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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4999, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866834

RESUMO

Cryptophytes are ancestral photosynthetic organisms evolved from red algae through secondary endosymbiosis. They have developed alloxanthin-chlorophyll a/c2-binding proteins (ACPs) as light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). The distinctive properties of cryptophytes contribute to efficient oxygenic photosynthesis and underscore the evolutionary relationships of red-lineage plastids. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Photosystem II (PSII)-ACPII supercomplex from the cryptophyte Chroomonas placoidea. The structure includes a PSII dimer and twelve ACPII monomers forming four linear trimers. These trimers structurally resemble red algae LHCs and cryptophyte ACPI trimers that associate with Photosystem I (PSI), suggesting their close evolutionary links. We also determine a Chl a-binding subunit, Psb-γ, essential for stabilizing PSII-ACPII association. Furthermore, computational calculation provides insights into the excitation energy transfer pathways. Our study lays a solid structural foundation for understanding the light-energy capture and transfer in cryptophyte PSII-ACPII, evolutionary variations in PSII-LHCII, and the origin of red-lineage LHCIIs.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Criptófitas , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Criptófitas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Modelos Moleculares , Transferência de Energia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/química , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Clorofila A/química
2.
J Phycol ; 60(3): 668-684, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721968

RESUMO

Cryptophytes (class Cryptophyceae) are bi-flagellated eukaryotic protists with mixed nutritional modes and cosmopolitan distribution in aquatic environments. Despite their ubiquitous presence, their molecular diversity is understudied in coastal waters. Weekly 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier (La Jolla, California) in 2016 revealed 16 unique cryptophyte amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), with two dominant "clade 4" ASVs. The diversity of cryptophytes was lower than what is often seen in other phytoplankton taxa. One ASV represented a known Synechococcus grazer, while the other one appeared not to have cultured representatives and an unknown potential for mixotrophy. These two dominant ASVs were negatively correlated, suggesting possible niche differentiation. The cryptophyte population in nearby San Diego Bay was surveyed in 2019 and showed the increasing dominance of a different clade 4 ASV toward the back of the bay where conditions are warmer, saltier, and shallower relative to other areas in the bay. An ASV representing a potentially chromatically acclimating cryptophyte species also suggested that San Diego Bay exerts differing ecological selection pressures than nearby coastal waters. Cryptophyte and Synechococcus cell abundance at the SIO Pier from 2011 to 2017 showed that cryptophytes were consistently present and had a significant correlation with Synechococcus abundance, but no detectable seasonality. The demonstrated mixotrophy of some cryptophytes suggests that grazing on these and perhaps other bacteria is important for their ecological success. Using several assumptions, we calculated that cryptophytes could consume up to 44% (average 6%) of the Synechococcus population per day. This implies that cryptophytes could significantly influence Synechococcus abundance.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Criptófitas , California , Criptófitas/classificação , Criptófitas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Água do Mar , Synechococcus/classificação , Synechococcus/genética , Estações do Ano
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4535, 2024 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38806516

RESUMO

Cryptophyte algae are an evolutionarily distinct and ecologically important group of photosynthetic unicellular eukaryotes. Photosystem II (PSII) of cryptophyte algae associates with alloxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins (ACPs) to act as the peripheral light-harvesting system, whose supramolecular organization is unknown. Here, we purify the PSII-ACPII supercomplex from a cryptophyte alga Chroomonas placoidea (C. placoidea), and analyze its structure at a resolution of 2.47 Å using cryo-electron microscopy. This structure reveals a dimeric organization of PSII-ACPII containing two PSII core monomers flanked by six symmetrically arranged ACPII subunits. The PSII core is conserved whereas the organization of ACPII subunits exhibits a distinct pattern, different from those observed so far in PSII of other algae and higher plants. Furthermore, we find a Chl a-binding antenna subunit, CCPII-S, which mediates interaction of ACPII with the PSII core. These results provide a structural basis for the assembly of antennas within the supercomplex and possible excitation energy transfer pathways in cryptophyte algal PSII, shedding light on the diversity of supramolecular organization of photosynthetic machinery.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Criptófitas , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Criptófitas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação à Clorofila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação à Clorofila/química , Multimerização Proteica , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Clorofila A/química , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química
4.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 560, 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734819

