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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 42(4): 526-530, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37011318

RESUMO

In 2019 more than one-third of US nonprofit hospitals compensated their trustees. These hospitals provided less charity care than nonprofit hospitals that did not compensate their trustees. We found that trustee compensation was negatively associated with hospitals' charity care provision and that it may affect the self-selection of trustees and their fulfillment of their fiduciary duties.


Assuntos
Instituições de Caridade , Curadores , Humanos , Hospitais , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos
2.
Vet Rec ; 192(5): 224, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36866899

RESUMO

The Animal Welfare Foundation (AWF) has welcomed seven new trustees to its board. The newly appointed trustees bring expertise from many different specialisms.


Assuntos
Fundações , Curadores , Humanos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Fundações/organização & administração
3.
Neurodiagn J ; 62(4): 308, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36585264
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12120, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840629

RESUMO

Many decisions in the economic and social domain are made under time constraints, be it under time pressure or forced delay. Requiring individuals to decide quickly or slowly often elicit different responses. Time pressure has been associated with inefficiency in market settings and market regulation often requires individuals to delay their decisions via cooling-off periods. Yet, recent research suggests that people who make reflective decisions are met with distrust. If this extends to external time constraints, then forcing individuals to delay their decisions may be counterproductive in scenarios where trust considerations are important, such as in market and organizational design. In three Trust Game experiments (total number of participants = 1872), including within- and between-subjects designs, we test whether individuals trust (more) someone who is forced to respond quickly (intuitively) or slowly (reflectively). We find that trustors do not adjust their behavior (or their beliefs) to the trustee's time conditions. This seems to be an appropriate response because time constraints do not affect trustees' behavior, at least when the game decisions are binary (trust vs. don't trust; reciprocate vs. don't reciprocate) and therefore mistakes cannot explain choices. Thus, delayed decisions per se do not seem to elicit distrust.


Assuntos
Curadores , Humanos , Confiança
5.
Vet Rec ; 187(6): 240, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948727
6.
Med Law Rev ; 28(2): 247-269, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424540

RESUMO

There is a growing body of evidence that supports the view that research participants and the public are concerned about commercial access to health data. Evidence also suggests that attitudes are ameliorated when charity organisations are involved and where research promises to deliver 'public benefit'. To a significant extent, therefore, mechanisms that ensure the public benefit are key to sustaining public and participant support for research access to health data. As a regime founded on the concept of public benefit, charity law provides regulatory and governance mechanisms through which the public benefit of a charity is protected and promoted. This article examines the merits of charity law mechanisms and analyses their significance for governance of commercial access to health data for public benefit, using UK Biobank Ltd, a charitable company limited by guarantee, as an example. The article critically analyses three charity law mechanisms that operate to ensure that an organization providing access to data meets its public benefit requirements: charitable purposes; members' and directors' powers and duties; and accountability via the oversight powers of the Charity Commission and charity proceedings in court. The article concludes that there is potential for the charity model to be the benchmark for governing commercial access to health data for public benefit research, but notes the limitations of the model and recommends the appointment of independent data governance committees to further bolster the charity law framework.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Instituições de Caridade/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições de Caridade/organização & administração , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso à Informação/psicologia , Conselho Diretor , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social , Curadores , Reino Unido
7.
Indian J Cancer ; 56(3): 282-284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389400

RESUMO

This article presents a brief account of the founding of the Tata Memorial Hospital. It draws upon archival material to show that this was not a mere philanthropic act but a scheme carefully thought-out by the Trustees of the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. It discusses the major concerns of the Trustees as they deliberated upon establishing the Hospital.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/história , Eficiência Organizacional , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Competência Profissional , Curadores/organização & administração , Institutos de Câncer/normas , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/economia
9.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 155(6): 749-751, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153483
10.
Int J Psychol ; 54(5): 687-704, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926906

