar) or perennial AR (3 house dust mite). RESULTS: Our review of 7 recently published randomized placebo-controlled trials with 2348 subjects receiving SLIT reported increased efficacy, safety, supportive immunologic parameters (IgE and IgG4 pre- and posttreatment levels), and improved quality of life. All studies excluded subjects with overlapping seasonal or perennial allergens, a history of moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma, or reduced lung function. CONCLUSION: Our review highlights that SLIT is a safe and effective treatment that considerably reduces symptoms and medication requirements in AR and improves quality of life.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Pólen/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/terapia , Imunoterapia Sublingual/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alérgenos/imunologia , Ambrosia/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cryptomeria/imunologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Poaceae/imunologia , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 788: 147623, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023597

RESUMO

Airborne pollens cause pollinosis and have the potential to affect microphysics in clouds; however, the number of monitored species has been very limited due to technical difficulties for the morphotype identification. In this study, we applied an eDNA approach to the airborne pollen communities in the suburbs of the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan, within a mixed urban, rural, and mountain landscape, revealing pollen seasonality of various taxa (a total of 78 families across the period) in the spring season (February to May). Those taxa distinctly shifted in the season, especially in the beginning of February and the middle of April. Air temperature shift was an obvious key factor to affect the airborne pollen community, while the influence of other meteorological factors, such as wind speed, humidity, and precipitation, was not clear. Taxonomic classification of major Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) indicates multiple pollen sources, including natural forest, planted forest, roadside, park lands, and horticultural activities. Most major ASV belongs to Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), which is the most notable allergen that causes pollinosis in Japan, peaking in mid-February to March. Backward trajectory analysis of air masses suggests that the Japanese cedar and other Cupressaceae plantation forests in the western mountains were a significant source of airborne pollen communities detected at our sampling site. Other major plant pollen sources, including Japanese zelkova (Zelkova serrata) and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), emanated from the nearby parks or roadside regions. This study's approach enables us to visualize the phenology of multiple pollen, including timing and duration. Long-term monitoring of this type would provide additional insight into understanding the role of climate change on pollen transmission and links to flowering events.


Assuntos
Cryptomeria , Pólen , Alérgenos , Humanos , Japão , Estações do Ano , Tóquio
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