RESUMO

Photosynthetic cryptophytes are eukaryotic algae that utilize membrane-embedded chlorophyll a/c binding proteins (CACs) and lumen-localized phycobiliproteins (PBPs) as their light-harvesting antennae. Cryptophytes go through logarithmic and stationary growth phases, and may adjust their light-harvesting capability according to their particular growth state. How cryptophytes change the type/arrangement of the photosynthetic antenna proteins to regulate their light-harvesting remains unknown. Here we solve four structures of cryptophyte photosystem I (PSI) bound with CACs that show the rearrangement of CACs at different growth phases. We identify a cryptophyte-unique protein, PsaQ, which harbors two chlorophyll molecules. PsaQ specifically binds to the lumenal region of PSI during logarithmic growth phase and may assist the association of PBPs with photosystems and energy transfer from PBPs to photosystems.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Criptófitas/metabolismo , Criptófitas/genética , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação à Clorofila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação à Clorofila/genética , Fotossíntese , Ficobiliproteínas/metabolismo , Ficobiliproteínas/genética
5.
J Phycol ; 60(2): 528-540, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456338

RESUMO

Cryptophytes are known to vary widely in coloration among species. These differences in color arise primarily from the presence of phycobiliprotein accessory pigments. There are nine defined cryptophyte phycobiliprotein (Cr-PBP) types, named for their wavelength of maximal absorbance. Because Cr-PBP type has traditionally been regarded as a categorical trait, there is a paucity of information about how spectral absorption characteristics of Cr-PBPs vary among species. We investigated variability in primary and secondary peak absorbance wavelengths and full width at half max (FWHM) values of spectra of Cr-PBPs extracted from 75 cryptophyte strains (55 species) grown under full spectrum irradiance. We show that there may be substantial differences in spectral shapes within Cr-PBP types, with Cr-Phycoerythrin (Cr-PE) 545 showing the greatest variability with two, possibly three, subtypes, while Cr-PE 566 spectra were the least variable, with only ±1 nm of variance around the mean absorbance maximum of 565 nm. We provide additional criteria for classification in cases where the wavelength of maximum absorbance alone is not definitive. Variations in spectral characteristics among strains containing the same presumed Cr-PBP type may indicate differing chromophore composition and/or the presence of more than one Cr-PBP in a single cryptophyte species.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Ficobiliproteínas
6.
ISME J ; 18(1)2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401169

RESUMO

Photosynthetic cryptophytes are ubiquitous protists that are major participants in the freshwater phytoplankton bloom at the onset of spring. Mortality due to change in environmental conditions and grazing have been recognized as key factors contributing to bloom collapse. In contrast, the role of viral outbreaks as factors terminating phytoplankton blooms remains unknown from freshwaters. Here, we isolated and characterized a cryptophyte virus contributing to the annual collapse of a natural cryptophyte spring bloom population. This viral isolate is also representative for a clade of abundant giant viruses (phylum Nucleocytoviricota) found in freshwaters all over the world.