RESUMO

We studied 2 groups of workers from Oaxaca (Mexico) with different levels of income and education to investigate the role that the affective-based psychological mechanism of personal trust, as evolutionarily acquired, plays on group cooperation. We measured trust levels through some questionnaires and cooperative behaviour through an iterated prisoner's dilemma under different conditions and analysed trust networks of group members. While these groups did not differ in trust levels or cooperation among trustees, they did differ in terms of cooperation with other group members. Such differences are related to dissimilarities in the trust network topology-as a measure of group cohesion. These results suggest that some personal trust networks extend cooperation within a group beyond trustees in a way that complements the role of the reputation for indirect reciprocity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interpessoais , Confiança/psicologia , Curadores/psicologia , Adulto , Humanos , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Med Care Res Rev ; 76(2): 131-166, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385881

RESUMO

This study reviews and synthesizes empirical research literature focusing on the relationship between boards of directors and organizational effectiveness of U.S. hospitals. The study examines literature published in scholarly journals during the period of 1991-2017. Fifty-one empirical articles were identified that met the study's inclusion criteria. A framework from the corporate governance and nonprofit governance literature is used to classify the articles according to level of analysis (individual actors, governing bodies, organizations, and networks, alliances and multiorganizational initiatives) and focus of research (formal structure and behavioral dynamics-including informal structures and processes). Results are discussed, emerging trends are identified, and recommendations are made for future research.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões Gerenciais , Eficiência Organizacional , Conselho Diretor/organização & administração , Administração Hospitalar , Conselho Diretor/tendências , Administração Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitais , Humanos , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Curadores , Estados Unidos
13.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 33(2): e612-e620, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the early 1990s, Iran has initiated structural and decentralization reforms in the hospital system. This policy led to the formation of a Board of Trustees (BOTs) for the governing of public educational hospitals and making important modifications in hospitals' financing. This study was conducted to identify the barriers in implementing this policy. METHODS: All the Iranian Medical Sciences Universities and hospitals involved in the policy implementation were included in this qualitative study. The data were analyzed by using content analysis. RESULTS: In total, 403 problems were divided into 9 classes including problems related to implementing regulation, financial problems in policy implementation, problems related to faculty members, ambiguity in executive regulation, problems related to the BOTs, authority level, hospital structure, the quality and quantity of hospital human resources, and fee for services. CONCLUSION: It appears that "implementing regulation" and "financial problems" embrace over 50% of the barriers. Apparently, the new approach to hospitals' autonomy has not achieved the desired goals. Considering the contextual factor, the evidence and identification of the clear role of various stakeholders should be essential determinants. Partial implementation of this policy without paying attention to the other aspects would end in failure. The results showed insufficient budget to be the most influential factor that posed a dilemma in implementing the BOTs' policy. However, BOTs in Iranian health system need to strive toward a higher level of performance that will improve effectiveness and efficiency now more than ever.


Assuntos
Conselho Diretor , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Curadores , Irã (Geográfico) , Inovação Organizacional , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 19(12): 832-837, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27998157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Decisions made by the governing body of a university would overshadow university governance. This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of decisions made by the three governing bodies (Board of trustees, Board of Chancellors and University council) of a medical university in Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: A mixed qualitative and quantitative approach was employed, with the quantitative part in cross-sectional format and the qualitative part in content analysis format. In the quantitative part, the number of meetings and resolutions of the governing bodies were collected through Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. In the qualitative part, the content of 3121 resolutions that were selected using stratified sampling method was analyzed. RESULTS: The results indicated the defensible numbers of meetings and resolutions of the boards of trustees and chancellors. The governing bodies' resolutions were mostly operational in domain, administrative (boards of trustees and chancellors) and educational (university council) in nature, financing (board of trustees) and providing services (board of chancellors and university council) in function with the aim of responsiveness. The share of specific and single-department resolutions was greater compared to others. CONCLUSION: Better monitoring and evaluation of the activity of governing bodies, redirecting the decisions made by governing bodies, reminding the position of the governing bodies and revising their duties and responsibilities are recommended for better governance of the medical university.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Conselho Diretor , Política Organizacional , Formulação de Políticas , Faculdades de Medicina , Curadores , Universidades , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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