Assuntos
Vírus Gigantes , Vírus , Humanos , Fitoplâncton , Criptófitas/genética , Eucariotos
7.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(3)2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308512

RESUMO

Mixotrophic plankton can comprise a substantial portion of the plankton community compared to phytoplankton and zooplankton. However, there is a gap in the understanding of conditions that influence mixotroph prevalence and activity in situ because current methods often over- or underestimate mixotroph abundance. A labeled prey-tracer method was utilized to identify active mixotrophs present at two locations in a temperate estuary over a year. The tracer method was combined with light microscopy data to estimate active mixotroph abundance and proportion. This study estimated that actively grazing mixotrophic taxa were more abundant in the spring and autumn compared to summer. Dinoflagellates typically dominated the mixotrophic taxa except during autumn at the low salinity location when cryptophytes dominated. Further analysis suggested that active mixotroph abundances might not be only regulated by environmental conditions favorable to mixotrophy but, instead, environmental conditions favorable to different mixotrophs utilization of phagotrophy. By focusing on mixotrophic taxa that were identified to be actively grazing at time of sampling, this study provided a more nuanced estimation of mixotroph abundance, increasing the understanding of how mixotrophic abundance and proportion in situ are influenced by the planktonic community composition and environmental factors.


Assuntos
Dinoflagellida , Plâncton , Animais , Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton , Criptófitas
8.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 71(1): e13003, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803921

RESUMO

Eukaryotrophic protists are ecologically significant and possess characteristics key to understanding the evolution of eukaryotes; however, they remain poorly studied, due partly to the complexities of maintaining predator-prey cultures. Kaonashia insperata, gen. nov., et sp. nov., is a free-swimming biflagellated eukaryotroph with a conspicuous ventral groove, a trait observed in distantly related lineages across eukaryote diversity. Di-eukaryotic (predator-prey) cultures of K. insperata with three marine algae (Isochrysis galbana, Guillardia theta, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were established by single-cell isolation. Growth trials showed that the studied K. insperata clone grew particularly well on G. theta, reaching a peak abundance of 1.0 × 105 ± 4.0 × 104 cells ml-1 . Small-subunit ribosomal DNA phylogenies infer that K. insperata is a stramenopile with moderate support; however, it does not fall within any well-defined phylogenetic group, including environmental sequence clades (e.g. MASTs), and its specific placement remains unresolved. Electron microscopy shows traits consistent with stramenopile affinity, including mastigonemes on the anterior flagellum and tubular mitochondrial cristae. Kaonashia insperata may represent a novel major lineage within stramenopiles, and be important for understanding the evolutionary history of the group. While heterotrophic stramenopile flagellates are considered to be predominantly bacterivorous, eukaryotrophy may be relatively widespread amongst this assemblage.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Estramenópilas , Filogenia , Estramenópilas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Criptófitas/genética
9.
Protist ; 174(6): 125994, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37935085

RESUMO

Cryptophytes are single celled protists found in all aquatic environments. They are composed of a heterotrophic genus, Goniomonas, and a largely autotrophic group comprising many genera. Cryptophytes evolved through secondary endosymbiosis between a host eukaryotic heterotroph and a symbiont red alga. This merger resulted in a four-genome system that includes the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes from the host and a second nuclear genome (nucleomorph) and plastid genome inherited from the symbiont. Here, we make use of different genomes (with potentially distinct evolutionary histories) to perform a phylogenomic study of the early history of cryptophytes. Using ultraconserved elements from the host nuclear genome and symbiont nucleomorph and plastid genomes, we produce a three-genome phylogeny of 91 strains of cryptophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses find that that there are three major cryptophyte clades: Clade 1 comprises Chroomonas and Hemiselmis species, Clade 2, a taxonomically rich clade, comprises at least twelve genera, and Clade 3, comprises the heterotrophic Goniomonas species. Each of these major clades include both freshwater and marine species, but subclades within these clades differ in degrees of niche conservatism. Finally, we discuss priorities for taxonomic revision to Cryptophyceae based on previous studies and in light of these phylogenomic analyses.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Genoma Mitocondrial , Filogenia , Criptófitas/genética , Evolução Biológica , Eucariotos/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Plastídeos/genética
10.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 1158, 2023 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37957226

RESUMO

Cryptophyte algae have a unique phycobiliprotein light-harvesting antenna that fills a spectral gap in chlorophyll absorption from photosystems. However, it is unclear how the antenna transfers energy efficiently to these photosystems. We show that the cryptophyte Hemiselmis andersenii expresses an energetically complex antenna comprising three distinct spectrotypes of phycobiliprotein, each composed of two αß protomers but with different quaternary structures arising from a diverse α subunit family. We report crystal structures of the major phycobiliprotein from each spectrotype. Two-thirds of the antenna consists of open quaternary form phycobiliproteins acting as primary photon acceptors. These are supplemented by a newly discovered open-braced form (~15%), where an insertion in the α subunit produces ~10 nm absorbance red-shift. The final components (~15%) are closed forms with a long wavelength spectral feature due to substitution of a single chromophore. This chromophore is present on only one ß subunit where asymmetry is dictated by the corresponding α subunit. This chromophore creates spectral overlap with chlorophyll, thus bridging the energetic gap between the phycobiliprotein antenna and the photosystems. We propose that the macromolecular organization of the cryptophyte antenna consists of bulk open and open-braced forms that transfer excitations to photosystems via this bridging closed form phycobiliprotein.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Fotossíntese , Ficobiliproteínas/química , Ficobiliproteínas/metabolismo , Clorofila
11.
Harmful Algae ; 129: 102509, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951617

RESUMO

Ocean acidification is caused by rising atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and involves a lowering of pH combined with increased concentrations of CO2 and dissolved in organic carbon in ocean waters. Many studies investigated the consequences of these combined changes on marine phytoplankton, yet only few attempted to separate the effects of decreased pH and increased pCO2. Moreover, studies typically target photoautotrophic phytoplankton, while little is known of plastidic protists that depend on the ingestion of plastids from their prey. Therefore, we studied the separate and interactive effects of pH and DIC levels on the plastidic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, which is known to form red tides in coastal waters worldwide. Also, we tested the effects on their prey, which typically are cryptophytes belonging to the Teleaulax/Plagioslemis/Geminigera species complex. These cryptophytes not only serve as food for the ciliate, but also as a supplier of chloroplasts and prey nuclei. We exposed M. rubrum and the two cryptophyte species, T. acuta, T. amphioxeia to different pH (6.8 - 8) and DIC levels (∼ 6.5 - 26 mg C L-1) and assessed their growth and photosynthetic rates, and cellular chlorophyll a and elemental contents. Our findings did not show consistent significant effects across the ranges in pH and/or DIC, except for M. rubrum, for which growth was negatively affected only by the lowest pH of 6.8 combined with lower DIC concentrations. It thus seems that M. rubrum is largely resilient to changes in pH and DIC, and its blooms may not be strongly impacted by the changes in ocean carbonate chemistry projected for the end of the 21st century.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Carbono , Clorofila A , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Água do Mar , Plastídeos , Criptófitas/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton
12.
Environ Microbiol ; 25(12): 3280-3297, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37845005

RESUMO

Algae with a more diverse suite of pigments can, in principle, exploit a broader swath of the light spectrum through chromatic acclimation, the ability to maximize light capture via plasticity of pigment composition. We grew Rhodomonas salina in wide-spectrum, red, green, and blue environments and measured how pigment composition differed. We also measured expression of key light-capture and photosynthesis-related genes and performed a transcriptome-wide expression analysis. We observed the highest concentration of phycoerythrin in green light, consistent with chromatic acclimation. Other pigments showed trends inconsistent with chromatic acclimation, possibly due to feedback loops among pigments or high-energy light acclimation. Expression of some photosynthesis-related genes was sensitive to spectrum, although expression of most was not. The phycoerythrin α-subunit was expressed two-orders of magnitude greater than the ß-subunit even though the peptides are needed in an equimolar ratio. Expression of genes related to chlorophyll-binding and phycoerythrin concentration were correlated, indicating a potential synthesis relationship. Pigment concentrations and expression of related genes were generally uncorrelated, implying post-transcriptional regulation of pigments. Overall, most differentially expressed genes were not related to photosynthesis; thus, examining associations between light spectrum and other organismal functions, including sexual reproduction and glycolysis, may be important.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Ficoeritrina , Ficoeritrina/genética , Ficoeritrina/metabolismo , Criptófitas/genética , Criptófitas/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Luz , Expressão Gênica
13.
J Biol Chem ; 299(11): 105305, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37778732

RESUMO

Previous research of anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) has been performed using cytoplasmic domain (CPD)-deleted constructs and therefore have overlooked the native functions of full-length ACRs and the potential functional role(s) of the CPD. In this study, we used the recombinant expression of full-length Guillardia theta ACR1 (GtACR1_full) for pH measurements in Pichia pastoris cell suspensions as an indirect method to assess its anion transport activity and for absorption spectroscopy and flash photolysis characterization of the purified protein. The results show that the CPD, which was predicted to be intrinsically disordered and possibly phosphorylated, enhanced NO3- transport compared to Cl- transport, which resulted in the preferential transport of NO3-. This correlated with the extended lifetime and large accumulation of the photocycle intermediate that is involved in the gate-open state. Considering that the depletion of a nitrogen source enhances the expression of GtACR1 in native algal cells, we suggest that NO3- transport could be the natural function of GtACR1_full in algal cells.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Ânions/metabolismo , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Criptófitas/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Nitratos/metabolismo
14.
Biophys J ; 122(20): 4091-4103, 2023 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37749886

RESUMO

The most effective tested optogenetic tools available for neuronal silencing are the light-gated anion channel proteins found in the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta (GtACRs). Molecular mechanisms of GtACRs, including the photointermediates responsible for the open channel state, are of great interest for understanding their exceptional conductance. In this study, the photoreactions of GtACR1 and its D234N, A75E, and S97E mutants were investigated using multichannel time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. For each of the proteins, the analysis showed two early microsecond transitions between K-like and L-like forms and two late millisecond recovery steps. Spectral forms associated with potential molecular intermediates of the proteins were derived and their evolutions in time were analyzed. The results indicate the presence of isospectral intermediates in the photocycles and expand the range of potential intermediates responsible for the open channel state.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Optogenética , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Ânions/metabolismo , Criptófitas/metabolismo , Optogenética/métodos , Luz
15.
Harmful Algae ; 127: 102483, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37544668

RESUMO

Many harmful algae are mixoplanktonic, i.e. they combine phototrophy and phagotrophy, and this ability may explain their ecological success, especially when environmental conditions are not optimal for autotrophic growth. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted with the mixotrophic and ichthyotoxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum (strain CCAP 946/6) to test the effects of phosphorus (P) sufficiency and deficiency on its growth rate, phagotrophic and lytic activities. P-deficient P. parvum cultures were grown without or with addition of P in the form of inorganic phosphorus (nutrients) and/or living algal prey (i.e. the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia). The ingestion rate of P. parvum and prey mortality rate were calculated using flow cytometry measurements based on pigment-derived-fluorescence to distinguish between prey, predators and digesting predators. The first aim of the study was to develop a method taking into account the rate of digestion, allowing the calculation of ingestion rates over a two-week period. Growth rates of P. parvum were higher in the treatments with live prey, irrespective of the concentration of inorganic P, and maximum growth rates were found when both inorganic and organic P in form of prey were added (0.79 ± 0.07 d-1). In addition, the mortality rate of T. amphioxeia induced by lytic compounds was 0.2 ± 0.02 d-1 in the P-deficient treatment, while no mortality was observed under P-sufficiency in the present experiments. This study also revealed the mortality due to cell lysis exceeded that of prey ingestion. Therefore, additional experiments were conducted with lysed prey cells. When grown with debris from prey cells, the mean growth rate of P. parvum was similar to monocultures without additions of prey debris (0.30 ± 0.1 vs. 0.38 ± 0.03 d-1), suggesting that P. parvum is able to grow on prey debris, but not as fast as with live prey. These results provide the first quantitative evidence over two weeks of experiment that ingestion of organic P in the form of living prey and/or debris of prey plays an important role in P. parvum growth and may explain its ecological success in a nutrient-limited environments.


Assuntos
Haptófitas , Fósforo/farmacologia , Criptófitas , Processos Autotróficos , Processos Fototróficos
16.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 4959, 2023 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37587119

RESUMO

Research in extreme environments has substantially expanded our understanding of the ecology and evolution of life on Earth, but a major group of organisms has been largely overlooked: microbial eukaryotes (i.e., protists). In this Perspective, we summarize data from over 80 studies of protists in extreme environments and identify focal lineages that are of significant interest for further study, including clades within Echinamoebida, Heterolobosea, Radiolaria, Haptophyta, Oomycota, and Cryptophyta. We argue that extreme environments are prime sampling targets to fill gaps in the eukaryotic tree of life and to increase our understanding of the ecology, metabolism, genome architecture, and evolution of eukaryotic life.


Assuntos
Células Eucarióticas , Haptófitas , Criptófitas , Ambientes Extremos , Ecologia
17.
Curr Biol ; 33(10): 1982-1996.e4, 2023 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37116483

RESUMO

Symbiosis between prokaryotes and microbial eukaryotes (protists) has broadly impacted both evolution and ecology. Endosymbiosis led to mitochondria and plastids, the latter spreading across the tree of eukaryotes by subsequent rounds of endosymbiosis. Present-day endosymbionts in protists remain both common and diverse, although what function they serve is often unknown. Here, we describe a highly complex community of endosymbionts and a bacteriophage (phage) within a single cryptomonad cell. Cryptomonads are a model for organelle evolution because their secondary plastid retains a relict endosymbiont nucleus, but only one previously unidentified Cryptomonas strain (SAG 25.80) is known to harbor bacterial endosymbionts. We carried out electron microscopy and FISH imaging as well as genomic sequencing on Cryptomonas SAG 25.80, which revealed a stable, complex community even after over 50 years in continuous cultivation. We identified the host strain as Cryptomonas gyropyrenoidosa, and sequenced genomes from its mitochondria, plastid, and nucleomorph (and partially its nucleus), as well as two symbionts, Megaira polyxenophila and Grellia numerosa, and one phage (MAnkyphage) infecting M. polyxenophila. Comparing closely related endosymbionts from other hosts revealed similar metabolic and genomic features, with the exception of abundant transposons and genome plasticity in M. polyxenophila from Cryptomonas. We found an abundance of eukaryote-interacting genes as well as many toxin-antitoxin systems, including in the MAnkyphage genome that also encodes several eukaryotic-like proteins. Overall, the Cryptomonas cell is an endosymbiotic conglomeration with seven distinct evolving genomes that all show evidence of inter-lineage conflict but nevertheless remain stable, even after more than 4,000 generations in culture.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Genoma , Eucariotos/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Plastídeos/genética , Bactérias/genética , Simbiose/genética , Filogenia
18.
Curr Biol ; 33(5): 973-980.e5, 2023 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36773606

RESUMO

Stealing prey plastids for metabolic gain is a common phenomenon among protists within aquatic ecosystems.1 Ciliates of the Mesodinium rubrum species complex are unique in that they also steal a transcriptionally active but non-dividing prey nucleus, the kleptokaryon, from certain cryptophytes.2 The kleptokaryon enables full control and replication of kleptoplastids but has a half-life of about 10 days.2 Once the kleptokaryon is lost, the ciliate experiences a slow loss of photosynthetic metabolism and eventually death.2,3,4 This transient ability to function phototrophically allows M. rubrum to form productive blooms in coastal waters.5,6,7,8 Here, we show, using multi-omics approaches, that an Antarctic strain of the ciliate not only depends on stolen Geminigera cryophila organelles for photosynthesis but also for anabolic synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, and other essential macromolecules. Transcription of diverse pathways was higher in the kleptokaryon than that in G. cryophila, and many increased in higher light. Proteins of major biosynthetic pathways were found in greater numbers in the kleptokaryon relative to M. rubrum, implying anabolic dependency on foreign metabolism. We show that despite losing transcriptional control of the kleptokaryon, M. rubrum regulates kleptoplastid pigments with changing light, implying an important role for post-transcriptional control. These findings demonstrate that the integration of foreign organelles and their gene and protein expression, energy metabolism, and anabolism occur in the absence of a stable endosymbiotic association. Our results shed light on potential events early in the process of complex plastid acquisition and broaden our understanding of symbiogenesis.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Ecossistema , Roubo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plastídeos/fisiologia , Criptófitas/genética , Cilióforos/genética
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 235: 123838, 2023 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36842747

RESUMO

Rhodomonas salina, Cryptophyta, Rhodomonas genus, is a valuable source for live feed in aquaculture and for the production of phycoerythrin (PE). In this study, PE was extracted from Rhodomonas salina and characterized as having a molecular weight of approximately 24 kDa, an absorbance at 545 nm, and a purity of up to 6.61 (which meets reagent grade requirements with an OD545/OD280 ratio >4). The effects of PE on anticancer activity and its underlying mechanisms were evaluated to assess the immunomodulatory potential on the human lung cancer A549 cell line. Biochemical assays and western blot analysis were applied to confirm the immune mechanisms. The results showed that after 24 h of exposure to PE, the proliferation of A549 cells was significantly and dose-dependently decreased. PE also caused the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). The further results showed that PE can remarkably enhance the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3 and p53. Simultaneously, the BCL-2 family was also affected and had some changes, such as the dramatically enhance of Bim and Bak and the decrease of Bcl-2 level. However, it is interesting to note that there was no apparent alteration in Bax expression during the experiment. Furthermore, the biological mechanism for the potential of PE to induce apoptosis showed that the ERK/Bak and the JNK/caspase-3 signaling pathway were activated. This study provides evidence that the anticancer activity of PE in Rhodomonas salina may have potential for preventing cancer and serving as a novel immunostimulant in the pharmaceutical industry.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Ficoeritrina , Humanos , Células A549 , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ficoeritrina/farmacologia , Criptófitas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Apoptose , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
20.
Protein Sci ; 32(3): e4586, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721353

RESUMO

In addition to their membrane-bound chlorophyll a/c light-harvesting antenna, the cryptophyte algae have evolved a unique phycobiliprotein antenna system located in the thylakoid lumen. The basic unit of this antenna consists of two copies of an αß protomer where the α and ß subunits scaffold different combinations of a limited number of linear tetrapyrrole chromophores. While the ß subunit is highly conserved, encoded by a single plastid gene, the nuclear-encoded α subunits have evolved diversified multigene families. It is still unclear how this sequence diversity results in the spectral diversity of the mature proteins. By careful examination of three newly determined crystal structures in comparison with three previously obtained, we show how the α subunit amino acid sequences control chromophore conformations and hence spectral properties even when the chromophores are identical. Previously we have shown that α subunits control the quaternary structure of the mature αß.αß complex (either open or closed), however, each species appeared to only harbor a single quaternary form. Here we show that species of the Hemiselmis genus contain expressed α subunit genes that encode both distinct quaternary structures. Finally, we have discovered a common single-copy gene (expressed into protein) consisting of tandem copies of a small α subunit that could potentially scaffold pairs of light harvesting units. Together, our results show how the diversity of the multigene α subunit family produces a range of mature cryptophyte antenna proteins with differing spectral properties, and the potential for minor forms that could contribute to acclimation to varying light regimes.


Assuntos
Criptófitas , Estrutura Molecular , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criptófitas/metabolismo
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